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From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Sun, 2 Jan 1994 22:33:50 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Testing of Listerserver Software

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All Subscribers:

I'm doing a bit of testing right now. Hopefully
you will not notice any problems, however, if you
do please send an error report directly to:

Zaluzec-at-ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV

I'm in the process of slowly upgrading the listserver
software abit at a time to get rid of some of the
annoying problems that have been creeping into the system.
and the subsequent headaches for you and me.
This process will likely take awhile, and I will
be switching periodically between old and new links.
Most of the installation was done over the holidays
however, I've still got a load of reconfigurations
which need to be handled "gently" to minimize
any crashes. However, as Murphy has it I expect
some problems. I'll keep you all informed
as I make any major changes, but expect some
hickups.


Thanks in advance for your patience.....

Nestor Z.
ANL EMCenter




From: Mike Schwartz :      Mike_Schwartz-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 3 Jan 1994 15:10:01 -0400
Subject: Resolved-Focusing on JEOL 1

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Subject: Time:2:17 PM
OFFICE MEMO Resolved-Focusing on JEOL 1010 Date:1/3/94
Just a short note to thank everyone who responded to my request for help in
rectifying our focusing problem with our the JEOL 1010. As I indicated in an
earlier message, we learned a lot from the many comments and suggestions by the
members of this list. It ends up that the gun alignment was changing when the
shutter closed, which caused beam sensitive specimens like we use, i.e. slotted
grids, to charge. Evidently, this is not a serious problem with mesh grids as
are used in calibration. JEOL indicated that an early design innovation of the
1010 which was intended to blank the beam prior to exposure was later found to
be less than satisfactory and abandoned this method in favor of the traditional
system. Unfortunately, in our scope some remnants of this circuitry were not
eliminated, thus contributing to our problem. They were able to track this
problem down after considerable, and diligent effort, and corrected it by
modifying the deflector lens amperage and by removing circuit elements linking
the shutter and gun alignment. I am not sure what all this means, however, all
or photographs since this correction have been in perfect focus. JEOL has been
very cooperative and attentive to our frustrations. We are thankful that they
did not take the approach of one of the members of this list who indicated
that:
"This is really simple! If anyone can take sharp pictures using standard
specimens then the machine is working fine!" Hopefully, this information will
be of use to other users of the JEOL 1010 which may encounter similar focusing
problems with beam sensitive specimens.







From: MICROARCHIVE-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Mon, 3 Jan 1994 16:09:25 -0600 (CST)
Subject: TEM:Answer to JEOL 1010 Problems

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From: Mike Schwartz :      Mike_Schwartz-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 3 Jan 1994 15:10:01 -0400
Subject: Resolved-Focusing on JEOL 1

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Subject: Time:2:17 PM
OFFICE MEMO Resolved-Focusing on JEOL 1010 Date:1/3/94
Just a short note to thank everyone who responded to my request for help in
rectifying our focusing problem with our the JEOL 1010. As I indicated in an
earlier message, we learned a lot from the many comments and suggestions by the
members of this list. It ends up that the gun alignment was changing when the
shutter closed, which caused beam sensitive specimens like we use, i.e. slotted
grids, to charge. Evidently, this is not a serious problem with mesh grids as
are used in calibration. JEOL indicated that an early design innovation of the
1010 which was intended to blank the beam prior to exposure was later found to
be less than satisfactory and abandoned this method in favor of the traditional
system. Unfortunately, in our scope some remnants of this circuitry were not
eliminated, thus contributing to our problem. They were able to track this
problem down after considerable, and diligent effort, and corrected it by
modifying the deflector lens amperage and by removing circuit elements linking
the shutter and gun alignment. I am not sure what all this means, however, all
or photographs since this correction have been in perfect focus. JEOL has been
very cooperative and attentive to our frustrations. We are thankful that they
did not take the approach of one of the members of this list who indicated
that:
"This is really simple! If anyone can take sharp pictures using standard
specimens then the machine is working fine!" Hopefully, this information will
be of use to other users of the JEOL 1010 which may encounter similar focusing
problems with beam sensitive specimens.







From: pschleck-at-unomaha.edu (Paul W Schleck KD3FU)
Date: 3 Jan 1994 16:59:19 -0500
Subject: RESULT: sci.techniques.microscopy passes 441:6

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Message-Id: {9401040011.AA24941-at-cwis.unomaha.edu}
nih-image-request-at-soils.umn.edu (NIH Image Mailing List Maintainer)
Newsgroups: news.announce.newgroups,news.groups,sci.chem,sci.engr.chem,sci.geo.geology,sci.materials,sci.misc,sci.physics,sci.optics,sci.research,sci.physics.accelerators,sci.engr,sci.polymers

RESULTS

sci.techniques.microscopy group vote results - 448 valid votes

Yes No : 2/3? } 100? : Pass? : Group
---- ---- : ---- ----- : ----- : -------------------------------------------
441 6 : Yes Yes : Yes : sci.techniques.microscopy

1 abstaining vote and 6 invalid votes

This newsgroup passed its vote by a significant margin. Barring SERIOUS
controversy, it will be created in five days.

Newsgroups line:

sci.techniques.microscopy The field of microscopy.

Voting closed at 23:59:59 UTC, 2 January 1994.

After this result appears on news.announce.newgroups it will be sent to
the following mailing lists (minus the individual ACK lists), with the
permission of their respective maintainers:

microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov {Microscopy Mailing List}
maintained by Nestor J. Zaluzec {zaluzec-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov}

nih-image-at-soils.umn.edu {NIH Image Mailing List}
maintained by John Ladwig {jladwig-at-soils.umn.edu}

This vote was being conducted by a neutral third party. For voting
questions only, contact pschleck-at-unomaha.edu. For questions about
the new group, contact John F. Mansfield {John.F.Mansfield-at-umich.edu} .

(Vote-takers Note: I apologize for the lack of a 2nd CFV. It was my
intention to send one out halfway through the voting period, on December
19th. However, I wasn't paying close attention to the
news.announce.newgroups submission deadline before the holidays, which
came up earlier this year, on December 18th. The extremely decisive
results, combined with the usual lull in activity over the holidays,
makes it almost impossible that this accidental oversight affected the
the outcome of the vote, anyway.)

CHARTER

The main aim of sci.techniques.microscopy is to provide an open
forum for the discussion of microscopy and related fields on the Internet.

PURPOSE

The purpose of sci.techniques.microscopy is to provide an open discussion
forum for the microscopy community on the Internet. The newsgroups allow
the rapid and timely discussion of opinions and information that would take
months or years (or not at all) on conventional paper journals. It is hoped
that this newsgroup will eventually be linked with the
microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov mailing list and archived at the same
site. Technical suggestions as to the best way to accomplish this are
welcome, and may be directed to either John F. Mansfield or Nestor J.
Zaluzec via their respective E-mail addresses above.

Please note that this proposed newsgroup is intended to be an open forum for
discussion of microscopy. Thus relevant topics for this newsgroup should
only be limited to what the participants in this proposed newsgroup regard
as microscopy.

TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION

Optical Microscopy
Confocal Microscopy
Scanning Probe/Force Microscopy (formerly Atomic Force Microscopy) - SPM,
SFM, AFM
Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy - STM
Scanning Electron Microscopy - SEM
Transmission Electron Microscopy - TEM
High Resolution Electron Microscopy - HREM
Analytical Electron Microscopy - AEM
Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy - STEM
High Voltage Electron Microscopy - HVEM
X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy - XEDS
Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy - EELS
Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA)
Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (WDS)
Diffraction Contrast Imaging
Phase Contrast Imaging
Selected Area Electron Diffraction - SAED or SAD
Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction - CBED
Image Filtering
Field Ion Microscopy
Electron Holography
X-ray Microscopy
Scanning Acoustic Microscopy
Ultrasonic Imaging
Specimen Preparation (Electropolishing, Ion Milling,
Ultramicrotoming, etc.)
3D reconstruction
Image Processing
Software
Data formats
Databases
Hardware/Equipment - specs, opinions, etc.
Applications
Announcements/reviews of papers/conferences.
Preparation techniques.
Non-ambient techniques
General Discussion/opinions/questions.
Positions vacant

As well as anything else that is relevant to microscopy in general.


[sci.techniques.microscopy group vote Final Vote Ack deleted to avoid
overloading the mailing lists. The full results may be obtained via
anonymous FTP from ftp.uu.net under /usenet/news.announce.newgroups/
sci/sci.techniques.microscopy.]

--
Paul W. Schleck
pschleck-at-unomaha.edu

Running UseVote 2.1a




From: Ronald H Birkhahn-1 :      birk0007-at-gold.tc.umn.edu
Date: Tue, 4 Jan 1994 09:31:47 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Magnetic Specimens

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Hello,
I just started working with magnetic steel specimens in the TEM
and find that the beam is just "bent" everywhere. Has anyone worked with
steel before and/or does anyone have any pointers they picked up along the
way? Thanks..

Ron
U. of Minnesota






From: P.V.Hatton-at-sheffield.ac.uk
Date: 4 Jan 94 14:27:55
Subject: XRMA Group Spring Meeting

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Sender: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk


Return-Path: {P.V.Hatton-at-sheffield.ac.uk}
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Message-ID: {MAILQUEUE-101.940104142755.448-at-UNDERBANK.shef.ac.uk}
To: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk

I would be grateful if you could circulate the following info:

"X-Ray Microanalysis - Advances and Applications"
The Spring Meeting of the X-ray Microanalysis Group will be held at
the School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield on Thursday
7th April 1994. Enquiries can be directed to Dr Paul Hatton, tel.
0742 670444 ext. 3051, fax 0742 797050

Thank you for your help, Paul Hatton




From: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
Date: Tue, 04 Jan 1994 16:01:15 +0000
Subject: Journal of Microscopy Summaries

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Sender: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk


Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 1, January 1994, pp. 1--8.

The observation of large magnetite crystals from magnetotactic
bacteria by electron and atomic force microscopy

by MARCOS FARINA,* BECHARA KACHAR,"" ULYSSES LINS,* RAYMOND
BRODERICK~~ & HENRIQUE LINS DE BARROS##,

*Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho - CCS -
Bloco G -Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21949-900, Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil. ""Laboratory of Cellular Biology, National
Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders,
Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.A. ~~Department of Pharmacology and
Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland at Baltimore,
School of Medicine, Maryland, U.S.A. ##Museu de Astronomia e
Ciencias Afins, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Summary
Magnetite crystals inside coccoid magnetotactic bacteria found in
lagoons near Rio de Janeiro city were examined by electron
microscopy (EM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). For AFM,
ultrathin sections of bacteria embedded in Epon resin were etched
with an ethanolic NaOH solution and observed both in the height
and in the force modes. Comparative electron microscope images
were useful for identifying crystalline reliefs in the etched
sections. Different situations representing particular
arrangements of crystal chains were observed by AFM. The majority
of the bacteria examined presented unusually large magnetite
crystals which remained strongly attached in linear chains even
after the laboratory procedures for their isolation. This
behaviour is different from all other biogenic magnetite crystals
isolated so far. It is suggested that this attachment is due to
the strong field between individual crystals as well as to the
contact areas, which are the largest observed until now. The
correct identification of a particular topography by AFM as a
crystal relief may be critical when crystals are not aligned in
chains; in these cases the linear dimensions and the presence of
well-defined edges and faces are important features to be taken
into account. Characterization of the crystal faces is important
for the study of magnetotactic micro-organisms since the
crystalline habits seem to be species-specific. Observation of
etched sections proved to be a helpful approach for crystal
relief observation, especially when small amounts of bacteria
were available.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 1, January 1994, pp. 9--25.

Development, quantitative performance and applications of a
parallel electron energy-loss spectrum imaging system

by G. BOTTON* & G. L'ESPERANCE,

Centre for Characterization and Microscopy of Materials,
Departement de Metallurgie et Genie des Materiaux, Ecole
Polytechnique de Montreal, C.P. 6079, Succ. ``A'' Montreal,
(Quebec), Canada

Summary
The development of a parallel electron energy-loss spectrum
imaging system is presented. The analytical performance of the
imaging technique was investigated and the system applied to
materials science problems. The system, which allows acquisition
and storage of a parallel electron energy-loss spectrum at each
pixel of an image, was developed by interfacing a multichannel
analyser and a microscope to a computer workstation. In the
experimental conditions used for imaging, detection limits and
quantification errors were large and varied as a function of
spatial resolution and the range of chemical elements of interest
in the image. Applications of this imaging technique in materials
science showed that quantitative chemical information is provided
by the system and that the use of relative thickness maps and
detailed statistical analysis of the spectrum-image allowed an
unbiased interpretation of the images. As energy-loss spectra are
available after processing, spectroscopic information about the
analysed material can be used to provide supplementary
information.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 1, January 1994, pp. 27--38.

Reflectance in situ hybridization (RISH): detection, by confocal
reflectance laser microscopy, of gold-labelled riboprobes in
breast cancer cell lines and histological specimens

by G. LINARES-CRUZ,* J. P. RIGAUT,"" J. VASSY,"" T. C. DE
OLIVEIRA,"" P. DE CREMOUX,* B. OLOFSSON~~ & F. CALVO* ,

*Laboratoire de Pharmacologie Experimentale, Institut de
Genetique Moleculaire, Hopital Saint-Louis, Universite Paris 7,
27 rue Juliette Dodu, F-75010 Paris, France. ""Laboratoire
d'Analyse d'Images en Pathologie Cellulaire, U. 263 -
I.N.S.E.R.M., Universite Paris 7, 2 place Jussieu, F-75251 Paris
Cedex 05, France . ~~U. 248 - I.N.S.E.R.M., Faculte de Medecine
Lariboisiere Saint-Louis, 10 avenue de Verdun, F-75010 Paris,
France

Summary
A method for reflectance in situ hybridization (RISH) is
presented. The importance of the method is demonstrated by
results obtained on cytological and histological breast cancer
specimens.
Scattering reflectance signals from 1-nm colloidal-gold
particles after RNA/RNA in situ hybridization, using
digoxigenin-labelled riboprobes, were detected by confocal
scanning laser microscopy.
The mRNA expression of two ras-related genes, rho B and rho C,
was analysed in human histological breast cancer specimens and in
human breast cancer cell lines. Horizontal (x, y) and vertical
(z) optical sections after three-dimensional imaging were used
for visualization.
A marked heterogeneity (between individual cells and between
specimens) was noted for the expression of the rho B gene, both
in cytological and in histological samples. On the other hand,
rho C was always expressed and showed no heterogeneity.
This method allows the identification of several cellular
constituents in an heterogeneous tissue structure, as
demonstrated by the simultaneous detection of rho B (or rho C) by
reflectance and of DNA, cytokeratin and/or vimentin by
fluorescence.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 1, January 1994, pp. 39--51.

Quantitative analysis of variable-angle total internal reflection
fluorescence microscopy (VA-TIRFM) of cell/substrate contacts

by J. S. BURMEISTER, G. A. TRUSKEY & W. M. REICHERT* ,

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC
27708, U.S.A.

Summary
Variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy
(VA-TIRFM) allows controlled variation of the illumination depth
with the potential of measuring both membrane/substrate
separation distances and sizes of focal contacts. VA-TIRFM images
are collected from well-spread bovine aortic endothelial cells
(BAEC) stained with a membrane-bound carbocyanine dye.
Quantitative determination of absolute membrane/substrate
separation distances and individual focal contact area are
attempted using a simplified model of TIRFM optics. For angles
slightly greater than the critical angle of 64 degrees, both the
dorsal and ventral membranes were illuminated, while images
excited above 66 degrees illuminated only focal contacts. Above
74 degrees the fluorescence of focal contacts was dominated by
background noise. Direct application of the simplified optical
model without accounting for background intensity was
unsatisfactory. However, correction for background fluorescence
and nonlinear regression of the untransformed data over the
working range yielded focal contact separation distances of 24
(plus or minus 13) nm. Focal contact areas estimated by TIRFM
(1.3 plus or minus 0.7 square micrometres) agreed closely with
areas observed by immunofluorescence staining of vinculin (1.5
plus or minus 0.3 square micrometres).

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 1, January 1994, pp. 53--66.

Semiautomated methods for cancellous bone histomorphometry using
a general-purpose video image analysis system

by W. E. HUFFER,* P. RUEGG,* J.-M. ZHU"" & R. B. LEPOFF* ,

*Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Health Sciences
Center, 4200 East Ninth Avenue, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A.

Summary
Semiautomated methods are used to measure elongated, curved and
complex branching profiles and isolated perimeter segments in
monochrome video images with a general-purpose analysis system.
These methods are used to make the major primary measurements of
bone histomorphometry. Accuracy and reproducibility of the image
acquisition, processing and measurement system is documented by
measuring a semicircular standard of known dimensions.
Semiautomated applications of the Ar/Le method for measuring
areas and perimeters, and calculating lengths and widths of
osteoid seams, lengths of mineralization labels and mineral
apposition rate, wall width, indirect measurements of eroded,
osteoclastic and osteoblastic perimeters without tracing, and
measurement of mineralized or total cancellous bone area and
perimeter gave values comparable to measurements of the same
parameters by tracing or grid counting techniques with equal or
better reproducibility and much greater efficiency.
Intraindividual variation in measuring multiple bone biopsies was
comparable to that reported with current standard methods. Major
sources of variability for semiautomated methods were image
magnification and selection of profile edges by thresholding, and
sources of variability for manual methods are image
magnification, numbers of orthogonal intercepts, tracing speed
and accuracy of the algorithm used to measure traced pixels.
Semiautomated methods are accurate, reproducible and rapid
methods suitable for bone histomorphometry.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 1, January 1994, pp. 67--72.

Some remarks on the accuracy of surface area estimation using the
spatial grid

by K. SANDAU* & U. HAHN ,
Institut fur Angewandte Mathematik und Statistik, Universitat
Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart, Germany

Summary
A set of three line grids in three orthogonal directions is
called a spatial grid. This spatial grid can be used for surface
area estimation by counting the number of intersection points of
a surface with the grid lines. If direction and localization of
the spatial grid are suitably randomized, the expectation of this
number is proportional to the surface area of interest. The
method was especially developed for cases where the surface to be
measured is embedded in a medium, which is the usual case in
microscopical applications, and where a stack of serial optical
sections of the surface is available.
The paper presents an improvement of an earlier version of the
counting rule for intersection points. Furthermore, if the
direction of sectioning is not uniform random, a bias results.
This bias is calculated for a disc as a perfectly anisotropic
object. A generalization of the estimator is considered by
introducing a weighted mean instead of the usual arithmetic mean.
The variance due to the randomized direction is investigated
depending on the weights, and the minimum of this variance is
derived. The relationship between the covariogram and the
variance of the surface area estimated with the spatial grid is
considered.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 1, January 1994, pp. 73--78.

Volume-weighted mean particle volume estimation using different
measurement methods

by E. ARTACHO-PERULA & R. ROLDAN-VILLALOBOS,

Department of Morphological Sciences, School of Medicine,
University of Cordoba, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14071 Cordoba,
Spain

Summary
The use of the `point-sampled intercepts' method on
histopathological material is evaluated for the main purpose of
comparing different methods of intercept length measurements. The
volume-weighted mean nuclear volume of the carcinoma of the
ampulla of Vater is calculated using three methods for measuring
intercept lengths: a semiautomatic image analyser, an equidistant
ruler and a logarithmic ruler. Rulers of several classes and
lengths are used, and the results of the volume-weighted mean
nuclear volume estimations are compared. The equidistant ruler is
more accurate than the logarithmic ruler. With a greater number
of ruler classes and with adjustment of ruler length to the
greatest nuclear intercept lengths, the systematic deviation from
the true value of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume is
smaller. The volume-weighted mean nuclear volume parameter has
great power to differentiate intestinal carcinoma from normal
tissue.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 1, January 1994, pp. 79--82.

A simple calibration for routine section thickness measurements
using current density ratios

by Y. M. HENG,* F. P. OTTENSMEYER,"" A. L. ARSENAULT* & G. T.
SIMON*,

*Electron Microscopy Facility, McMaster University Medical
Centre, 1200 Main St. West, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada

Summary
A method to calibrate current density ratios for the
determination of specimen thickness is presented. This method
uses a tilt series from a single noncrystalline specimen to
create different thicknesses; these are used to generate data
points to establish the relationship between specimen thickness
and current density ratio. The actual specimen thickness at 08
tilt was determined to an accuracy of 5nm by a parallax method.
From the calibration curves obtained, we observed that the
current density ratio was sensitive to relative thickness changes
on the same section of less than 1nm when a 50-micrometre
objective aperture was used.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 1, January 1994, pp. 83--86.

A simple filter system for processing small or transparent
specimens

by B. CRIBB & J. ZHU ,

Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of
Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia

Summary
A novel method of attaching a fine mesh filter to the end of a
disposable plastic pipette is described. Such a pipette filter
can be used to exclude specimen uptake during specimen
preparation procedures, particularly when processing small or
transparent materials. The pipette filter-tip does not interfere
with fluid exchange and is non-reactive with normal processing
fluids.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

THE JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY IS AVAILABLE AT A REDUCED RATE FOR
MEMBERS OF THE ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY, THE MICROSCOPY
SOCIETY OF AMERICA AND THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR STEREOLOGY.
PLEASE CONTACT THE SECRETARY OF EACH SOCIETY FOR DETAILS.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS AND DISK SUBMISSION FORMS CAN BE
OBTAINED FROM DR GILLIAN WILSON, THE JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY, 37/38
ST CLEMENTS, OXFORD OX4 1AJ, UNITED KINGDOM. TELEPHONE +44 (0)865
248768, FAX +44 (0)865 791237, EMAIL RMS-at-UK.AC.OX.VAX.

-----------------------------------------------------------------




From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu
Date: Tue, 4 Jan 1994 14:44:30 -0500 (EST)
Subject: decalcification

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I would like to thank everyone for their help in my decalcification problem.
Several techniques were suggested and I am sure one of them will work for
my needs. Again, many thanks!

Phil Rutledge
prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu





From: Wil Bigelow :      Wil_Bigelow-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 4 Jan 1994 14:37:46 U
Subject: TEM- Mag Specs

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Subject: Time:2:31 PM
OFFICE MEMO TEM: Mag Specs Date:1/4/94
TEM work on steel specimens can be very difficult, because they are almost
always magnetized. You may be able to reduce the magnetic inhomogenieties a
bit by passing the specimens through a strong AC
field, a process industrially known as 'degaussing'. I believe
degaussing coils can be purchased from most electronics supply
stores that deal in the television market. In use, you insert the
specimen into the center of the coil and withdraw it very slowly,
with the AC current flowing through the coil.






From: COOK-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov (Russell E. Cook)
Date: Tue, 4 Jan 1994 14:45:46 -0600
Subject: TEM: magnetic specimens

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Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Besides doing what Robert Keller suggests, you should note the objective
lens current for a non-magnetic sample and set the lens to the same value.
Then you can bring the specimen to the eucentric height by noting when the
image is at the minimum contrast condition.

Russell Cook
Electron Microscopy Center for Materials Research
Argonne Natonal Laboratory
Argonne, IL






From: COOK-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov (Russell E. Cook)
Date: Tue, 4 Jan 1994 15:15:10 -0600
Subject: print processors, etc.

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Automatic print processing is a great benefit whether or not you also have
an automatic exposure system. Indeed, we had a Kodak Royalprinter for many
years before we aquired our LogEtronics (now Egoltronics) EM55 automatic
dodging enlarger. Even now some of our users (not many) prefer to use our
old Durst enlarger although they have only two simple aids to exposure
determination:
a Kodak Projection Print Scale (cat. no. 1557248) which cost about $10 and
an Ilford EM10 Exposure Monitor which cost about $25.

Russell Cook
Electron Microscopy Center for Materials Research
Argonne Natonal Laboratory
Argonne, IL






From: Dennis Keiser :      dennis_keiser-at-qmgate.fe.anlw.anl.gov
Date: 4 Jan 94 14:35:07 U
Subject: TEM Analysis of Diffusion

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Subject: Time: 2:17 PM
OFFICE MEMO TEM Analysis of Diffusion Couples Date: 1/4/94
We have considered using a TEM to study diffusion couples, but preparation of
thin foils is a major stumbling block. Is anyone familiar with a possible
technique that could leave the diffusion structure intact at the interface
between two unlike materials in a diffusion couple? Is anyone aware of
reported work relating to TEM analysis of diffusion couples?

Dennis D. Keiser
Argonne National Laboratory






From: COOK-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov (Russell E. Cook)
Date: Tue, 4 Jan 1994 16:23:45 -0600
Subject: TEM: diffusion analysis

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There were several articles/abstracts in the Proceedings of the XIIth
International Congress for Electron Microscopy (1990 EMSA Proceedings) on
this subject, mine among them. If memory serves me, there are articles in
the EMSA or MSA proceedings for years prior to and after 1990. My primary
sample preparation technique, and that of many otherr researchers, is to
ion-mill cross-sectioned samples.

Russell Cook
Electron Microscopy Center for Materials Research
Argonne Natonal Laboratory
Argonne, IL






From: BIOTECHNET-at-BIOTECHNET.COM
Date: Wed, 05 Jan 1994 09:08:07 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: CALL FOR PAPERS: NEW JOURNAL CELL VISION

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*---- CALL FOR PAPERS ----*

Cell Vision
Journal of Analytical Morphology

Eaton Publishing invites submission of papers for peer review in
consideration for publication in the new journal "Cell Vision - Journal of
Analytical Morphology." The first issue of Cell Vision is scheduled for
publication in May/June 1994.

Cell Vision is edited for those scientists and physicians that analyze
morphology as a means of diagnosis or research. It is also intended for
those who are interested in advances in immunocytochemistry, confocal
microscopy, image analysis and more recent developments such as in situ
polymerase chain reaction and probe scanning microsopy.

Cell Vision focuses on these novel analytical methods in morphology
and their applications in biomedical research and diagnostics. Developments
reported in this journal will benefit any scientist who visualizes and
analyzes chemical components against the background of tissue structure.

Cell Vision will have an international circulation and will publish
articles contributed by multinational authors. All articles will be
rigorously peer reviewed and promise to be of very high quality. The
international Editorial Board of Cell Vision, led by Dr. Jiang Gu of
the Deborah Research Institute, includes many top scientists in modern
morphology.

General information about Cell Vision (including instructions for
authors and subscription information) is available by contacting Eaton
Publishing, 154 East Central Street, Suite 201, Natick, MA 01760. You may also fax your requests to 508-655-9910 or submit electronic mail requests to
internet address: fweaton-at-biotechnet.com.

Francis W. Eaton
Publisher
Eaton Publishing




From: Ronald H Birkhahn-1 :      birk0007-at-gold.tc.umn.edu
Date: Wed, 5 Jan 1994 09:54:16 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Thanks!

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Thanks for your comments. I'm headed off to look at my samples this
afternoon and see how the suggestions work. For those who are wondering,
I prepare my samples by cutting with a wire saw to 100microns and slowly
(as possible) jet polish with perchloric until there is a hole.

Ron






From: JOHNA-at-SCI.WFEB.EDU
Date: 05 Jan 1994 10:58:32 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Sectioning glass beads

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We have just taken on a project which involves cutting "thin" sections of
35 um fenestrated glass beads. I am using tungsten coated glass knives
broken via the "balanced-break" method with , as expected, less than
desireable results. Has anyone had any experience with anything like this?
Incidentaly, the beads are fixed and embedded in Spurr's resin. Any ideas
for better sections would be appreciated.

John Aghajanian
JOHNA-at-sci.wfeb.edu




From: Mike Schwartz :      Mike_Schwartz-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 5 Jan 1994 13:17:40 -0400
Subject: Re: EM Atlas

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Subject: Time:1:13 PM
OFFICE MEMO Re} EM Atlas Date:1/5/94
{I am looking for EM atlases (atli?) for both "normal" and pathologic {tissues.
{I work almost exclusively with mouse tissue, but any good atlas should {be
enough of a guide. I'd appreciate any infomation or suggestions.
Margaret,
You did not mention the type of tissue you are looking at. If you are
interested in nervous system tissue, the definitive "atlas" is, The Fine
Structure of the Nervous System, by Peters, Palay and Webster. The most recent
edition (3rd) is published by Oxford.
Mike
Mike_Schwartz-at-qm.yale.edu






From: Dean Dale Johnson :      DEJ-at-gs3.grad.washington.edu
Date: Wed, 5 Jan 1994 15:24:33 PST
Subject: Mailing List

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Please enroll me on the microscopy mailing list.

Thanks




From: Phil Oshel :      PO-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu
Date: 6 Jan 94 08:20:56 CST6CDT
Subject: Re: EM Atlas

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} Date: Wed, 5 Jan 94 12:15:01 EST
} From: meh-at-jax.org (Margaret E. Hogan)
} To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
} Subject: EM Atlas

} I am looking for EM atlases (atli?) for both "normal" and pathologic tissues.
} I work almost exclusively with mouse tissue, but any good atlas should be
} enough of a guide. I'd appreciate any infomation or suggestions. Thanks!!!!
}
} Peggy Hogan
} The Jackson Laboratory
} meh-at-aretha.jax.org

Another atlas, not the usual normal or pathological atlas, but
very useful:
Artifacts in Biological Electron Microscopy
R.E.F. Crang and K.L. Klomparens, eds.
Plenum Press, NY 1988

Phil Oshel




From: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
Date: Thu, 06 Jan 1994 15:18:32 +0000
Subject: New Course!

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Sender: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
ROSS.MACKENZIE-at-OX.AC.UK, MICROSCOPY-at-ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV
Message-ID: {0097822F.C2FAA8E6.15569-at-vax.ox.ac.uk}

*************************************************************

NEW COURSE !

*************************************************************

ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY

DIGITAL IMAGING LIGHT MICROSCOPY SUMMER SCHOOL

UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL

10 - 15 JULY 1994



Organisers: Dr A Entwistle
Dr C V Howard
Dr H Gundlach


The Digital Imaging Light Microscopy Summer School is aimed
primarily at scientists in biological and related disciplines and
will comprise of a basic introduction, followed by a selection
of modules.

--------------------------------------------------------------
Monday and Tuesday

Common Core - Introduction to Light Microscopy. This will
consist of lectures, demonstrations and practical work on the
following:

The History of microscopy; Introduction to microscopy;
Limitations of the eye; Resolution, Contrast, Magnification;
Refraction and lenses, geometrical optics, conjugate planes;
Aperture; Illumination of the specimen in transmitted and
reflected light; Lens aberrations and their correction; the
choice of optical components; Diffraction and its consequences
for the microscope image; Generation of contrast;
Photomicrography.

---------------------------------------------------------------

Wednesday, Thursday and Friday

Modules - The following five options are available:

Comprehensive Digital Light Microscopy - Stereology and digital
imaging, digital image collection, digital image processing,
digital image display and digital image storage.

Confocal Microscopy (students must bring their own specimens for
study) - Fluorescent staining of samples, imaging of samples
(fluorescence, reflectance and DIC techniques), visualization of
2-D and -D data sets and aspects of confocal theory.

Advanced Fluorescence Microscopy - Fluorescent staining of
samples, ion ratioing methods, fluorescence decay-time
measurements, fluorescence confocal microscopy.

Stereology and Digital Light Microscopy - Basic concepts of
systematic random (ie unbiased) sampling in 3-D from histological
material, efficient design-based stereological methods for
estimating number, surface, length and volume (both manual
methods and those employing image analysis systems will be
covered) and methods of particle sizing in 3-D.

Techniques in Digital Light Microscopy - Introduction to
stereology, introduction to confocal microscopy and introduction
to digital imaging and processing.



FOR FURTHER DETAILS CONTACT THE ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY,
37/38 ST CLEMENTS, OXFORD OX4 1AJ, UNITED KINGDOM. TELEPHONE +44
(0)865 248768, FAX +44 (0)865 791237, EMAIL: RMS-at-UK.AC.OX.VAX.





From: Francisco Javier H Blazquez :      fjhblazq-at-fox.cce.usp.br
Date: Thu, 6 Jan 1994 14:12:41 -0300 (BST)
Subject: Panthera pardus epidermis

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I'm interested in the morphology of Panthera Pardus epidermis.
Does anyone know if there is something unusual about the epithelial
cells of this animal skin?

=============================================================================
Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez |
Universidade de Sao Paulo - Faculdade de | e-mail fjhblazq-at-fox.cce.usp.br
Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos | Voice: 55 195 616122 r. 265
Departamento de Ciencias Basicas/Histologia|
Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225 CP 23 | Fax: 55 195 611689
CEP 13630-000 Pirassununga (Sao Paulo) |
BRAZIL |
==============================================================================





From: COOK-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov (Russell E. Cook)
Date: Thu, 6 Jan 1994 10:33:18 -0600
Subject: Sectioning glass beads

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Charles Bradley at Argonne National Laboratory has been sectioning very
small bits of radioactive waste glasses embedded in resin. I believe the
size of the glass pieces are about 40 microns or so. I am not sure of the
resin he has been using, however. He has been using a diamond knife to get
TEM sections from a Reichert-Jung Ultracut E.

Russell Cook
Electron Microscopy Center for Materials Research
Argonne Natonal Laboratory
Argonne, IL






From: Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab University of Florida
Date: Thu, 06 Jan 1994 12:27:12 -0500 (EST)
Subject: biology, nuclear ultrastructure

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Message-Id: {9401061631.AA02915-at-owl.INS.CWRU.Edu}
{GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu}

Cell Biologists:

I have come across a structure, many times, that I have identified
as a perichromatin granule. A dense body of about 30-40 nm surrounded by a
transparent halo an usually associated with dense chromatin. I think this
structure was first mentioned by Bernhard 20 or more years ago. Does any
one know if this structure has been further characterized?
Any leads on this would be greatly appreciated.

*****************************
* Greg Erdos *
* Director, ICBR EMCL *
* University of Florida *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 *
* gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* 904-392-1295 *
*****************************




From: COOK-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov (Russell E. Cook)
Date: Thu, 6 Jan 1994 12:26:52 -0600
Subject: TEM: diffusion analysis II

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It occurred to me that you might look at the following two volumes which
are full of general techniques for sample preparation:

Specimen Preparation for Transmission Electron Microscopy of Materials,
volumes I and II, Materials Research Society, books 115 and 199.






From: Daniel Luchtel :      dluchtel-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Thu, 6 Jan 1994 18:58:27 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: biology, nuclear ultrastructure

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A paper by Bottke may be of interest: Bottke W (1976).
Chromosome-associated paracrystalline nuclear inclusions in the
spermatocytes of a pulmonate snail, Planorbarius corneus L. Chromosoma
(Berl.) 55: 273-287.

On Thu, 6 Jan 1994, Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab University of Florida wrote:

} Cell Biologists:
}
} I have come across a structure, many times, that I have identified
} as a perichromatin granule. A dense body of about 30-40 nm surrounded by a
} transparent halo an usually associated with dense chromatin. I think this
} structure was first mentioned by Bernhard 20 or more years ago. Does any
} one know if this structure has been further characterized?
} Any leads on this would be greatly appreciated.
}
} *****************************
} * Greg Erdos *
} * Director, ICBR EMCL *
} * University of Florida *
} * Gainesville, FL 32611 *
} * gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
} * 904-392-1295 *
} *****************************
}




From: JOHNA-at-SCI.WFEB.EDU
Date: 07 Jan 1994 15:20:04 -0500 (EST)
Subject: successfully sectioning glass beads

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With encouragement from a number of you folks out there, I tried sectioning
these thing with an old diamond knive. Much to my amazement, it worked
beautifully. As a biologist, I never would have thought that this was
possible. We have good sections with minimal obvious damage to the knife.
We have saved a great deal of time and many headaches. Thanks to all who
responded and HOORAH for the system.

John Aghajanian JOHNA-at-sci.wfeb.edu

beautifully. I




From: Warren Huff :      Warren.Huff-at-UC.Edu
Date: Sun, 09 Jan 1994 11:22:11 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Microprobe search

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Message-Id: {9401072027.AA11317-at-us1rmc.bb.dec.com}

We are looking for a used but recent vintage electron microprobe to replace a
very old ARL system. Preferences are for a 4-channel system with EDS,
something like a Cameca SX-50. We are aware of Don Lesher's operation in
northern Ohio and have talked with him about acquiring a rebuilt ARL-SEMQ.
This may be our eventual route, but if there is a good recent vintage machine
sitting out there somewhere we would be very interested in knowing about it.
Thanks.
Warren D. Huff
Dept. of Geology
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, OH 45221-0013
phone (513) 556-3731
fax (513) 556-6931
e-mail huff-at-ucbeh.san.uc.edu





From: Rick A. Harris :      szrick-at-bullwinkle.ucdavis.edu
Date: Mon, 10 Jan 1994 09:30:12 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Microscopy recharges

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Due to the continuing recession in California and especially the
hardships the UC system is undergoing we are forced to begin a recharge
for our microscopy services. I would very much like to know what current
recharges are for biological TEM use and prep services. If anyone has a
freeze fracture device (we have a Balzers BAF 400T) what are the going
rates? How about for SEM prep?

Thank you in advance.
Rick A. Harris
Electron Microscopy
Evolution and Ecology
Univ. of Calif.
Davis, CA
916 752 2914





From: Paul Webster :      Paul_Webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 10 Jan 1994 09:57:12 -0400
Subject: None

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None
Re: Recent request for help on volume calculations -

"Our laboratory has expressed interest in calculating volumes
on microscopic data and I am looking for software that can
perform the following tasks:

2: 3-D reconstruction (including EM image alignment)
5: Wire-frame generation and simple volume rendering
3: Volume calculation
1: Run on a Mac or PC
4: File I/O from a Mac or PC format (preferrably using
MacDraw objects of known dimensions)

The non-proprietary file format support is neccessary to allow
cross-platform data manipulation. My U*NIX access is limited, so
ability to un on a PC is important.

I keep reading how people did 3-D reconstruction, but their programs
are hard to find. Any referrals to sources of this software is
appreciated. It WOULD be neat if it was available in C by anonymous
FTP, but perhaps this is too narrow a requirement. Any leads would
help."

Reply -
There are simple methods for estimating volume densities that do not require
complicated computer systems or sophisticated software. If your aims are to
estimate the volumes of subcellular structures and you can directly measure at
least one reference volume then you might like to try cross latice overlays as
described by Weibel as far back as 1979 (Stereological methods vol 1. practical
methods for biological morphometry Academic Press NY). More recent reviews can
be found in APMIS (Gundersen et al 1988 vol 96 379-394), J. Microsc (Cruz-Orive
1982 vol 125 89-102) Am. J. Physiol (Cruz-Orive & Weibel 1990) vol 258 148-156)
and TICB (Luquoc 1993 some time this fall). Another source is a recently
published book where the final chapter covers all these methods (Griffiths 1993
Fine Structure Immunocytochemistry, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg).
Best of all is to take a course on stereology (there is one in Banff, Canada
in May 1994 and one here at Yale in August 1994).
If you still want to do 3-D reconstructions, which will only give you
information on the structures you reconstruct, then the best software I have
seen up to now are the VoxelView programs. We run them on a Silicon Graphics
workstation which never seems to have enough memory. These programs allow you
to reconstruct sections, rotate and manipulate the images as well as measure
the parameters of the reconstructed structures.






From: Paul Webster :      Paul_Webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 10 Jan 1994 15:48:34 -0400
Subject: Re: EM practical courses

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Re} EM practical courses
Second Notice :

Immunocytochemistry and Cryosections Practical Course 22 - 27 August 1994.
An intensive practical course mixed with theoretical sessions where you can
learn how to produce cryosections as well as immunolabeling, colloidal gold
production and much more.

Additional we are offerring a three day practical workshop on Stereological
methods. This will be on 18 -20 August 1994, prior to the cryosectioning
course.

A team of instructors headed by Hans Gundersen will take you through the
theoretical and practical details of modern stereological methods. These will
include volume and surface densities, the fractionator, the nucleator, the
disector and much much more. Address for further details on both courses;

Paul Webster,
Department of Cell Biology,
Yale School of Medicine,
333 Cedar Street,
New Haven, CT 06510.







From: Paul Webster :      Paul_Webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 10 Jan 1994 15:32:25 -0400
Subject: Re: Stereology

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Re} Stereology
Re: Recent request for help on volume calculations -

"Our laboratory has expressed interest in calculating volumes
on microscopic data and I am looking for software that can
perform the following tasks:

2: 3-D reconstruction (including EM image alignment)
5: Wire-frame generation and simple volume rendering
3: Volume calculation
1: Run on a Mac or PC
4: File I/O from a Mac or PC format (preferrably using
MacDraw objects of known dimensions)

The non-proprietary file format support is neccessary to allow
cross-platform data manipulation. My U*NIX access is limited, so
ability to un on a PC is important.

I keep reading how people did 3-D reconstruction, but their programs
are hard to find. Any referrals to sources of this software is
appreciated. It WOULD be neat if it was available in C by anonymous
FTP, but perhaps this is too narrow a requirement. Any leads would
help."

Reply -
There are simple methods for estimating volume densities that do not require
complicated computer systems or sophisticated software. If your aims are to
estimate the volumes of subcellular structures and you can directly measure at
least one reference volume then you might like to try cross latice overlays as
described by Weibel as far back as 1979 (Stereological methods vol 1. practical
methods for biological morphometry Academic Press NY). More recent reviews can
be found in APMIS (Gundersen et al 1988 vol 96 379-394), J. Microsc (Cruz-Orive
1982 vol 125 89-102) Am. J. Physiol (Cruz-Orive & Weibel 1990) vol 258 148-156)
and TICB (Luquoc 1993 some time this fall). Another source is a recently
published book where the final chapter covers all these methods (Griffiths 1993
Fine Structure Immunocytochemistry, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg).
Best of all is to take a course on stereology (there is one in Banff, Canada
in May 1994 and one here at Yale in August 1994).
If you still want to do 3-D reconstructions, which will only give you
information on the structures you reconstruct, then the best software I have
seen up to now are the VoxelView programs. We run them on a Silicon Graphic
workstation which never seems to have enough memory. These programs allow you
to reconstruct sections, rotate and manipulate the images as well as measure
the parameters of the reconstructed structures.






From: Glen Macdonald :      glenmac-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Mon, 10 Jan 1994 19:07:22 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: Quantitative Morphometry tutorial

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There is a tutorial on quantitative morphometry written by Dr. Robert
Bolender, Dept. Biological Structure at Univ. Washington. It also
provides templates for point and intersect counts and for QM computations.
It is available from the Health Sciences Center for Educational Resources,
University of Washington SB-56, Seattle, Washington, 98195 (206) 685-1156.

Dr. Bolender teaches a course on QM in even years.

Glen MacDonald
Hearing Development Laboratories RL-30
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195
(206)543-8360
glenmac-at-u.washington.edu





From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Mon, 10 Jan 1994 21:40:21 -0600 (CST)
Subject: EM Charging Info.

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Rick Harris asked about charges for EM facilities.....
---------------------------------------------------

Sandy Silvers of the South Eastern EM Society has a fairly
comprehensive database on EM facilities in the US. You
can contact her at

Sandra H. Silvers, Assistant Director,
EM Center /BioSciences, Florida State University,
Tallahassee, FL, 32306-3050, (904) 644-6519.

There is some nominal charge for a copy of the database which
runs on dBaseIII. She had also at one time hardcopy outputs.

Some of the data base had facility charges listed.

--------------

Nestor Zaluzec
ANL EM Center




From: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
Date: Tue, 11 Jan 1994 11:02:44 +0000
Subject: Stereology Courses

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Sender: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk

Subscribers who might find it difficult to attend the stereology courses in
Banff or Yale should note that the RMS will be running a Digital Imaging and
Stereology course at Liverpool University, UK, in July 1994, coordinated by
the current President of the International Society for Stereology, Dr Vyvyan
Howard. Contact RMS-at-UK.AC.OX.VAX with your full name and address to obtain
details!




From: GRAD12-at-CCIT.ARIZONA.EDU
Date: Tue, 11 Jan 1994 08:34:15 -0700 (MST)
Subject: LM: Focus repeatability

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From Paul Sheppard, Tree-Ring Lab, Univ. of Arizona

To microscopy forum members:

I am having slight, but definite, difficulty in attaining repeatable focus
of my binocular common main objective microscope. In my attempt to apply image-
analysis techniques to tree-ring science, my focus problem has led to systemat-
ic differences in values as measured by different technicians. I am amazed at
how little the focus differences must be before we see differences in our data.
Can anyone suggest ways to ensure repeatable focus?

I have inquired into adding on autofocus hard- and software, but my first
estimate on that was $7,000, which is prohibitive at this time. I have also
heard about a dual-light focus aid, where two spot beams are projected onto the
subject to intersect exactly at the focal distance of the objective lens; if
the subject is above or below that distance, then the spot will be elongated or
even split into two. Has anyone tried this? I have also tried focussing at
high magnification and then working at my usual lower magnification. This re-
quires parfocal optics, which I have, but this process is cumbersome and other-
wise prone to error.

Thanks in advance for any and all suggestions,

Paul Sheppard
Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research
University of Arizona
GRAD12-at-CCIT.ARIZONA.EDU




From: mezy301-at-utxvms.cc.utexas.edu (Peter Joyce)
Date: Tue, 11 Jan 1994 13:51:17 -0600 (CST)
Subject: LM - ???

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My work is in the materials sciences where for reflected light microscopy
specien preparation usually begins with a grinding and polishing sequence
in order to obtain an optically smooth surface. I am now faced with a
material I do not wish to grind/polish, I passed by a reference that
suggested that if the specimen surface is not optically smooth I can use
glass coverslips and an index matching fluid - this sounds vaguely familar
from highschool biology. Is there anyone out there with experience in
Light Microscopy who could point toward the correct products and describe
for me some of the considerations involved.

Thanks in advance

P. Joyce






From: chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU (John Chandler)
Date: Tue, 11 Jan 1994 13:36:14 -0700
Subject: Re: EM Charging Info.

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html


} Rick Harris asked about charges for EM facilities.....
} ---------------------------------------------------
}
} Sandy Silvers of the South Eastern EM Society has a fairly
} comprehensive database on EM facilities in the US. You
} can contact her at

** some stuff deleted **

I just got off the phone with Sandy Silvers and told her that, since she
doesn't currently have Internet access, I'd pass this information along.
She has moved from Florida. Her current address and phone number are:

Sandra Silvers
EM Complex
USDA, ARS, RRC
PO Box 5677
Athens GA 30613-6199
(706) 546-3471

Her database has listings, which include contact people, for about 200
facilities. Information about usage charges is included for most of them.
She is looking for more input and will send a questionaire on request.
Printed copies of the database are available for $8 (US). She does all
this personally now, so needs to recoup printing costs.

She's intrigued with the possibility of having the information available
more widely, perhaps through FTP.

John chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU Fort Collins, CO





From: Wil Bigelow :      Wil_Bigelow-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 11 Jan 1994 16:32:32 U
Subject: LM???-Reply

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Subject: Time:4:14 PM
OFFICE MEMO LM???-Reply Date:1/11/94
I do not know the nature of your specimens, but I seriously dobut that
you would gain much useful information by using a cover slide and oil
to overcome the usual polishing process. Polishing is usually necessary
because optical microscopes have such limited depth of field (Typically
about 10 microns for a 10X objective, 1 micron for a 40X obj, and 0.1 or 0.2
microns for a 100X obj) that they are not at all suited for looking at rough
surfaces. Placing a layer of oil and a cover glass over a rough surface will
not solve this problem. Furthermore, the objective lenses
of metallographic microscopes are not designed to work through cover glasses -
you'll probably need to go to the biology or mineralogy dept
to find a microscope that is. I would suggest that you try examining the
specimen with a stereo binocular microscope as a start. A good instrument of
this kind should give magnifications up to about 75X. If
that is not sufficient, then the next step would be to try SEM -
although contrast may be a problem, depending on the nature of the
specimens.
microscope will not work with a cover glass,






From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Tue, 11 Jan 1994 16:11:12 -0600 (CST)
Subject: EM Charging Info.

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Microscopy Subscribers:

The previously posted information about Sandy Silvers address
was incorrect. She has since moved, her new address
is apparently.... Thanks to L. Melsen for the correction....


Rick Harris asked about charges for EM facilities.....
---------------------------------------------------

Sandy Silvers of the South Eastern EM Society has a fairly
comprehensive database on EM facilities in the US. You
can contact her at

SANDY H. SILVERS
EM COMPLEX
RUSSELL RESEARCH CENTERS
USDA, BOX 5677
ATHENS, GA 30613-6199
(706) 546 3471
FAX (706) 546 3452





From: Wil Bigelow :      Wil_Bigelow-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 11 Jan 1994 17:20:41 U
Subject: Stereographic Calcs

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Subject: Time:5:15 PM
OFFICE MEMO Stereographic Calcs Date:1/11/94
We have obtained optical goniometric measurements of angles
between the faces of about 75 macro crystals. These angles
(commonly called phi and rho) were measured relative to the
axes of the optical goniometer. Now, we want to convert
them to angles that are relative to principal planes of the
crystals. Does anyone have , or know of, a readily available
computer program for doing this?






From: Rick A. Harris :      szrick-at-bullwinkle.ucdavis.edu
Date: Tue, 11 Jan 1994 08:31:46 -0800 (PST)
Subject: myosin shadowing

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We are working on a project that requires us to shadow myosin with Pt and
C. We are trying to see the myosin heads and another conjugated
molecule. We are using our Balzers 400 to shadow at 15 to 25 degrees for
the Pt and then at 90 degrees for the C. We can find the molecules but
they are extremely faint. We have used anywhere from 5 to 15 angstroms
of Pt. Best results were with higher angles and thinner coats. Then we
increase exposure in the TEM to 3 seconds to bump the contrast and shift
the s/n ratio. Has anyone a suggestion for making the myosin more
visible? The micrographs have little contrast between the molecule and
the substrate.

Rick A. Harris
Electron Microscopy
Evolution and Ecology
Univ. of Calif.
Davis, CA






From: Albert H. Gough :      ag14+-at-andrew.cmu.edu
Date: Wed, 12 Jan 1994 09:46:52 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: LM - ???

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Message-ID: {YhB0pQ600Uh7M24Id=-at-andrew.cmu.edu}

Excerpts from mail: 11-Jan-94 LM - ??? by Peter Joyce-at-utxvms.cc.ut
} My work is in the materials sciences where for reflected light microscopy
} specien preparation usually begins with a grinding and polishing sequence
} in order to obtain an optically smooth surface. I am now faced with a
} material I do not wish to grind/polish, I passed by a reference that
} suggested that if the specimen surface is not optically smooth I can use
} glass coverslips and an index matching fluid - this sounds vaguely familar
}
If I understand your question, I don't think index matching will help.
Reflections occur where refractive index changes, if you match the
refractive index of your specimen you not see much reflection. I am not a
materials scientist, but biologists use reflected light microscopy to
generate contrast by interference of the first surface reflection (usually
the coverslip/medium interface) with the second surface reflection (usually
the medium/specimen interface) in order to see regions where the specimen
makes close contact with the coverslip. If your application is based at all
on similar effects, index matching will at least attenuate one of the
reflections.

bert gough


________________ ________________________ ______________________
|| / / \ |Albert H. Gough |EMail: |
|| / / | \ \ | / |Ctr for Light Microscope| Albert.Gough-at-cmu.edu |
|| / ( | ) \|/ |Imaging & Biotechnology | |
||*|) ( | ) ---X--- |Carnegie Mellon Univ. |Phone: (412) 268-6570 |
|| \ ( | ) /|\ |4400 Fifth Ave. | |
|| \ \ | / / | \ |Pittsburgh, PA 15213 |FAX: (412) 268-6571 |
|| \__\_/___________|________________________|______________________|






From: tayloe-at-rorc.usbm.gov
Date: Wed, 12 Jan 1994 10:28:44 -0600 (CST)
Subject: OM - staining minerals

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As part of a research project, I am looking for -any and all- references
that pertain to the staining of mineral species for their characteriza-
tion and to make certain minerals more distinguishable under the optical
(polarizing) microscope.

I greatly appreciate all info and help in this endeaver.

Thanks,
Rob

X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X
X Rob Tayloe X MSM Spelunkers Club X
X Metallographic Lab. X Missouri Speleological Survey /-v-\ \-v-/ X
X Rolla Research Center X Bat Conservation International X
X U.S. Bureau of Mines X Missouri Cave & Karst Conservancy \-v-/ X
X tayloe-at-rorc.usbm.gov X National Speleological Society #32993 /-v-\ X
X (314) 364-3169 x247 X American Cave Conservation Association X
X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X






From: GRAZUL-at-zodiac.rutgers.edu
Date: Wed, 12 Jan 1994 13:07:41 -0500 (EST)
Subject: tem-newe

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I am wondering if anyone out there has tried incorporating the new
Mac AV computers with their video systems? I've got the money for the
Mac, but I need to know how the software is for image analysis, and
how the final product actually looks.

If anyone has done an EM video with the Mac I would like to see it.

Thanks for the help...Go Giants...long live the VW!

John L. Grazul
BBR EM Facility
Rutgers University
Box 1059
Piscataway, NJ
08854




From: Bernhardt Sainieidukat :      sainieid-at-badlands.NoDak.edu
Date: Wed, 12 Jan 1994 12:12:38 -600 (CST)
Subject: Re: OM - staining minerals

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Check out

Hutchison, C.S., 1974, Laboratory Handbook of Petrographic Techniques,
John Wiley & Sons, New York.

ISBN 0-471-42550-8

QE433.H87 552'.0028


and references therein.

--
Bernhardt Saini-Eidukat
Dept. of Geosciences
North Dakota State University
Fargo, ND 58105









From: waheeschen-at-dow.com (Bill Heeschen (517)636-4005 Materials/ASL)
Date: Wed, 12 Jan 1994 15:12:08 -0500
Subject: Re: tem-newe

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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John:

A quick note regarding the AV Macs:

On the NIH-Image mailing list, many, many postings have gone through with the
general concensus being that the AV input on the Macs was not intended for
scientific quality. There are a number of high-quality frame grabbers for 640
x 480 pixel pictures (e.g., Scion LG-3 at 301-695-7870, Data Translation
QuickCapture at 508-481-3700, Perceptics at 615-966-9200, others) as well as
some higher-end systems for cooled CCDs, etc. There are also some slow-scan
TEM interfaces for the Mac (Gatan, 4pi Analysis at 919-489-1757 for STEM,
others). There has been considerably less discussion about the video output.
If this is the issue, someone else should comment.

As for image analysis software, there are a number of packages ranging from
classical microscopic image analysis to part inspection on assembly lines. My
choices are NIH Image (free from NIH via anonymous FTP to zippy.nimh.nih.gov)
for workhorse viewing and automation as well as "simple" particle analysis and
PrismView (marketed by Signal Analytics 703-281-3277) for high-end work. NIH
Image is quick to learn, readily extensible and is extremely popular with its
infinite return-on-investment! There are other systems as well.

These vendor lists are NOT exhaustive. If you can download NIH Image,
appendices B,C, and D are a little more exhaustive for Mac imaging vendors.

Bill
==========================
Bill Heeschen / Analytical Sciences - Materials Characterization
1897-D Building / The Dow Chemical Company
Midland, MI 48667 U.S.A.
phone: (517)636-4005 fax: (517)636-5453
Email: waheeschen-at-dow.com
==========================




From: mezy301-at-utxvms.cc.utexas.edu (Peter Joyce)
Date: Wed, 12 Jan 1994 15:16:06 -0600 (CST)
Subject: RE: tem-newe

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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}
} As for image analysis software, there are a number of packages ranging from
} classical microscopic image analysis to part inspection on assembly lines. My
} choices are NIH Image (free from NIH via anonymous FTP to zippy.nimh.nih.gov)
} for workhorse viewing and automation as well as "simple" particle analysis and
} PrismView (marketed by Signal Analytics 703-281-3277) for high-end work. NIH
} Image is quick to learn, readily extensible and is extremely popular with its
} infinite return-on-investment! There are other systems as well.
}
} These vendor lists are NOT exhaustive. If you can download NIH Image,
} appendices B,C, and D are a little more exhaustive for Mac imaging vendors.
}
} Bill


Another note regarding easy info on NIH Image, subscribe to the mailing
list located on nih-image-at-soils.umn.edu. They're alll the time fielding
most any question you can think of, including questions regrading
PrismView. If it's too much to subscribe, post your question anyway and
have replies sent directly to you. Good luck.

P. Joyce






From: jester-at-crnjjsgi.swmed.edu (James V. Jester)
Date: Wed, 12 Jan 1994 16:44:07 -0600
Subject: Image Analysis Software

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I was wondering if there was a software package similar to NIH-Image
that will run on the IBM or Silicon Graphics workstation that one can
get through ftp.

Jamie





From: dcb-at-electron.ph.unimelb.edu.au (David Bell)
Date: Thu, 13 Jan 1994 15:45:52 +1000
Subject: Help need some Ti2O3

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I need a small sample of Ti203 for some microscopy
work I'm doing. It's only a really small amount needed
so If someone has some that they can give me I would
be most appreciative,
failing that does anyone know of a supplier?

Thanks
David


--
----------------------------------------------------------------------
David Bell |E-mail: dcb-at-electron.ph.unimelb.edu.au
School of Physics |Phone : +61 3 344 5451
The University of Melbourne |Fax : +61 3 344 4783
Parkville, Victoria, AUST, 3052 |




From: COOK-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov (Russell E. Cook)
Date: Thu, 13 Jan 1994 09:34:22 -0600
Subject: Titanium oxide

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Here is a supplier for Ti2O3, otherwise known as titanium (III) oxide:
AESAR/Johnson Matthey
30 Bond Street
P.O. Box 8247
Ward Hill, MA 01835-0747
(800) 343-1990
(508) 521-6300.
You should be able to get 50 grams for about $50.






From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Thu, 13 Jan 1994 9:41:53 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Imaging Programs via FTP for the PC.

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J. Ester asked
} I was wondering if there was a software package similar to NIH-Image
} that will run on the IBM or Silicon Graphics workstation that one can
} get through ftp

There is no equivalent for NIH Image that will run on the PC. The
closest thing (and it's not close) is NCSA Image fro the National Center
for Supercomputing Applications at the Univ. of Ill. It is available
via FTP. Their address is "ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu". NIH Image as I understand
from Wayne Rasband (the author at NIH) will be ported to the PowerPC when
he gets a unit. So those of you who are tied to PC will be able
to run as long as you run the machine in it's Mac Compatible Mode instead
of the PC Compatible Mode.

-----------------

Nestor J. Zaluzec
ANL EMCenter





From: chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU (John Chandler)
Date: Thu, 13 Jan 1994 09:27:00 -0700
Subject: Freeze Fracture Course Announcement

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FREEZE FRACTURE COURSE

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO

July 11-15, 1994


The CSU Electron Microscopy Center in the Department of Anatomy and
Neurobiology offers an intensive course in freeze-fracture and freeze-etch
techniques for research scientists and senior technicians.

Basic and advanced freeze-fracture and freeze-etch techniques will be
taught in five days of concentrated lectures and laboratory sessions (12-15
hr/day). Advanced techniques will include sequential confocal
mapping/freeze-fracture examination of identified cells in tissue slices.
This course will prepare research scientists and laboratory technicians to
use freeze-fracture techniques in cell biology research. No previous
freeze-fracture experience is necessary, but the individual must be
proficient in transmission electron microscopy.

Participants will prepare high-resolution replicas of their own specimens,
become proficient at interpreting the resulting images, and learn to
prepare and label their own stereoscopic micrographs. Faculty and
participants will discuss the physical and chemical bases for interpreting
freeze-etch replicas, the major sources of specimen preparation artifacts,
and the unique advantages and limitations of freeze-fracture and
freeze-etch techniques. Methods for reducing specimen contamination during
the fracturing and replication processes, as well as techniques for
identifying, fracturing, and mapping individual cells in tissue slices,
will be described.

This course is organized by Drs. John Rash, John Walrond, Robert Lee and
John Chandler in collaboration with major instrument manufacturers.

Freeze-fracture/freeze-etch equipment used in the course includes: Balzers
BAF-301 and BAF- 400, JEOL JFD-9010-CR and additional rapid freeze and
freeze-etch devices supplied by RMC, Inc. and Bal-Tec, Inc. Molecular
Dynamics multi-probe 2001 confocal laser scanning microscope will be used.

Registration fee of $1250 includes textbook, laboratory instruction manual,
all necessary supplies and implements, noon meals, refreshments, EM
negatives and prints, and unlimited use of equipment during the course.

Information concerning this course, hotel accommodations and travel
arrangements may be obtained from:

Eileen Diepenbrock
Colorado State University
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology
Fort Collins, CO 80523
(303) 491-5847
ediepenbrock-at-vines.colostate.edu

Registration closes May 15, 1994

Course registration will be for a minimum of 10 and maximum of 12 participants.

John chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU Fort Collins, CO





From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Thu, 13 Jan 1994 17:17:35 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Microscopy Positions?

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Fellow subscribers:

I've had multiple requests lately for permission to post resume's and
job "hunting notices" on this listserver. As we set forth early in the setup
of this discussion/information forum that type of posting
is not appropriate here. However, I realize that with the current
budget situations across the country & world there will be a significant
number of highly talented individuals looking for positions in the
near term. Allow me then to remind all of you that should
you have acess to information concerning research/teaching positions
this type of BULLETIN/ANNOUNCEMENT is allowed on the Mailserver and
I would encourage you to post it. If you are not sure about
any posting feel free to Email it directly to me and I will review
it's appropriateness.

Individuals interested in posting (SHORT) electronic resume's
are welcome to access the ANLEMC/MSA electronic bulletin board.
It can be reached via INTERNET/TELNET link at the address:
ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV, login with the username EMCBBS and password
EMCBBS then follow directions on the screen. Please note that
there is only a single connection from INTERNET to this BBS line
and that the line may be in use. Pay attention to any messages on
your terminal when you login this will clue you in to what is
happening....

Nestor Zaluzec
Zaluzec-at-ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV
ANL EMCenter
Microscopy Mailserver SysOp.





From: Charles.P.Daghlian-at-Dartmouth.EDU (Charles P. Daghlian)
Date: 13 Jan 94 11:09:14 EST
Subject: Digital TEM

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I received a copy of your response to John L. Grazul regarding
digital TEM.
We are using a system consisting of a Gatan wide angle video camera
(model
673mkIII ), a Dage video processor (DSP200), Quick Capture board and
a MacII
running NIH-Image. The combination yields 640x480 images directly
from the
microscope. With the frame processor we can average frames
(2,4,8,16,32) and
adjust the gain and offset of the video signal so the Mac receives a
full
range signal. I have written some macros for Image to permit rapid
specimen
ID, magnification setting and storage. Folders of images are then
sent over
the network to the pathologist's desk.

We have found that the images are sufficient for diagnostic purposes
and have
begun to shift to electronic imaging.

The images are NOT the quality of film, but the cost for the system
is low
(NIH Image is free and VERY good). My concern was (and is) that with
a slow
scan system the increased cost doesn't really get you that much more
in terms
of resolution (maybe twice the resolution for lots more money). The
microscope has such excess magnification that it is much cheaper to
acquire
multiple images at higher magnification (and hence greater
resolution) than
it is to purchase a slow scan camera and the associated software
drivers. My
thought is that if you want film-like resolution you should take
micrographs
and either print them or digitize the negative with a flatbed or drum
scanner
for image analysis. If all you want to do is some image analysis, it
is
entirely possible that a 640x480 image will be sufficient.

Feel free to forward this to Grazul and others on whatever mail list
or news
group you are on.

I would be interested to learn how you are using your system.

Charles Daghlian
Rippel E. M. Facility
Dartmouth College
Hanover, NH 03755
603-650-1337






From: waheeschen-at-dow.com (Bill Heeschen (517)636-4005 PMRC/ASL)
Date: Thu, 13 Jan 1994 08:29:59 -0500
Subject: NIH Image subscription instructions

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Steve (and others)

To subscribe to the NIH Image mailing list, send a note starting with the
subscription request to the list server:

List server address: listserv-at-soils.umn.edu

subscription request: subscribe NIH-Image yourname-at-your.address

The list administrator is John Ladwig (jladwig-at-soils.umn.edu), but don't bug
him until you've tried the above instructions! 8-)

As many of you list participants are aware, there is movement afoot to set up a
NewsGroup which will be a superset of both the nih-image and microscopy lists.
As this develops, there will be postings to both lists describing how/when this
happens.

Bill
==========================
Bill Heeschen / Analytical Sciences - Materials Characterization
1897-D Building / The Dow Chemical Company
Midland, MI 48667 U.S.A.
phone: (517)636-4005 fax: (517)636-5453
Email: waheeschen-at-dow.com
==========================




From: SPIE Staff :      spie-at-mom.spie.org
Date: Fri, 14 Jan 1994 09:37:28 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Microscopy Related Short Courses

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Microscopy Related Short Courses at:

Microlithography
----------------

Part of SPIE's Thematic Applied Science and Engineering Series

27 February * 4 March 1994
Fairmont Hotel
San Jose, California, USA
============================================================

--------
Contents
--------

Microscopy Related Educational Short Courses
Other Short Courses at Microlithography
Technical Conferences
How to Receive More Information


--------------------------------------------
Microscopy Related Educational Short Courses
--------------------------------------------

* SC12 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscope

Instructor: Yves Martin, IBM Corp.

SPIE Member $140 Half-day Course
Working Group Member $150 1:30 to 5:30 pm
Nonmember $165 Wednesday Afternoon 2 March


* SC13 Scanning Electron Microscopy-Basic Principles of
Secondary Electron and Backscattered Electron Imaging

Instructor: Oliver C. Wells, IBM Research Div.

SPIE Member $140 Half-day Course
Working Group Member $150 8:30 am to 12:30 pm
Nonmember $165 Thursday Morning 3 March


---------------------------------------
Other Short Courses at Microlithography
---------------------------------------


Advanced Technologies
---------------------

* SC1 X-Ray Lithography
Instructor: Franco Cerrina, Univ. of Wisconsin/Madison

* SC2 Introduction to Electron-Beam Lithography
Instructor: Geraint Owen, Hewlett-Packard Co.

* SC3 Ion Projection Lithography
Instructor: John C. Wolfe, Univ. of Houston

Resists
-------

* SC4 Introduction to Microlithography, Resist Materials and
Processing
Instructors: Larry F. Thompson, AT&T Bell Labs.; Murrae J.
Bowden, Bell Communications Research, Inc.; C.
G. Willson, Univ. of Texas/Austin

* SC5 Optical Lithography Modeling
Instructors: Chris A. Mack, FINLE Technologies, Inc.;
Andrew R. Neureuther, Univ. of
California/Berkeley

* SC6 Resist Thickness, Bake, Exposure, and Development Control
Instructor: W. Tom Batchelder, Semiconductor Systems, Inc.

* SC7 Resists for Deep-UV Lithography
Instructor: C. Grant Willson, Univ. of Texas/Austin

* SC8 Diazonaphthoquinone-Based Resists
Instructor: Ralph Dammel, Hoechst Celanese Corp.

Metrology & Process Control
---------------------------

* SC9 IC Critical Dimension Measurement System
Instructors: Sadri Khalessi, Metrologix, Inc.; Kevin M.
Monahan, Metrologix, Inc.

* SC10 Fundamentals and Pitfalls of Submicrometer Dimensional
Metrology
Instructor: Terrence E. Zavecz, TEA Systems Corp.

* SC11 The Physics and Simulation of Metrology Instruments
Instructor: Mark P. Davidson, Spectel Co.

* SC14 The Use of the Low-Voltage SEM in IC Fabrication
Instructor: Michael G. Rosenfield, IBM Thomas J. Watson
Research Ctr.

Microlithography
----------------

* SC15 Advanced Topics in Optical Lithography
Instructor: Chris A. Mack, FINLE Technologies, Inc.

* SC16 Fundamentals of Cameras and Projectors
Instructor: Warren J. Smith, Kaiser Electro-Optics, Inc.

* SC17 Introduction to Optical Lithographic Tools
Instructor: Timothy A. Brunner, IBM Thomas J. Watson
Research Ctr.

* SC18 Plasma Etching Technology
Instructor: Daniel L. Flamm, Univ. of California/Berkeley

* SC19 The Exposure-Defocus Tree and Its Uses in Understanding
and Extending Optical Lithography
Instructor: Burn J. Lin, Linnovation, Inc.

* SC20 Optimization Methods for Microlithographic Materials and
Processes
Instructor: Daniel J. Herr, Semiconductor Research Corp.


---------------------
Technical Conferences
---------------------

* SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2194: Electron-Beam, X-Ray, and Ion-Beam
Submicrometer Lithographies for
Manufacturing IV

* SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2195: Advances in Resist Technology and
Processing X

* SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2196: Integrated Circuit Metrology,
Inspection, and Process Control VIII

* SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2197: Optical/Laser Microlithography VII


-------------------------------
How to Receive More Information
-------------------------------

The complete text of the printed advance technical program for
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From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Fri, 14 Jan 1994 15:33:26 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Electronic Digital Imaging Info Source

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From: Donald L. Grimes :      74250.331-at-CompuServe.COM
Date: 15 Jan 94 09:55:34 EST
Subject: New Messages

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All Subscribers:

Don Grimes of Microscopy Today has sent the enclosed message along
to me for approval for posting on the Microscopy Mailserver. I
do not have a problem with it as it is a general announcement
meant as a service to Microscopists who will be looking for jobs.

*****************************************************************
Please make sure that you reply to Don Grimes at
his Email "74250.331-at-CompuServe.COM" and not to this Mailserver.
*****************************************************************




To: Membership

Thanks to many for your interest and comments regarding our
newsletter. Several have inquired over the possibility of our assisting
in their search for new employment. I have previously not done this as it
does not quite meet my objective as "material of interest to a reasonable
number of microscopists". However I would like to try to help.
If you seek new employment and would like to provide me a summary
of either "what" you are or "what" you are looking for, I will publish the
summary in my next issue. I only ask that you keep the summary under
around 60 words and I MUST have it no later than this coming Friday (21
Jan) to make the issue.
And if you wish to keep your name "quiet", we can do the Box #
thing - where a number rather than your name is listed, and I will forward
any interests direct to you.
I expect that my newsletter is received in 99+% of the microscopy
labs in the U.S. but can not guarantee that it goes to the right person.

Good Luck -
Don Grimes, Microscopy Today





From: Glen Macdonald :      glenmac-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Sat, 15 Jan 1994 08:30:18 -0800 (PST)
Subject: More on Quantitative Morph. tutorial (fwd)

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X-Sender: glenmac-at-carson.u.washington.edu



Due to the number of replies to the attached message here is more info.
The QM2000 tutorial runs on DOS and Windows. Its development platform is
due out for the Mac and Unix, so there may be ports to those operating
systems. Dr. Bolender has released a quantitative morphometry
dataabase for the nervous system, developed with Sybase, running on a
Sparc.

A summer quarter course in quantitative morphometry will probably be
taught here this summer.

For more information:
Dr. Robert Bolender
Dept. Biological Structure SM-20
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195
rpb-at-u.washington.edu

******old message
There is a tutorial on quantitative morphometry written by Dr. Robert
Bolender, Dept. Biological Structure at Univ. Washington. It also
provides templates for point and intersect counts and for QM computations.
It is available from the Health Sciences Center for Educational Resources,
University of Washington SB-56, Seattle, Washington, 98195 (206) 685-1156.

Dr. Bolender teaches a course on QM in even years.

Glen MacDonald
Hearing Development Laboratories RL-30
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195
(206)543-8360
glenmac-at-u.washington.edu






From: GWDGV1::JMASER :      jmaser-at-gwdgv1.dnet.gwdg.de
Date: Fri, 14 Jan 1994 21:18:11 +0100
Subject: EM practical courses

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Dear P. Webster,

I will am about to start as a postdoctoral scientist working with Prof. Kirz at
the State University of New York at Stony Brook/Brookhaven National Laboratory
in the field of x-ray microscopy. I am very interested in your EM-course on
Immunocytochemistry and Cryosectioning. Please let me know what I need in order
to apply. Sincerely, Joerg Maser




From: slc6-at-Lehigh.EDU (SHARON L. COE)
Date: Mon, 17 Jan 1994 17:52:37 EST
Subject: Faculty Opening at Lehigh University

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Message-Id: {9401172207.AA09827-at-owl.INS.CWRU.Edu}

The Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Lehigh University has
an opening for a senior (associate/full) professor with expertise in electron
microscopy and/or microanalysis (SEM, TEM, AEM, etc.). The successful
candidate must have a proven record of research in the application of
microscopy and/or microanalysis to the solution of materials problems and be
able to conduct independent and cooperative research in MS&E. Ability to
teach undergraduate and graduate courses in microscopy and materials is
essential. Experience in running a microscopy facility will be an advantage.
Position available September 1, 1994.

Curriculum vitae and the names of three references should be sent by May 15,
1994 to:
Professor David B. Williams
Chairman, Search Committee
Dept. of Materials Science and Eng.
Lehigh University
5 East Packer Avenue
Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195

Lehigh University is an equal opportunnity employer and welcomes applications
from all qualified candidates.




From: slc6-at-Lehigh.EDU (SHARON L. COE)
Date: Mon, 17 Jan 1994 18:04:34 EST
Subject: Summer courses in Microscopy

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Message-Id: {199401172304.AA45895-at-ns2.CC.Lehigh.EDU}

1994 Lehigh Microscopy Short Courses
June 13-24, 1994

Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis (June 13-17, 1994)

Advanced Scanning Imaging (June 20-23, 1994)

Quantitative X-ray Microanalysis of Bulk Specimens and Particles (June 20-23,
1994)

Microcharacterization of Electron Materials, Devices, and Packages (June
20-23, 1994)

STM, AFM, and Other Scannned Probe Microscopies (June 21-24, 1994)

Analytical Electron Microscopy (June 20-23, 1994)

For more information please e-mail a response with subject "Short Course Info"
to Sharon Coe at slc6-at-lehigh.edu or call 610/758-5133.

If you e-mail, please leave name and postal address and I will send you a
brochure and registration form.
and registration form.




From: rsartore-at-monmouth-etdl1.army.mil (Sartore, Richard G.)
Date: Tue, 18 Jan 1994 10:38 +0000
Subject:

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RIE Etching

Thanks to B.Miner for forwarding the useful comments from
P.Catinella and B.Edwards on RIE etching on microelectronic
devices.

One other question that I would like to direct to them or other
interested parties would be the requirement for installing a
"scrubber" on the exhaust fumes from the RIE. We are working up a
estimate for the possible total cost of
purchasing/operating/maintaining a plasma etcher in our laborato-
ry. The requirement for a "scrubber" on the exhaust has been
mentioned as a possibile environmental requirement. I have spoken
to some manufactures and they don't use scubbers due to low flow
rates in their machines and small quantities of gas involved.

Thanks again.

Richard Sartore
US Army Research LAboratory
AMSRL-EP-RA
Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703
RSARTORE-at-MONMOUTH-ETDL1.ARMY.MIL









From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Tue, 18 Jan 1994 11:36:23 -0600 (CST)
Subject: International Copies of Microscopy Today

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To Membership,
International (or local) readers who wish to receive a no cost
copy of our newsletter "Microscopy Today" and are having trouble
contacting me, as I am on Compuserve, are encouraged to do so by FAX. My
number is (608)836-1969.
And the several who have requested the newsletter but did not
supply their addresses are encouraged to resent their requests.

Regards, Don Grimes
Microscopy Today





From: Jan Markus Levlin :      jlevlin-at-leka.hut.fi
Date: Wed, 19 Jan 1994 17:21:13 +0200 (EET)
Subject: Q: Image processing progs on PC?

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Dear netters,

We have a Nanoscope III here, and would like to study the images
off-line on another pc. Does anyone know good image analysing &
processing programs for the PC? Basic filtering and measurement
functions (cross sections etc) are a must.

I've heard names like Global Lab Image, Mocha, Image Pro Plus. Any
experiences on these? Where to take contact: companies, addresses, fax
numbers?

Thanks in advance,

Markus Levlin

--
Markus Levlin Laboratory of Physics tel +358 0 451 3144
markus.levlin-at-hut.fi Helsinki University of Technology fax +358 0 451 3116
Otakaari 1 M, 02150 Espoo, Finland




From: rsartore-at-monmouth-etdl1.army.mil (Sartore, Richard G.)
Date: Wed, 19 Jan 1994 09:46 +0000
Subject: SCRUBBER FOR RIE ETCHING

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Message-Id: {Chameleon.940119100026.tonygr-at-emlab.mit.edu}

SCRUBBER for RIE Etching

Thanks to B.Miner for forwarding the useful comments from
P.Catinella and B.Edwards on RIE etching microelectronic
devices.

One other question that I would like to direct to them or other
interested parties would be the requirement for installing a
"scrubber" on the exhaust fumes from the RIE. We are working up a
estimate for the possible total cost of
purchasing/operating/maintaining a plasma etcher in our laborato-
ry. The requirement for a "scrubber" on the exhaust has been
mentioned as a possibile environmental requirement. I have spoken
to some manufactures and they don't use scubbers due to low flow
rates in their machines and small quantities of gas involved.

Thanks again.

Richard Sartore
US Army Research LAboratory
AMSRL-EP-RA
Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703
RSARTORE-at-MONMOUTH-ETDL1.ARMY.MIL








From: p8443882-at-cumulus.csd.unsw.OZ.AU (David Orlovich)
Date: Thu, 20 Jan 1994 21:53:28 +1000
Subject: Re: TEM:biol:cells on glass coverslips

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Dear Tamara Howard,
I'm not sure if this is exactly what you are looking
for but I have seen people in Jeremy Pickett-Heaps' lab at Melb. Uni.
use teflon powder to coat glass slides before embedding between them.
They don't actually grow the cells on the slides but just use them
for thin layer embedding of algae in Spurr's. I'm not sure where teflon powder
comes from - sorry. Can you grow the cells on plastic coverslips that you can
section? I too have experienced having coverslips smashing instead
of peeling nicely from the resin and actually found patience, practice
and the gentle persuasion of a single-edged razor blade angled down
between the glass and the resin to yield enough glass-free resin + cells
to make it worth the trouble.
David Orlovich.




From: Rodney L Kuehn-1 :      kuehn002-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu
Date: Thu, 20 Jan 1994 06:31:38 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Re: TEM:biol:cells on glass coverslips

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Tamara,
Try growing your cells on Permanox plastic dishes. The plastic is
resistant to ethanol, acetone and resin and the polymerized resin is
easily separated from the petri dish as long as the resin isn't too thick.
I usually use a resin layer of about half a mm.
If you need to use glass coverslips, you can try pushing the still-warm
coverslip against a block of dry ice. The differential contraction rates
will sometimes free the resin but it isn't 100% effective.

Rod Kuehn
University of Minnesota

On Wed, 19 Jan 1994, Tamara Howard wrote:

} Does anyone have any experience with cell monolayers grown on glass coverslips?
} I've seen a method reported where you coat the coverslip with carbon before
} adding the cells; this is supposed to allow the resin to be stripped from the
} glass for sectioning. Does it work? We thought the regular culture
} substrates would allow release, but the glass just breaks when we try to "peel"
} the resin away. Any suggestions would be VERY HELPFUL...I'm trying to section
} glass, now.
} Thanks!
} Tamara Howard
} Pitt Med/Pathology
} Pittsburgh, Pa
} tah-at-med.pitt.edu






From: Phil Oshel :      PO-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu
Date: 20 Jan 94 08:16:59 CST6CDT
Subject: Re: SCRUBBER FOR RIE ETCHING

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Message-Id: {24012006582465-at-vms2.macc.wisc.edu}

} One other question that I would like to direct to them or other
} interested parties would be the requirement for installing a
} "scrubber" on the exhaust fumes from the RIE.
} ...The requirement for a "scrubber" on the exhaust has been
} mentioned as a possibile environmental requirement. I have spoken
} to some manufactures and they don't use scubbers due to low flow
} rates in their machines and small quantities of gas involved.
}
} Thanks again.
}
} Richard Sartore
} US Army Research LAboratory
} AMSRL-EP-RA
} Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703
} RSARTORE-at-MONMOUTH-ETDL1.ARMY.MIL

The requirement for a scubber is more likely to be a matter of
law and agency regs (military regs in your case) than real need, BUT
it may also depend on what's coming off of the targets. The gas would
be no trouble (so the manufacturers aren't going to worry about it),
but if you're etching something like Gallium Arsenide semiconductors,
there'll be reactive arsenic ions and the like coming out; that could
be a problem.
Scrubbing should be easily and cheaply done be bubbling the
exhaust through distilled water (with maybe cotton batting in the
outlet to make sure), which would be then disposed of by the usual
regs for chemical waste.
Phil Oshel
po-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu




From: Paul Webster :      Paul_Webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 20 Jan 1994 09:29:45 -0500
Subject: Re: TEM biol. cells on glass

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Re} TEM biol. cells on glass
Tamara,
I assume that you must embed the cells as a monolayer so that you can either
orientate them or locate specific cells. If so, then you can take any of the
blocks that you have already embedded, place them in liquid nitrogen and then
warm them up. Repeated cycles of cooling and warming will crack the glass and
will often cause it to shoot off the plastic. You must remove all resin from
the top side of the block beforehand and be careful that the glass pieces do
not get into your eyes. We use this method routinely to locate, and section,
single cells that have been microinjected. The cells are grown on a locator
slide and the pattern is transferred to the resin. You can help the glass
removal by scoring the coverslip with a diamond before cooling and do not worry
if the resin breaks. You will usually be able to find what you want amongst
the pieces.

Cutting plastic coverslips is not easy, but a viable alternative to consider,
if you only want orientation, is to grow the cells on the special filters
produced by Costar and Falcon. These embed well and can be sectioned in resin.
They are more difficult to cut cryosection from, but even this is possible.

If you only want a pellet of cells then it is better to grow them in plastic
dishes. You can remove them, before fixation, by treating them with proteinase
K, and after fixation by scraping with either a soft wooden or teflon scraper
(not the normal cell scrapers that are available).

Good Luck

Paul Webster
Yale School of Medicine
(203) 785 5072.






From: Ian Harper :      IHARPER-at-eagle.mrc.ac.za
Date: Thu, 20 Jan 1994 18:03:43 GMT-0200
Subject: TEM:biol:cells on glass coverslips

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Message-ID: {MAILQUEUE-101.940120180343.416-at-eagle.mrc.ac.za}

Tamara Howard asks about stripping processed cells off glass
coverslips, and suggests using carbon coated coverslips.

I have 3 suggestions:

1. I seem to recall seeing a paper/idea/suggestion once somewhere
(???...) that rapid temperature changes at the glass resin
interface will help break off the coverslip cleanly. Place a solid
(pre-filled with resin and then polymerized) gelatin/Beem
capsule over the cells on the coverslip and then polymerize
them, attaching the cells to the capsule. Later, rapidly cool the
coverslip, twisting the beem capsule. Play around, and let me know
what works ! ***
ONE ADVANTAGE: You could also first polymerize the cells
between 2 coverslips (the one that it was grown on, and the other
greased with vaseline so that it can easily be disloged after
polym.), so that you could observe the cells clearly under phase
contrast, mark the cells of interest, and finally place a solid resin
capsule over the marked area, thus selecting the cells of
interest.

2. Use propylene oxide (PO). This works like a dream when processing
cells in plastic culture dishes: do all your processing for TEM right
up to full dehydration with ethanol in the dishes. Monolayers process
(fixation and dehydration) very quickly, and so it is a real easy
technique to try. Decant the 100% ethanol from the dish, then
quickly pour on pure PO, gently tilt the dish once or
twice, and as the plastic of the dish starts to dissolve, the whole
monolayer "peels off" and can be decanted into a suitable tube
or small vial. Replace PO with the first change of resin, and carry
on, embedding the mat of cells, perhaps using gentle centrifugation
for the pure resin changes. Dave Sanan, now somewhere in California
(give me a call, man!) first showed me this trick.

Perhaps the PO could even lift monolayers off the glass ? Would
certainly work for plastic coverslips.

3. Hydrofluoric acid. Here's the real McCoy! Ref: J. Microsc. 104: 205-
207. Use hydrofluoric acid to etch away the coverslips, leaving the
resin and cells behind. Be real careful as HFA is very corrosive. Work
in a polyethylene or polytetrafluoroethylene dish in a fumehood.

Good luck

Ian


*********** ************
Dr Ian S Harper Int. Tel #: 27-21 938 0347
Experimental Biology Programme Int. Fax #: 27-21 938 0456
Medical Research Council Internet: iharper-at-eagle.mrc.ac.za
PO Box 19070 Tygerberg, 7505
South Africa
*****************************************






From: rsartore
Date: Wednesday, 19 January 1994 9:46AM
Subject: SCRUBBER FOR RIE ETCHING

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SCRUBBER for RIE Etching

Thanks to B.Miner for forwarding the useful comments from
P.Catinella and B.Edwards on RIE etching microelectronic
devices.

One other question that I would like to direct to them or other
interested parties would be the requirement for installing a
"scrubber" on the exhaust fumes from the RIE. We are working up a
estimate for the possible total cost of
purchasing/operating/maintaining a plasma etcher in our laborato-
ry. The requirement for a "scrubber" on the exhaust has been
mentioned as a possibile environmental requirement. I have spoken
to some manufactures and they don't use scubbers due to low flow
rates in their machines and small quantities of gas involved.

Thanks again.

Richard Sartore
US Army Research LAboratory
AMSRL-EP-RA
Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703
RSARTORE-at-MONMOUTH-ETDL1.ARMY.MIL

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------
Richard,
If you are only dealing with a low volume of gas and you have a fume hood
near by then you can do as we do exhaust fumes through there as most fume
hoods, I would imagine, have a scrubber attached.

we only use plasma etching techniques for "deprossessing" integrated
circuits for failure analysis so our gas flow is minimal.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
--

Dr. Richard Thornton Telephone: (03) 253 6475
Semiconductor Failure Analysis and Reliability,
Optoelectronics Section, Fax. (03) 253 6664
Telecom Australia Research Labs.,
770 Blackburn Rd., email: r.thornton-at-trl.oz.au
Clayton 3168,
Australia.
---------






From: Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers :      GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Date: Fri, 21 Jan 1994 09:05:27 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Fw: monolayer cells

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Subj: monolayer cells

For embedding monolayers we have been growing cells on a polymer film
in place of glass cover slips. It is called Aclar and is available (in large
quantities only) from ProPlastics, Linden NJ. It is optically very clear
and separates easily from all embedding resins. It is apparently a Teflon-
like substance. I was required to purchase more than a lifetime supply, so
anyone who would like to try a sample should contact me. Not all cell lines
will grow on the naked stuff. Some require a collagen coat and others never
grow at all as they do on polystyrene dishes. or glass.

Greg Erdos

*****************************
* Greg Erdos *
* Director, ICBR EMCL *
* University of Florida *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 *
* gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* 904-392-1295 *
*****************************
*****************************
* Greg Erdos *
* Director, ICBR EMCL *
* University of Florida *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 *
* gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* 904-392-1295 *
*****************************




From: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
Date: Fri, 21 Jan 1994 14:26:58 +0000
Subject: RMS BURSARIES

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Sender: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
74250.331-at-COMPUSERVE.COM, ROSS.MACKENZIE-at-OX.AC.UK,
MICROSCOPY-at-ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV
Message-ID: {00978DF2.0AFBD966.25452-at-vax.ox.ac.uk}

FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY

Something for Nothing! Bursaries Bursaries Bursaries
************************************************************************
Over many years it has never ceased to amaze me that RMS bursaries, to help
eligible people attend meetings or courses, are not snapped up. It has
even been known for them not to be fully taken up by the date of the
sponsored event. Although admittedly the value of the bursary may not
cover all of the expenses incurred in attending an event, they can be very
useful primers in persuading other sponsors to make a contribution.
Anyway, we announce here, bursaries for events in 1994.

RMS International Bursaries in Microscopy
************************************************************************
The RMS International Bursaries are intended to help young microscopists
working outside Western Europe to attend RMS Courses or Conferences. The
awards will be made to help with the registration and accommodation costs
but it will not normally be possible to help with the cost of travel to the
United Kingdom. The Society will offer up to six Bursaries annually and
it is unlikely that any single award will exceed œ250. There are no strict
rules or definite age limits but it is likely that they will be made to
assist young scientists who would otherwise be unable to attend the Course
or Conference. The Bursaries are not limited to Fellows or Student Members
of the RMS, but it is unlikely that an award will be made to an Applicant
currently working in North America or Japan.

The application for an RMS bursary can be made at any time, but should be
made as far in advance of the Course or Conference as possible. The
application should include details of the Course or Conference to be
attended, a copy of any abstract(s) to be submitted and also a copy of the
Applicant's Curriculum Vitae and publication list (if appropriate). The
application should be accompanied by a letter of support from the
Applicant's Head of Department or from a Fellow of the Royal Microscopical
Society.

It is expected that the Applicant will have made efforts to find funding
from elsewhere and he/she will be expected to show that such an application
has been made - even if it was not successful.

RMS Bursaries in Microscopy
************************************************************************
The RMS bursaries will only be available to Fellows or Student Members of
the Society. Non-members of the RMS are not eligible. The awards will be
made to help with the registration costs of a Course or Conference, but it
will not normally be possible to help with the cost of travel or
accommodation. There are no definite age limits, but it is likely that
they will be made to assist young microscopists who would otherwise be
unable to attend. It is unlikely that any single award will exceed œ250
nor be made to an Applicant currently working in North America or Japan.

The application for an RMS bursary can be made at any time, but should be
made as far in advance of the Course or Conference as possible as funding
may be limited and to allow for fair refereeing of the applications.

It is expected that the Applicant will have made efforts to find funding
from elsewhere and he/she will be expected to show that such an application
has been made - even if it was not successful.

Applicants are advised that preferential consideration will be given to
DipRMS and TechRMS candidates and those who have no financial support from
their employer or other source. Please note that each application must be
endorsed by the Applicant's Head of Department or employer.

The names of the successful Applicants will be published in the RMS
Proceedings.

Application Forms for RMS Bursaries are available from: The Administrator,
Royal Microscopical Society, 37/38 St Clements, Oxford OX4 1AJ, United
Kingdom. Completed applications must be returned to the Administrator at the
same address.





From: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
Date: Fri, 21 Jan 1994 14:30:36 +0000
Subject: RMS Light Microscopy Summer School, Leeds, UK

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74250.331-at-COMPUSERVE.COM, ROSS.MACKENZIE-at-OX.AC.UK,
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ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY

SUMMER SCHOOL IN LIGHT MICROSCOPY

UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS

17 - 22 July 1994

Coordinator: P. J. Evennett - University of Leeds

****************************************************************

The Summer School in Light Microscopy for 1994 will be organised
on a modular basis, as in 1993, to allow flexibility in matching
the needs and interests of participants to the subject matter
provided, and to make it possible to include minor or specialist
topics for which the demand might not justify the provision of
separate courses. These topics can be offered in conjunction
with others and thereby share the availability of instructors and
expensive up-to-date equipment. There will be evening lectures
and discussions to obtain the best use of the time available, and
the numbers of participants will be strictly limited.

The first three days (Sunday evening to Wednesday evening), the
Principles of Light Microscopy module will consist of lectures,
demonstrations and practical classes on the fundamental aspects
of light microscopy and the various imaging and contrast modes
which can be used in the observation and characterisation of
biological specimens, polymers, ceramics, minerals and metals.
This module will cover the basic concepts of all forms of
microscopy, leading on to the functioning and limitations of the
light microscope, and introducing techniques for enhancing
contrast. Practical work will make use of a variety of types of
microscope from the major manufacturers, and the module will
provide a practical understanding of the phenomena which lie
behind the principles and practice of light microscopy.

From Thursday morning, the course will be divided into three
specialist modules from which participants may select.
Analytical and Applied Microscopy is an extension of the
Principles module, these two together covering approximately the
same ground as our former one-week Principles course. It will
build on the topics covered in the Principles module and will
show how they may be applied in practice. This will assist the
development of a systematic and analytical approach to
microscopy. A workshop format will enable participants to
examine and discuss the images obtained from samples which will
be provided and their own specimens, using a wide variety of
techniques. The emphasis will be on the correct adjustment of
the instruments, the strengths and weaknesses of each technique
and the interpretation of images. This module will be especially
valuable for microscopists working in industrial laboratories.

The Polarised Light module will address itself to the
interpretation of contrast, not only in ceramics and minerals,
but also in biological materials in which components of the
structure are birefringent. It will attempt to explain by the
use of simple diagrams and demonstrations, and with the minimum
use of mathematics, the colour changes which are observed, and
how contrast may be enhanced by the use of accessories. This
module is designed to be of use to biologists, materials
scientists and geologists.

In the Image Recording module it will be assumed that
participants have a thorough understanding of the techniques of
imaging and contrast enhancement. The module will include the
principles of photography and video imaging, the transfer of the
image from the microscope to the camera, and the design and
construction of image-recording equipment. Time will be
available for exposing black-and-white and colour film, which
will be processed and evaluated before the end of the module.

Participants may register for the whole week (for the Principles
module and one of the three specialist modules), for the
Principles module alone, or for one of the specialised modules
alone. Because the specialised modules are designed to build
upon the groundwork presented in the Principles module, we expect
that participants in specialised modules will normally either
attend the Principles module at the beginning of the week, or
have attended a previous RMS Light Microscopy Summer School.

We anticipate the customary extremely generous provision of
equipment and materials from the manufacturers, for all parts of
the course.


Principles of Light Microscopy
Sunday evening 17 July to Wednesday evening 20 July 1994 (a 3
day module)

**************************************************************

This module will consist of lectures, demonstrations and
practical work on:

The history of microscopy.
Introduction to microscopy.
Limitations of the eye. Resolution, Contrast, Magnification.
Interactions between light and matter. Refraction and lenses,
geometrical optics, conjugate planes.
Aperture.
Illumination of the specimen in transmitted and reflected light.

Lens aberrations and their correction; the choice of optical
components.
Diffraction and its consequences for the microscope image.
Generation of contrast.
Introduction to bright-field, dark ground, phase contrast,
polarized light, differential interference contrast and
fluorescence.

**************************************************************

Analytical and Applied Microscopy
Thursday 21 July and Friday 22 July 1994 (a 2 day module)

**************************************************************


This module will adopt a workshop approach and consist of short
informal lectures, demonstrations and practical sessions. It
will cover the correct adjustment of the microscope, the
strengths and weaknesses of each technique, and the
interpretation of images, in both transmitted and reflected
light. Participants will have the opportunity to become familiar
with techniques of their own choice according to their interests,
using where possible, their own specimens. Facilities for
specimen preparation will, however, be limited.
We expect equipment for the following techniques to be available:

Bright-field and dark-ground microscopy.
Polarized light.
Differential interference contrast.
Phase contrast.
Fluorescence.
Hoffman modulation contrast.
Interferometry.

***************************************************************

Polarized Light
Thursday 21 July and Friday 22 July (a 2 day module)

***************************************************************

This module is designed to introduce biologists, materials
scientists and geologists to the usefulness of polarized light
techniques, and will involve the minimum use of mathematics.
Lectures, demonstrations and practical work will cover the
following topics:

The nature of light and polarization.
The interaction of birefringent materials with plane-polarized
light.
Stress optical effects, the use of accessories and compensating
plates.
Minerals, ceramics, biological materials and fibres.
Reflected polarized light techniques.
Introduction to conoscopic techniques.

**************************************************************

Image Recording
Thursday 21 July and Friday 22 July (a 2 day module)

**************************************************************

This module will discuss the recording of images by drawing, by
photography and by video techniques. Equipment and materials
will be available to enable participants to record images in
black and white and colour of their own specimens and to discuss
difficulties and results.
The following topics will be covered:

Drawing, photography and video methods; an overview.
Transferring the microscope image to the film and video camera.
Monochrome and colour film; basic principles, use and
processing. Negative and reversal films. Printing.
'Instant' monochrome and colour films.
Colour temperature, light sources, films and filters.
Equipment for photomicrography; focusing and determining
exposure.
Photomacrography. Video cameras, monitors and printers.

TO OBTAIN FURTHER DETAILS OF THIS COURSE SEND AN EMAIL MESSAGE WITH YOUR
NAME AND ADDRESS TO RMS-at-UK.AC.OX.VAX, OR CONTACT THE RMS ON
TELEPHONE +44 (0)865 2488768, FAX +44 (0)865 791237.




From: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
Date: Fri, 21 Jan 1994 14:32:21 +0000
Subject: RMS ULTRASTRUCTURAL IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY COURSE

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Sender: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
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ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY

ULTRASTRUCTURAL IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY COURSE

Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton

14 - 18 November 1994



Course Organisers: Dr Paul Monaghan, Institute of Cancer Research
Dr David Robertson, Haddow Laboratories, Sutton

**************************************************************

A range of techniques have been devised for localising antigens
at the electron microscope level. One of the difficulties
commonly faced is the choice of which method to use with any
particular antigen-antibody combination. The aim of the course
is to provide a theoretical and practical introduction to the
various methods available and covers antigen location, using both
transmission and scanning electron microscopy.

The advantages and disadvantages of the various methods available
will be discussed, but the emphasis will be on the practical
aspects of the techniques and will provide experience of the
following methods: pre-embedding labelling for scanning electron
microscopy; low temperature embedding in Lowicryl resins;
preparation and labelling of both resin sections and thawed
cyrosections; rapid freezing by impact and high pressure
followed by freeze substitution and low temperature embedding;
silver enhancement of colloidal gold for light and electron
microscopy; immunolabelling of 1æm resin sections; and epi-
polarised light microscopy. Registrants are encouraged to
discuss specific problems with the course organisers and if
possible, to bring samples with them for processing and labelling
during the practical sessions, which will be supported by Leica
(UK) Ltd.

The course is primarily aimed at electron microscopists with
experience of routine processing methodology who wish to become
familiar with ultrastructural immunocytochemical labelling
techniques.

The practical nature of the course, means that numbers will be
restricted to a maximum of 10 registrants.


FOR FURTHER DETAILS CONTACT THE RMS - TELEPHONE +44 (0)865 248768, FAX +44
(0)865 791237, EMAIL RMS-at-UK.AC.OX.VAX.




From: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
Date: Fri, 21 Jan 1994 14:36:08 +0000
Subject: RMS IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY COURSE

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Sender: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
74250.331-at-COMPUSERVE.COM, ROSS.MACKENZIE-at-OX.AC.UK,
MICROSCOPY-at-ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV
Message-ID: {00978DF3.52B3B926.25629-at-vax.ox.ac.uk}

The Royal Microscopical Society

IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY COURSE

Oxford Brookes University, Oxford

4 - 9 September 1994


Course Organiser: Dr Chris Hawes, Oxford Brookes University

****************************************************************

The unprecedented upsurge in the application of
immunocytochemistry in the life sciences during the past decade
continues with increasing vigour. Both light and electron
microscopy are important techniques in routine diagnosis and
research in medicine and biology. This technology has
contributed so much towards our current understanding of the
cell, that the modern microscopist must be part immunologist as
well as being skilled in microscopy.

The underlying principles of immunocytochemistry apply equally
to light and electron microscopy. This five-day course has been
specially designed to utilise this overlap and therefore, will
be of value to both light and electron microscopists. The course
is structured towards a technical appreciation of
immunocytochemical techniques, since once they are mastered, they
can be applied to any system. Each year this popular course is
updated in the light of new developments in immunocytochemistry
and is also suitable for participants interested in the plant
sciences, as we teach some of the specialist techniques required
for the handling of plant cells. The course will be of immense
value to any life science microscopist/cell biologist of any
background, who intends to use or is starting to use
immunocytochemistry for routine purposes or research.

The course counts towards qualification for the Diploma of the
Royal Microscopical Society.

**************************************************************

Course Structure

**************************************************************

The main emphasis of the week will be to give participants
sufficient practical experience and knowledge of
immunocytochemistry to carry out immunolabelling in their own
laboratories. At the same time, a series of lectures will be
given by more specialist exponents in various areas of
immunocytochemistry.

The three practical days will be led by experts in their
particular field: Tony Leathem and Susan Brookes (LM
immunocytochemistry), Paul Monaghan (immunogold labelling for EM)
and David Hughes (silver enhancement). After an introduction on
the biology and production of antibodies, the practicals will be
backed up with lectures on the applied aspects of the respective
techniques. Of particular interest is the series of specialist
lectures which will include, botanical immunocytochemistry (Chris
Hawes), in situ hybridisation (John Davies), confocal microscopy
(Mark Fricker), immuno-scanning EM and special applications of
colloidal gold. An evening workshop will be held to introduce
cryo-techniques in immunocytochemistry and to demonstrate some
of the latest equipment used in low temperature tissue
preparation.

FOR FURTHER DETAILS CONTACT THE RMS - TELEPHONE +44 (0)865 248768, FAX +44
(0)865 791237, EMAIL RMS-at-UK.AC.OX.VAX.





From: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
Date: Fri, 21 Jan 1994 14:34:08 +0000
Subject: RMS FLOW CYTOMETRY COURSE

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Sender: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
74250.331-at-COMPUSERVE.COM, ROSS.MACKENZIE-at-OX.AC.UK,
MICROSCOPY-at-ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV
Message-ID: {00978DF3.0ACE9266.25608-at-vax.ox.ac.uk}

ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY FLOW CYTOMETRY COURSE

Organisers: Dr M G Ormerod, Reigate; Dr N P Carter, Dept of
Pathology, University of Cambridge.

Venue: Department of Pathology, Cambridge

Basic course: Monday 19th - Wednesday 21 September 1994
Advanced course: Wednesday 21nd - Friday 23th September 1994

**************************************************************

Last year we experimented with a new format for our Flow
Cytometry course. Following its success both in attracting
students and instructing and informing them, we will continue
with the new format. There will be two courses - basic and
advanced - run sequentially to give the potential student the
choice of attending either or both of the courses. We anticipate
that there will be at least three bench top cytometers for use
by the students and one machine equipped with two lasers for the
advanced course. As usual, we will rely on the generous co-
operation of the manufacturers, Becton-Dickinson, Coulter and
Ortho, who lend us both the machines and experienced operators
to run them.

**************************************************************

Basic Course

**************************************************************

The basic course will assume little prior experience and take the
student through the most important applications. Although it
will fill the needs of someone working in a research environment,
it will have a slight clinical bias. The majority of bench top
flow cytometers are now to be found in clinical laboratories.

The first day will consist of a series of talks describing the
basics of flow cytometry. A simple practical (measurement of a
DNA histogram from cultured cells) will serve as an introduction
to using the bench top flow cytometers.

There will be two practicals on the second day. In the first,
students will use antibodies labelled with three different
fluorochromes to identify lymphocytes subsets in human peripheral
blood. This practical will also demonstrate the importance of
using light scatter to separate lymphocytes, monocytes and
granulocytes in samples of blood. In the second practical (lead
by Richard Camplejohn from St. Thomas's Hospital), nuclei will
be extracted from a formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tumour and
the DNA histogram recorded. The rest of the programme will
include lectures on the analysis of DNA from clinical samples and
on immunophenotyping in a hospital laboratory.

The third and final day will also be the first day of the
advanced course. In the practical demonstration, lead by George
Wilson (GRC Gray Laboratories), students will investigate the
cell cycle kinetics of a mouse tumour which will have been
labelled in vivo with a thymidine analogue (bromodeoxyuridine,
BrdU). There will be a lecture on applying this technique and
its clinical application and on DNA measurement and cell cycle
analysis, the principles of cell sorting and the measurement of
antigens associated with cell proliferation.

***************************************************************

Advanced Course

***************************************************************

The advanced course will join us for the last day of the basic
course (see above). On their second day, they will prepare and
analyse chromosomes, using both bivariate and univariate
analysis. We will set up a flow cytometer in the lecture theatre
and project the computer screen so that it can be seen by the
whole class. Jim Watson (MRC, Addenbrookes, Cambridge) will
lecture on time as a parameter and then run experiments in the
lecture theatre on intracellular enzyme kinetics looking at
esterases and glutathione-S-transferase. A lecture on the
measurement of intracellular pH and calcium ions will also be
followed by a live demonstration. The other lectures will be on
chromosome analysis and sorting and on further applications in
cell and molecular biology.

The third and final day will consist of lectures on studying
apoptosis, measuring multi-drug resistance in tumours and
lectures and practical demonstrations on the measurement of cell
cycle kinetics using the BrdU-Hoechst/PI method and on the
interaction of fluorochromes and DNA.

****************************************************************

Benefits

****************************************************************

We expect that anyone attending our basic course will come away
with a sound grasp of the principles of flow cytometry, an
understanding of the concepts behind data analysis, a feel for
some of the problems and the confidence to run the commoner
applications. Everything in the course will be relevant to
workers in a clinical environment.

The advanced course will be at the forefront of the technology.
It should give students a broad understanding of the wide range
of applications of flow cytometry in a modern research
laboratory. It will help them to establish new techniques and
ought to give them ideas for new experiments in their own
laboratories .


We hope that many students will take the opportunity to stay the
whole week and to benefit from a broad look at flow cytometry -
from basics to the most advanced applications. The RMS course
is the only comprehensive course on flow cytometry to be run in
the UK


FOR FURTHER DETAILS CONTACT THE RMS - TELEPHONE +44 (0)865 248768, FAX +44
(0)865 791237, EMAIL RMS-at-UK.AC.OX.VAX




From: Ronald H Birkhahn-1 :      birk0007-at-gold.tc.umn.edu
Date: Fri, 21 Jan 1994 10:46:18 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Diffract

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We have versions of Diffract, DiffractII, and Desktop Microscopist.
The best one is the Desktop Microscopist by far. It works much better,
doesn't have as many faults as diffract and is more user friendly. It
doesn't have that annoying propensity to crash all the time as diffract.

Ron
U. of Minnesota






From: Rick A. Harris :      szrick-at-bullwinkle.ucdavis.edu
Date: Fri, 21 Jan 1994 13:46:46 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Freeze substitution fixative

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I would like to use freeze substitution for a low magnification TEM study
of cell-extracellular matrix relationships in amphibian embryos. Can
anyone suggest an appropriate fixative and concentration for adding to
the sustitution medium (MeOH) prior to embedding in EPON?

Dave Parichy
Section of Evolution and Ecology
Univ. of California, Davis
916 752 3634






From: gilkey-at-biosci.arizona.edu (John C. Gilkey)
Date: Fri, 21 Jan 1994 13:46:46 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: Freeze substitution fixative

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Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
To: "Rick A. Harris" {szrick-at-bullwinkle.ucdavis.edu}

} I would like to use freeze substitution for a low magnification TEM study
} of cell-extracellular matrix relationships in amphibian embryos. Can
} anyone suggest an appropriate fixative and concentration for adding to
} the sustitution medium (MeOH) prior to embedding in EPON?
}
} Dave Parichy
} Section of Evolution and Ecology
} Univ. of California, Davis
} 916 752 3634

You might find useful information in:

Allanspach, A. 1993. Ultrastructure of early chick embryos after high
pressure freezing and freeze substitution. Micoscr. Res. Techn.
24:369-384.

Hippe-Sanwald, S. 1993. Impact of freeze substitution on bioolgical
electron microscopy. Microsc. Res. Techn. 24:400-422.

Hunziker, E.B. 1993. Application of cryotechniques in cartilage tissue
preservation and immunoelectron microscopy: potentials and problems.
Microsc. Res. Techn. 24:457-464.

McDonald, K. and M. Morphew. 1993. Improved preservation of ultrastructure
in difficult-to-fix organisms by high pressure freezing and freeze
substitution: I. Drosophila melonagaster and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
embryos. Microsc. Res. Techn. 24:465-473.

John Gilkey
Biotechnology
University of Arizona






From: p8443882-at-cumulus.csd.unsw.OZ.AU (David Orlovich)
Date: Sat, 22 Jan 1994 16:13:34 +1000
Subject: Re: Freeze substitution fixative

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From: p8443882-at-cumulus.csd.unsw.OZ.AU (David Orlovich)
Date: Sun, 23 Jan 1994 11:05:30 +1000
Subject: Re: Freeze substitution fixative

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From: p8443882-at-cumulus.csd.unsw.OZ.AU (David Orlovich)
Date: Sun, 23 Jan 1994 14:10:32 +1000
Subject: TEM Freeze-substitution fixative

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I have just had a look in my favourite freeze-substitution book
(Cryotechniques in Biological Electron Microscopy, eds: R A Steinbrecht and
K Zierold) and they suggest the following freeze-substitution medium for
methanol substitution:

Methanol containing 0.5% uranyl acetate, 1% OsO4, 3% glutaraldehyde and
3% water (the water comes from the 50% glutaraldehyde they used).

It actually looks a bit complex to make the solution up - they suggest:

add 9 mL of 50% aq. glutaraldehyde (in a liquid nitrogen precooled flask)
to 60 mL methanol, then 3 mL of a 20% (w/v) soln of uranyl acetate in methanol
are added; in a second precooled flask 1.5 g osmium tetroxide are dissolved
in 75 mL methanol; both flasks are cooled to about 220 K, their contents
poured together and vigorously shaken.

They say that the mixture is highly reactive even at 240 K and so should
be used in a few hours.

Substitution time was 8 hours each at -95 deg C, -60 deg C and -30 deg C.
Then 30 minutes at 0 deg C. Replace the substitution mix with pure acetone
(still at 0 deg C), warm to 7 deg C and infiltrate with araldite/Epon.

The original reference to this protocol is:
Muller, M., Marti, T., and Kriz, S. (1980). Improved structural preservation
by freeze-substitution. In: Brederoo, P., and de Priester, W. (eds).
Electron Microscopy 1980, vol.II. Proc. 7th Eur. Congr. Electron Microsc.,
Leiden, pp. 720-721.

I've always used 2% OsO4 in acetone at -70 deg C for up to 7 days and then
embedded in Spurr's resin. The best reference I have for that is:

Howard RJ and O'Donnell KL (1987). Freeze-substitution of fungi for
cytological analysis. Exp. Mycol. 11:250-269.

I hope this is of some use.

David Orlovich
School of Biological Science
University of NSW
PO Box 1
Kensington NSW 2033
Australia




From: Wil Bigelow :      Wil_Bigelow-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 24 Jan 1994 14:20:35 U
Subject: Re: SEM RES STD

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Subject: Time:2:18 PM
OFFICE MEMO RE} SEM RES STD Date:1/24/94
The method I have used with good success was published on
p. 68 of the May 1987 issue of the EMSA Bulletin. If you don't
have access to that issue of the Bulletin, send me your FAX
address and I'll send a copy to you. Bigelow-at-umich.edu.






From: PHELPS-at-ENH.NIST.GOV
Date: Mon, 24 Jan 1994 15:11:56 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: crystal structure software

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I am looking for software (vendor / public domain) that can draw crystal
structures and print these diagrams on a laser printer. I would like
to be able to enter the crystal system, cell edges, etc.. and have the
diagram show the coordination of differing cation sites. Any suggestions?

thanks,
John

phelps-at-enh.nist.gov




From: Bernhardt Sainieidukat :      sainieid-at-badlands.NoDak.edu
Date: Mon, 24 Jan 1994 22:44:20 -600 (CST)
Subject: Re: crystal structure software

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An excellent program is MacMolecule,
which is freeware available at major Mac ftp sites

--
Bernhardt Saini-Eidukat
Dept. of Geosciences
North Dakota State University
Fargo, ND 58105







From: DOUG ARRELL :      ARRELL-at-jrc.nl
Date: Tue, 25 Jan 1994 09:03:24 GMT+0200
Subject: CB TEM - HOLTZ line simulations

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940125090324.512-at-FS-IAM-1.JRC.NL}
To: Microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

I intend to do some internal strain measurements using HOLTZ lines,
so could anyone suggest any software which allows the simulation of
HOLTZ lines, and where I could find it?


Doug Arrell
Doug Arrell




From: EMLAB-at-opus.mco.edu
Date: Tue, 25 Jan 1994 10:43:50 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: PHOTOGRAPHY- Replacement for Kodak Dir.Dup Film 2468?

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Kodak has discontinued direct duplicating film 2468 in 100 foot rolls.
We have used this film successfully for years to make presentation
slides from halftone prints. What should we use now as a replacement?





From: EMLAB-at-opus.mco.edu
Date: Tue, 25 Jan 1994 10:43:50 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: PHOTOGRAPHY- Replacement for Kodak Dir.Dup Film 2468?

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Received: from MAILQUEUE by MICROBIO1 (Mercury 1.11); Tue, 25 Jan
94 11:24:30 EST
Return-path: {EMLAB-at-opus.mco.edu}
Received: from emoryu1.cc.emory.edu by
transporter.microbio.emory.edu (Mercury 1.11);
Tue, 25 Jan 94 11:24:27 EST
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id AA15050 ; Tue, 25 Jan 94 10:51:32 -0500
Return-Path: EMLAB-at-opus.mco.edu

Kodak has discontinued direct duplicating film 2468 in 100 foot rolls.
We have used this film successfully for years to make presentation
slides from halftone prints. What should we use now as a replacement?

KODAK OFFERS A FILM CALLED " RAPID PROCESS COPY " (CAT. NO
174 6031 FOR THE 150 ft ROLL) WHICH IS A DIRECT REVERSAL FILM
DESIGNED FOR THE PURPOSE YOU DISCRIBE. THIS FILM IS QUITE
SLOW : EXPOSURES IN THE 30 TO 45 SECOND RANGE AT f 4.0 ON MY
SETUP. ONE NEEDS TO CALIBRATE THEIR COPY STAND SETUP TO
THE FILM AND PROCESSING.

THE PROCESSING IS VERY SIMPLE: DK 50 DEVLOPER FOR 10
MINUTES, FOLLOWED BY STOP AND FIXER.

I HAVE BEEN USING THIS FILM SINCE THE MID- EIGHTIES WITH
EXTREMELY GOOD RESULTS. ANY QUESTIONS? CALL ME.
lmelsen-at-unix.cc.emory.edu




From: tayloe-at-rorc.usbm.gov
Date: Tue, 25 Jan 1994 12:05:20 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Re: Electropolishing of Titanium

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Via: uk.ac.birmingham.computer-centre.ibm3090; Tue, 25 Jan 1994 16:27:15 +0000

On Tue, 25 Jan 1994 MACLAREI-at-ibm3090.computer-centre.birmingham.ac.uk wrote:

} I wonder if anyone has any good ideas on how to electropolish commercial
} purity Titanium without getting precipitation of hydride needles.
}
} I have tried using a variety of acid based solutions, most of which
} contained perchloric acid in varying concentration. All of these, however,
} result in hydride precipitation.
}
} The net result of all of this is that I find it very difficult to prepare
} decent specimens of Titatium by electropolishing. If anyone has any good
} ideas as to how these problems can be overcome I would be very glad to hear
} from you.
}
} Ian MacLaren

Ian,

You may want to try the following, (although I have NOT tried this
particular recipe):

Ethanol (96%)................90 ml
n-Butyl alcohol..............10 ml
Aluminum Chloride.............6 g
Zinc Chloride................28 g
for 1-6 minutes; 20 -25 V dc; stainless steel cathode; room temp.;
need to keep agitated (the solution, NOT the user {grin!} ) to prevent
a passivating layer from forming: can use a stirrer, or oscillate the
anode quite rapidly at a fixed distance from the cathode (approx. 1 to
2 cm).
* remember: nicely TOXIC!!!
{ref.: The Electrolytic and Chemical Polishing of Metals; Tegart; 1959;
Pergamon Press}

Hope this is helpful,
Rob

X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X
X Rob Tayloe X MSM Spelunkers Club X
X Metallographic Lab. X Missouri Speleological Survey /-v-\ \-v-/ X
X Rolla Research Center X Bat Conservation International X
X U.S. Bureau of Mines X Missouri Cave & Karst Conservancy \-v-/ X
X tayloe-at-rorc.usbm.gov X National Speleological Society #32993 /-v-\ X
X (314) 364-3169 x247 X American Cave Conservation Association X
X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X\X




From: Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers :      GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Date: Tue, 25 Jan 1994 17:04:48 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Dir Dup Film

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I think there is new chemistry for using T MAX films for direct positives.
Someone from Kodak should pick up on this message and let the rest of us know
about it.
*****************************
* Greg Erdos *
* Director, ICBR EMCL *
* University of Florida *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 *
* gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* 904-392-1295 *
*****************************




From: Nancy L. Desmond :      nld-at-galen.med.virginia.edu
Date: Tue, 25 Jan 1994 17:28:25 -0500
Subject: Kodak 2468 film

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I called my supplier of 2468 today. They say that the film has
NOT been discontinued. (And this company claims they are the
only E. Coast supplier!) What's the truth???




From: Rodney L Kuehn-1 :      kuehn002-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu
Date: Wed, 26 Jan 1994 06:22:00 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Re: PHOTOGRAPHY- Replacement for Kodak Dir.Dup Film 2468?

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If your prints come from large-format negatives, you can photograph the
negatives on a light box with technical pan or t-max.
If you need a direct positive film, you can use Ektachrome color slides
or use t-max with a direct-positive developing kit.

Rod Kuehn
University of Minnestota

On Tue, 25 Jan 1994 EMLAB-at-opus.mco.edu wrote:

} Kodak has discontinued direct duplicating film 2468 in 100 foot rolls.
} We have used this film successfully for years to make presentation
} slides from halftone prints. What should we use now as a replacement?
}






From: BERGRH-at-MSUVX1.MEMST.EDU
Date: Tue, 25 Jan 1994 22:28:15 -0600 (CST)
Subject: direct reversal film

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Return-path: {BERGRH-at-MSUVX1.MEMST.EDU}
Received: from memstvx1.memst.edu by gnv.ifas.ufl.edu (PMDF V4.2-11 #3240) id
{01H848IIDF408WW4DH-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu} ; Tue, 25 Jan 1994 23:26:34 EST
Received: from MSUVX1.MEMST.EDU by MSUVX1.MEMST.EDU (PMDF V4.2-14 #5958) id
{01H845ET8EPC9BWPOF-at-MSUVX1.MEMST.EDU} ; Tue, 25 Jan 1994 22:28:15 CST

Greg--
I am reading your Microscopy post and, not adept at replying to these public
forums, am writing you direct.
I used the TMax direct reversal kit for my talk at this summer's MSA
meeting and was very pleased with the quality of the slides it produced.
I made "superslides" by using (hard to find) 127 film mounts and TMax 100
film size 120. The kit specifies rating the film at ASA 50, half its normal
speed. The kit instructions are well written and I got good results from the
first roll on. Instructions for extending development with subsequent rolls
are clearly written--as I recall the kit will process about 8 or 10 rolls and
cost me $35 (?). Significantly more rolls of 35mm would be possible


R.H.Berg


*****************************
* Greg Erdos *
* Director, ICBR EMCL *
* University of Florida *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 *
* gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* 904-392-1295 *
*****************************




From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu
Date: Wed, 26 Jan 1994 09:26:33 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Tmax

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Direct Pos. Film users:
Kodak makes a TMax direct postive film developing kit for making black
and white slides. Catalog number 812 1188. Cost: approx. $30. When doing
line copy I have also used LPD4 film for continuos tone copy and have had
very good results. There's a little trickery involved but it allows you
to do line and continuous copy on the same roll of film. If anyone is
interested, I'll tell how it is done.
Phil Rutledge
prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu




From: Phil Oshel :      PO-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu
Date: 26 Jan 94 09:05:59 CST6CDT
Subject: Re: Tmax

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940126090559.480-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

} Date: Wed, 26 Jan 1994 09:26:33 -0500 (EST)
} From: rutledge phil {prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu}
} Subject: Tmax
} To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

} Direct Pos. Film users:
} Kodak makes a TMax direct postive film developing kit for making black
} and white slides. Catalog number 812 1188. Cost: approx. $30. When doing
} line copy I have also used LPD4 film for continuos tone copy and have had
} very good results. There's a little trickery involved but it allows you
} to do line and continuous copy on the same roll of film. If anyone is
} interested, I'll tell how it is done.
} Phil Rutledge
} prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu

I'll second this--I've used LPD-4 for making direct-positives of
photographs for slides when I only want to mess with developing one
type of film. 8 secs. at 1/2-stop intervals from f111/2 to f4 or 41/2
will usually get you a usable frame. This range of f-stops is
conservative; actually shouldn't need more than a couple of brackets
once you figure out your local conditions. The Direct Positive sold
by Ted Pella does do a better job, but....
Phil Oshel




From: Fred Pearson :      eoptics-at-mcmail.cis.mcmaster.ca
Date: Wed, 26 Jan 1994 10:46:10 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Dir Dup Film

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Kodak make a T-Max Reversal Kit for direct positives. The catalogue
number is K-8121188. It comes as a 1 quart unit. In Canada it sells for
about $35.00.


Fred




From: Fred Pearson :      eoptics-at-mcmail.cis.mcmaster.ca
Date: Wed, 26 Jan 1994 10:46:10 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Dir Dup Film

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Kodak make a T-Max Reversal Kit for direct positives. The catalogue
number is K-8121188. It comes as a 1 quart unit. In Canada it sells for
about $35.00.


Fred




From: Phil Oshel :      PO-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu
Date: 26 Jan 94 11:07:18 CST6CDT
Subject: Re Dir Dup Film

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}
} I have found something that I think works better, but takes a day to
} develop - regular color Ectachrome slide film (Tungsten). The results
} are very good and having somebody else fool with the wet chemistry is
} much better. I think that the development process is C-47 which is the
} same for color negatives which means that you can have it done at 1 hour
} photo shops. As a reult, I only use the MP 5360 when I have an
} emergency.
}
}
} Scott Walck
} walcksd-at-ml.wpafb.af.mil
} Materials Directorate
} Wright Patterson AFB, OH

I have had excellent results with Ektachrome, but find it takes
25-30 minutes to development: process E-6 with the Kodak hobbyist
pack, 10-30 minutes to dry, depending on if you have a film drier.
Most 1-hr photo-shops that I know of won't do E-6 films.
Phil Oshel
po-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu
Parmly Hearing Inst.
see c. v. on MSA Bulletin Board. Please!




From: Paul Webster :      Paul_Webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 26 Jan 1994 14:48:00 -0500
Subject: Slides

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Slides
I can't believe that anyone is satisfied with the 35mm format for projection
slides. Besides, copying prints with a camera always results in a loss of
quality. The best way is to take the information straight from the negative,
although this does not let you label the image with letraset. I print directly
onto film, using an enlarger and mount the image in the super-slide frames
(40x40mm) loved by electron microscopists and hated by projectionists. The
image can be carefully framed and the contrast can be easily manipulated. The
film to use is Agfa sheet film, so you will have to find your own supplier, and
can be purchased in boxes of either 10x8 or 10x12. Use it as you would paper
under an enlarger.
For a soft image use "Litex premium camera film 0910P". For a harder finish
use "Litex camera halftone film 0811P". These films are normally developed in
Gevaline G7C developer, also from Agfa, which will produce high contrast but
they can also be developed in D-19 for a softer contrast. I am sure that
acutance developers will also work well. The film can only be handled in red
light and has to be dish developed but the results are worth it. Try it and
compare with camera copies. There is nothing like a big image to make your
point.
If you are interested and require more details then feel free to contact me.
Paul Webster
Yale School of Medicine
paul_webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu
(203) 785 5072.






From: Phil Oshel :      PO-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu
Date: 26 Jan 94 14:45:11 CST6CDT
Subject: Re: Slides

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} Date: 26 Jan 1994 14:48:00 -0500
} From: "Paul Webster" {Paul_Webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu}
} Subject: Slides
} To: "EM Bulletin Board" {microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov}

} Slides
} I can't believe that anyone is satisfied with the 35mm format for projection
} slides.
Price! Money! Grant funds! 35mm is cheap!
And everyone has a slide projector that will take 35mm.
Phil Oshel




From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Wed, 26 Jan 1994 16:01:42 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Digital confocal or equivalent

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From: Cesar Fermin (see below)
Date: 25 Jan 1994 18:02:37 -0600
Subject: Feedback on digital confocal systems.

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To: Anyone

Tulane Pathology


I would appreciate any feedback from users of Digital confocal software
packages like MICRTOME from VayTek or comparable systems.

1) Does cost justify capabilities.

2) How it compares to laser systems?

3) Are manus userfriendly?

4) If you used package already would you buy an upgrade or move on to a
different system?

Thanks.

Cesar D. Fermin, Ph.D.
Tulane University Medical School
Department of Pathology
1430 Tulane Ave/SL79
New Orleans, La 70112-2699
(504) 584-2521
Fax 587-7389




From: Paul Webster :      Paul_Webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 26 Jan 1994 17:13:26 -0500
Subject: Re: Slides

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Re} Slides

"Price! Money! Grant funds! 35mm is cheap!
And everyone has a slide projector that will take 35mm.
Phil Oshel"

What a rude reply Phil! I don't deserve that.

Most EM labs have a darkroom with an enlarger. A box of 100 sheets of film is
cheap and will last for years (I bought my boxes four years ago and still have
enough to send to you, Phil Oshel, if you want to try out the system. The
40x40mm slide holders (from GePe) fit into a 35 mm slide projector -they just
use up more of the available space. If anything it is all cheaper than buying
a copystand and 35 mm camera. Why do I bother?






From: Jouko M{ki :      jokamaki-at-utu.fi
Date: Thu, 27 Jan 1994 08:30:12 +0200
Subject: RE: slides

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Hello microscopists,

During my short stay in Sendai, Japan, I learned a good way to make
overheads from electron microscope negatives. The material is FUJIGRAPH
PROJECTION FILM PT-100, which comes at least in size 21x29,7cm (DIN A4) in
100 sheets packages. This film can be used just like the enlarging paper in
the darkroom. The results are far better than with any oldfashioned way.
These overheads are good for teaching purposes because you can easily make
markings on them.

Regards,
J M

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Jouko K. Maki Navigare necesse est...
Laboratory Manager, Ph.D.
Laboratory of Electron Microscopy Kiinamyllynkatu 10 FIN-20520 TURKU FINLAND
University of Turku Tel.: + 358 21 633 7318
INTERNET: jouko.maki-at-utu.fi FAX.: + 358 21 633 7380




From: Phil Oshel :      PO-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu
Date: 27 Jan 94 07:37:44 CST6CDT
Subject: Re: Slides

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} Re} Slides
}
} "Price! Money! Grant funds! 35mm is cheap!
} And everyone has a slide projector that will take 35mm.
} Phil Oshel"
}
} What a rude reply Phil! I don't deserve that.

My apologies...but I repeatedly run into people, usually from
medical schools, who don't understand why others don't use this or
that, usually expensive, technology, instead of all the old stuff.
The litany can get very frustrating. The answer is usually money. And
often administrators. Labs and smally schools have photographic
equipment & 35mm cameras, 35mm slide mounts, etc..
I have worked in EM labs for 13+ years, and have spent many hours
all of the equipment you mention below. I have had much trouble with
40X40 slide holders jamming in 35mm projectors, but haven't tried the
brand you recommend. Plus, multiple-image plates & 4"X5" Polaroid
images still need to be photographed on the copy stand. And a
good 35mm camera is still the cheapest, easiest way to produce the
slides. Pros don't use them out of tradition. Personally, I'd prefer
to use 120 film, or even 4X5, but....And most light microscopes come
with 35mm camera backs.
Meaning you need all that stuff anyway if you're a service lab,
or anyway, not a dedicated lab where only one photpgraphic system is
used (which most are).
But what type of film comes in 100 sheet boxes & lasts for years?
The film I've seen & used in TEMs & any other microscope--sheet, 35mm,
or 120 roll--goes quickly. Printing paper's worse. Especially with
students and EM courses!
Thank you for the offer to send some materials, but it'd
be a loss now--our grant & my job got cut, so it wouldn't be used.
Phil Oshel
} Most EM labs have a darkroom with an enlarger. A box of 100 sheets of film is
} cheap and will last for years (I bought my boxes four years ago and still have
} enough to send to you, Phil Oshel, if you want to try out the system. The
} 40x40mm slide holders (from GePe) fit into a 35 mm slide projector -they just
} use up more of the available space. If anything it is all cheaper than buying
} a copystand and 35 mm camera. Why do I bother?
}
}
}




From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu
Date: Thu, 27 Jan 1994 09:10:40 -0500 (EST)
Subject: EM Slides

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To E'mers wanting EM slides:
The easiest way to make EM slides is to put your neg in an enlarger and
shoot onto another piece of EM film (type 4489). Develope it as you would
normally process em film. This allows you to develope in a tray under a
red safelight and allows control of the density of the slide. It gives
great contrast in the slide or you can control the contrast by the way
you develope the film. I started doing it this way for em slides only
over 25 years ago and have always gotten good contrast whether the
original negative was on the flat or contrasty side.
Phil Rutledge
prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu




From: tim-at-phlogiston.nist.gov (Tim Foecke)
Date: Thu, 27 Jan 1994 09:42:14 -0500
Subject: Sony UP7000 printer

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Has anyone been using the Sony UP7000 printer with a Mac, and how did you
connect them?

Tim Foecke, NIST

PS Same question for a Shinko CHC-443 MV2 and a Seikosha VP 3500





From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu
Date: Thu, 27 Jan 1994 10:12:42 -0500 (EST)
Subject: LPD-4

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As I said in a previous message, I use LPD-4 for continuous tone slides
on the same roll of film when I am doing line copy. The way I do this is
as follows:
I use a Polaroid MP-4 copy stand equipped with a Nikon F3 and a 90mm
macro lens.

Line Copy
__________

Exposure: 5 seconds/f:6
Develope: D-19 full strength- 2 minutes
Fix: 2 minutes in rapid fix with Orbit Bath added. Orbit Bath allows a 2
minute fixing time and a 5 minute wash. It's better than Kodaks Hypo
Clearing Agent.
Wash: 5 minutes, dry, mount

Continuous Tone
________________

This requires a little playing with to determine your exposure. I use
same exposure for the line copy but I add 3-5 seconds more. I pre-fog the
film by exposing the copy for 8-10 seconds. At the same time I
continuously move a grey scale card under the lens until I get to the 5
second mark for the line copy exposure. Process as above. I have always
had good results with this method. You just need a little coordination
exposing this way.
Phil Rutledge
prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu




From: Mark Aindow :      M.Aindow-at-met.bham.ac.uk
Date: Thu, 27 Jan 1994 16:20:46 GMT
Subject: POSTDOCTORAL VACANCY

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This is the text of an advertisement that will appear in the british
press next week for a postdoctoral position which will become vacant
on the 1st of June this year. We would like to identify an appropriate
candidate as soon as possible - hence the short deadline. Applications
will be accepted by FAX but NOT BY ELECTRONIC MAIL. Please note that,
due to circumstances beyond our control, we will have to give preference
to candidates who are citizens of nations in the European Economic
Community.

*************************************************************************

The University of Birmingham
School of Metallurgy and Materials


POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIP

Applications are invited for the above post to work on a 2.5 -year
SERC-funded project entitled "Mechanical Behaviour of Nb3Al Alloys".
The successful applicant will investigate the basic defect structure
and deformation mechanisms in these alloys and to explore strategies
for enhancing their ductility.

A Ph.D. degree, extensive experience of electron microscopy techniques
and familiarity with the physical metallurgy of intermetallic compounds
are essential.

Preliminary enquiries should be directed to Dr. M. Aindow -
Tel: (44) 21 414 5188, FAX: (44) 21 414 5232, Email M.AINDOW-at-BHAM.AC.UK,
or Dr. I.P. Jones - Tel: (44) 21 414 5184.

Application forms and further particulars may be obtained from The
Director, Staffing Services, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston,
Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom or telephone (44) 21 414 6483
(24 hours) and quote reference G10613/94. The closing date for receipt
of applications is 18/2/94.

The University of Birmingham is an equal opportunity employer.

*************************************************************************

*********************************************************************

Mark Aindow,
School of Metallurgy and Materials, Telephone; (021) 414 5188
The University of Birmingham, FAX; (021) 414 5232
Elms Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham, Email; M.AINDOW-at-BHAM.AC.UK
GB B15 2TT, United Kingdom.

*********************************************************************





From: John Mansfield :      john.mansfield-at-aoce.itd.umich.edu
Date: 27 Jan 1994 12:10:28 -0500
Subject: Usenet News -sci.techniques.microscopy

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I have had quite a few requests asking how to access the new
sci.techniques.microscopy newsgroup. So, I thought I would post a summary of
the whats, wheres and hows of Usenet News, as I understand them, to the
NIH-Image and Microscopy mailing list.

What is Usenet News?
Usenet News, unlike email, is not distributed to an individuals account, but
rather to a server at a particular institution (be it a government lab,
university or private company) that can then be accessed by individuals at
that institution.
Usenet News is a system where messages are posted to newsgroups that are
designed to cover a particular topic. Examples of topics are rec.windsurfing
(recreational: windsurfing), comp.sys.mac.digest (Computer: Macintosh
question and answer digest), sci.materials (Science: Materials Science) and,
of course, sci.techniques.microscopy (Science: Microscopy Techniques of all
kinds). There are many hundreds of worldwide newsgroups, i.e. groups that
are distributed around the world, and then there also are groups that are
only distributed locally. Examples of world-wide groups are those I have
mentioned above and here at the University of Michigan we have local groups
for class disscussion. As an example, for our electron microscopy course
(MSE 562) we could have a group umich.eng.mse562 and it would only be
available to readers in the umich.edu domain.

Postings to each newsgroup are stored on the institution's local NNTP (sorry
guys I dont what this is an accronym for unless it is Network News Transport
Protocol!) server and distributed to other sites. If the same kind of system
is used now as was used when Usenet was first started, again I am no expert
here - just a user, then each news server will exchange messages with a
number of other servers geogrpahically close to it and the postings will sort
of hop from one system to another and propgate around the world. When Usenet
was first started the transfer was by dial-up modem lines, now the how system
uses the Internet. If there is someone out there who can describe this
process more exactly, please let me know or post a summary.

How do I read Usenet News and post to Newsgroups?
If you want to use Usenet News you need access to an NNTP server and news
reading/posting software to run on your local computer, workstation or
terminal. You should contact your local network adminsitrator and ask them
if you have access to a Usenet feed and which net-news software they
recommend for the machine you use. If they do not have access, ask them why
not!
The functionality of each news program is best expalined by a local expert, I
cannot possibly go into all of the details of even one news program here.
Suffice to say however, if you have access to a news posting and reading
program and access to the accompnaying NNTP server, you can post articles,
questions and information to be read by people around the world.

Which software should I use?
As I say it depends on you machine and what is available to you locally.
I use a Mac and my favorite software is NewsWatcher (which is free, a
definite bonus). The lastest verion of this software is available by
anonymous ftp from ftp.acns.nwu.edu (the same place as Disinfectant, the
antiviral utility for the Mac) in the directory /pub/newswatcher. The
current version is 2.0d17. Ask around locally to see what you have
available.

Why News and not just Email?
The advantage of News over email mailing lists is the messages reside on a
remote machine and do not clog up your mailbox. Some people have severely
restricted mailbox size allocations and the output from a mailing list can
swamp them and prevent them from receiving other mail. With Usenet you only
download the News you want to read. You can subscribe to a small subset of
the total newsgroups and selectively scan through those. You may view all of
the subjects of the articles in a group before you read any of them. It is
quite a flexible system.

I cant get to the Internet, what do I do?
The one major complaint about Net News is that it is not accessible unless
you have a connection to the Internet. The mailing lists can be accessed
from Compuserve, America On-Line, GEnie, etc. An connection used to be an
expensive proposition, however, these days it can be as reasonably priced as
Compuserve or the other dial-up network services. For example "The World"
(1-617-739-0202) charges $20 per month for 20 hours of connect time to
Internet services. Another provider "The WELL" (Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link
- 1-415-332-4335) charges $15 per month and $2 per hour for use. For a local
provider please call the InterNIC Information Services at 1-800-444-4345.

This is just a brief outline that I have put together on the spur of the
moment (as someone recently put it "its a stream of consciousness"!)
Hope it helps.
Drop me a line if I have made any major mistakes or left anything vital out
of this message.
Cheers,
John Mansfield.






From: Michael Cammer :      cammer-at-aecom.yu.edu
Date: Thu, 27 Jan 1994 12:23:09 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Digital confocal or equivalent

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} 2) How it compares to laser systems?
One potential problem is that to collect images using a cooled CCD camera
the exposure times must be much longer than with a laser scanning confocal
microscope. For instance, we did a comparison of a double labeled
cultured cells scanned with a cooled CCD camera and with the BioRad MRC
600.
With the CCD camera the Cy3 stain looked great (deconvolved with the
quick mode of the Vaytek system). However, the FITC bleached before we
could collect a few sections.
On the BioRad, we were able to collect both signals simultaneously without
significant bleaching of the FITC.
Also, we looked at the BDS deconvolution system. We were very impressed
with the deconvolved images, but here is a major difference between
confocal and deconvolution:
Using a confocal, investigators from all over the university can come in,
scan their samples, immediately see results, get hard copy or send
images to other computers instantly, and leave. If they were using
deconvolution they would have to post-process every optical section before
getting results.
Personally, I would like to see how the BioRad confocal images would look
processed with one of the deconvolution packages.
-Michael Cammer






From: COOK-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov (Russell E. Cook)
Date: Thu, 27 Jan 1994 12:36:55 -0600
Subject: Slides in glass mounts

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The problem "jjerome-at-isnet.is.wfu.edu (Jay Jerome)" mentioned as spectral
effects when he mounted slides in glass mounts may be Newton rings. This
problem may be eliminated by using anti-Newton glass in the mounts.
Companies such as Wess or Gepe market this kind of glass for slide mounts.
Contact your local photo shop or look in one of the photography magazines
for advertisements.








From: chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU (John Chandler)
Date: Thu, 27 Jan 1994 16:34:24 -0700
Subject: Re: SLIDES

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} With regard to suggestion that our problem of spectral effects, we do use
} Gepe anti-newton glass slides. However, the effect is reminiscent of the
} effects one gets if you do not use anti-newton glass. It does not occur
} however when we use thinner based film for making our slides. Only when we
} use EM negative film such as 4489. Any other suggestions?

If you're not doing so already, you might try using a mask between the
backing side of the film and the glass. This will eliminate the contact
between the two flat surfaces that can produce Newton rings.

Way back when, we used to use commercially available masks cut from black
paper. I've also used aluminum ones from EMDE Products, Inc. I don't even
know whether they are still in business. The address in the literature I
have from them doesn't even have a zip code. The address given is 2040
Stoner Ave., Los Angeles, CA.

John chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU Fort Collins, CO





From: tprohas-at-email.tuwien.ac.at (Thomas PROHASKA)
Date: Fri, 28 Jan 1994 11:06:59 +100
Subject: CALL FOR PAPERS

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} Return-Path: {Vitor-at-dsif.fee.unicamp.br}
} From: Vitor-at-dsif.fee.unicamp.br
} Date: Wed, 26 Jan 94 09:26:00 EDT
} To: venema-at-dutentb.et.tudelft.nl, Snitka-at-dsif.fee.unicamp.br,
} tprohas-at-email.tuwien.ac.at
} Subject: CALL FOR PAPERS
}
}
}
}
} ----- Begin Included Message -----
}
} } From PHOTOEXE%ILCTEHOL-at-VMS.HUJI.AC.IL Sun Jan 23 10:06:12 1994
} Date: Sun, 23 Jan 94 09:59 GMT
} From: INTL BULLETIN ON PROCESSES AND APPLICATIONS
} {PHOTOEXE%ILCTEHOL-at-VMS.HUJI.AC.IL}
} Subject: CALL FOR PAPERS
} To: VITOR-at-dsif.fee.unicamp.br
} Content-Length: 1791
}
} FRONTIERS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
} AT NANO-MICRO SCALE
}
} July, 28-29 - 1994
} Guaruja - Sao Paulo State - Brazil
}
} Topics:
} (not limited to)
}
} Scaling Laws - Theory
} Scanning Probe Microscopies (STM, AFM,....)
} Sensors
} Piezoelectric Drivers
} Machining (Beam, Plasma, Molecular, ...)
} New Materials (Diamond-like, Porous Silicon....)
} Synthesis and Structures (Biology, Microelectronics....)
} Computation
} .....
}
} Abstract Deadline March, 20, 1994 (two printed A-4 pages)
} Manuscripts at the Conference Site
}
} Organizing Comitttee
} ====================
}
}
} Prof. Vitor Baranauskas - State University of Campinas - Brazil (chairperson)
} Prof. Valentinas Snitka - Vibrotecnika - Lithuania
} Prof. Ioshiaki Doi - State University of Campinas - Brazil
} Prof. Aaron Peled - CTEH - Israel
} Dr. Vladimir J. Trava-Airoldi - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais
-Brazil
} Prof. Gilberto Mattos Gualberto - State University of Campinas - Brazil
}
}
} Organized by:
} ============
} Sociedade Brasileira de Vacuo - Brazilian Vacuum Society
}
} This Conference will be a satellite of the Annual Brazilian Vacuum
Conference, to be held in Sao Carlos City - 24-27 July, 1994
}
} Guaruja is a pleasant island-city on the South Atlantic Sea. The
Conference will be held in a Hotel on the beach. Proceedings will be
refereed and published by an International Journal.
}
} For further information or abstracts submission contact :
}
} Prof.V.Baranauskas
} Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica
} Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP
} 13083-970 - Campinas - SP - Brasil
}
} FAX: +55-192-391395
} e.mail vitor-at-dsif.fee.unicamp.br
}
} =============================================================================
} ----- End Message -----
}
}
}
} ----- End Included Message -----
}
}
}





From: templier-at-zeus.univ-poitiers.fr
Date: Fri, 28 Jan 1994 13:15:24 UTC+1
Subject: A: Image processing on PC

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Via: uk.ac.birmingham.computer-centre.ibm3090; Fri, 28 Jan 1994 11:37:44 +0000


Images from Nanoscope III can be saved as TIF files and studied on a PC
using the VISILOG Software.
This software is distributed (english language) by
NOESIS Vision Inc
6800 Cote de Liesse Suite 200
Ville St Laurent, Quebec, Canada
H4T 2A7
Tel (514) 345-1400
Fax (514) 345-1575







From: peling-at-amnh.org (Peling Melville - Interdepartmental Facilities)
Date: Fri, 28 Jan 1994 09:02:32 -0500
Subject: SEM - Ideas for removal of coating on Biological specimens

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Fellow Microscopists:
Here in the SEM lab, we scan a wide range of specimens (Insects,
rodent teeth & skulls, fossil vertebrates & invertebrates) This is just to
name afew. We use gold-palladium coating on these specimens. Is there
anyone out there who has a sure fire method to remove coatings without
damage to the specimen?

Thanks in advance,
Peling Fong Melville

--------------------------------------------------------------
Peling Melville peling-at-amnh.org
Interdepartmental Laboratories
American Museum of Natural History






From: tim-at-phlogiston.nist.gov (Tim Foecke)
Date: Fri, 28 Jan 1994 14:15:49 -0500
Subject: Sony color printer tech support

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Does anyone out there have a number for Sony for color printer
tech support? The loony I got in the DC area told me that I
couldn't do half of the things that were printed right in the
manual.

Thanks

Tim Foecke, NIST
tfoecke-at-nist.gov





From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu
Date: Fri, 28 Jan 1994 09:20:20 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Newton Rings

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Jay:
I have always made my EM slides using EM film and the only time I use
glass is when I am making a composite slide. EM film mounts quite nicely
in cardboard mounts, if your not doing any taping of the slides as you
might do in making composite slides, why use glass? I have alwas had
problems when I had to use Gepe glass. The best glass to use is by EMDE.
They make an ultra thin glass (cat.# 135-NRT) slide making kit for the
prevention of Newton Rings. Normal thickness glass can kill you every
time with EM film. Don't know if EMDE is still in business. My box says
Los Angeles 25, California. It's a few years old. You can call
information in Los Angeles and see if they still have a phone # or check
one of the big industrial photo supply houses or photo shop.
Good Luck!
Phil Rutledge
prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu




From: David Henriks, 73531,1344
Date: 28 Jan 94 17:14:23 EST
Subject: TEM: Electropolishing of Titanium

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---------- Forwarded Message ----------


RE: Copy of: Electropolishing of Titanium

Further to Ron Anderson's suggestion:
Bernie Kestel has written a paper "Non-Acid Electrolyte Thins Many Materials for
TEM Without Causing Hydride Formation" (Ultramicroscopy 19 (1986) pp 205-212. I
have a copy of the paper and would be pleased to FAX it to you and/or mail you a
copy. You may contact me via CompuServe or as follows:

David Henriks
South Bay Technology, Inc.
1120 Via Callejon
San Clemente, CA 92673 USA

TEL: 714-492-2600
FAX: 714-492-1499

You may also reach Bernie Kestel at: TEL: 708-252-4945
FAX: 708-252-4798

I also have a bibliography of over 40 papers dealing primarily with TEM sample
preparation. I would be pleased to send you a copy and can subsequently provide
reprints at no charge.







From: COOK-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov (Russell E. Cook)
Date: Fri, 28 Jan 1994 14:30:43 -0600
Subject: Electropolishing Ti

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Bernie Kestel, Argonne National Laboratory's expert at electropolishing,
suggests the following for Ti alloys:

13% HCl and 87% methanol
temperature = -50 C
90 Volts and 35 mA in a single jet electropolishing machine

or

60ml Percholoric Acid
590 ml Methanol
350 ml 2-butoxy ethanol (butyl cellosolve)
temperature = 0 C
40-50 Volts and 50 mA in a single jet electropolishing machine

or

5.30 g LiCl
11.16 g Mg(ClO4)2
500 ml methanol
100 ml 2-butoxy ethanol (butyl cellosolve)
temperature = -40 or -50 C
150 to 250 volts and 30 mA
flow speed = medium
single jet electropolishing machine (South Bay)
The flow restriction of the Tenupol holder may require less of the
2-butoxy ethanol which increases the viscosity of the solution. Results
seem less satisfactory as the temperature is raised. You may need another
power supply for the higher voltage.
Greater or lesser amounts may be tried of the LiCl and Mg(ClO4)2.
Add the powders to the methanol with simultaneous stirring.
Do not reverse the voltage polarity: this introduces hydrogen into
the specimen. Keep the specimen at a positive voltage.
This approach worked well on compacted Ti nanocrystalline wafers.






From: {MACLAREI-at-ibm3090.computer-centre.birmingham.ac.uk}:ddn:wpafb
Date: 1-28-94 8:32am
Subject: Electropolishing of Titanium

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Message-Id: {9401282054.AA22451-at-riker.ml.wpafb.af.mil}
To: WALCKSD:ml:wpafb, SCHELTFJ:ml:wpafb
Subj: Electropolishing of Titanium
Orig-Author: {MACLAREI-at-ibm3090.computer-centre.birmingham.ac.uk}:ddn:wpafb
-----------------------------------------------------------
Dear all,

Thank you to the two of you (Rob Tayloe and Cameron Begg) who replied to my
earlier message concerning the electropolishing of Titanium for TEM specimens.
However I can't believe that there is no one out there that has personal
experience of preparing specimens of Ti or dilute alpha-Ti alloys for the TEM.
If there is anyone out there who has done some TEM on such materials I would be
very grateful if you could describe the specimen preparation route that you
used.

Ian MacLar





From: {MACLAREI-at-ibm3090.computer-centre.birmingham.ac.uk}:ddn:wpafb
Date: 1-28-94 8:32am
Subject: Titanium electropolishing

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Message-Id: {9401281628.AA21291-at-riker.ml.wpafb.af.mil}
To: WALCKSD:ml:wpafb, SCHELTFJ:ml:wpafb
Subj: Electropolishing of Titanium
Orig-Author: {MACLAREI-at-ibm3090.computer-centre.birmingham.ac.uk}:ddn:wpafb
-----------------------------------------------------------
Dear all,

Thank you to the two of you (Rob Tayloe and Cameron Begg) who replied to my
earlier message concerning the electropolishing of Titanium for TEM specimens.
However I can't believe that there is no one out there that has personal
experience of preparing specimens of Ti or dilute alpha-Ti alloys for the TEM.
If there is anyone out there who has done some TEM on such materials I would be
very grateful if you could describe the specimen preparation route that you
used.

Ian MacLar








From: Phil Oshel :      PO-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu
Date: 28 Jan 94 13:40:51 CST6CDT
Subject: Re: SEM - Ideas for removal of coating on Biological specim

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940128134052.576-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

} Fellow Microscopists:
} Here in the SEM lab, we scan a wide range of specimens (Insects,
} rodent teeth & skulls, fossil vertebrates & invertebrates) This is just to
} name afew. We use gold-palladium coating on these specimens. Is there
} anyone out there who has a sure fire method to remove coatings without
} damage to the specimen?
}
} Thanks in advance,
} Peling Fong Melville
}
} --------------------------------------------------------------
} Peling Melville peling-at-amnh.org
} Interdepartmental Laboratories
} American Museum of Natural History

I have never heard of such a method, and do not believe that one
exists. If I'm wrong, I would be VERY interested in hearing of it.
But why bother? A light coat of Au/Pd won't hurt specimens, and
coated SEM specimens can be embedded for TEM or LM.
If there is some compelling reason not to have a coat on your
specimen, the only choice is to examine them uncoated at low kV. This
is pretty simple for bones & teeth, and many inverts. It is also
doable with arthropods, even allowing for their setae, but you may
need to go down to 300-500 V accelerrating voltage.
Phil Oshel
po-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu




From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu
Date: Fri, 28 Jan 1994 15:30:17 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Removal of Specimen Coatings

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Peling:
Trying to remove gold-palladium coatings can be done on specimens
such as yours but it can be a pain. I have used 20-50% acetone in water
and sonicated the specimens. On some specimens this has worked and on
others it hasn't. I know of no sure fire method to do this. What you
can use instead of gold-palladium, is silver. I have removed silver off
of hard and soft tissue samples rather easily. Sometimes I need to look
at cells or whole tissue by SEM and then using the same sample for TEM.
I use silver most (95%) of the time. At high mags in the SEM silver has
a much smaller grain size than gold or gold-palladium and I get a better
signal. All it takes to remove the silver is a basic darkroom chemical
called Farmers Reducing Agent. This can be bought at just about any photo
shop. You just soak your sample in this solution (full strength) until
the silver is removed, then do what you need to do to the sample. If I
am processing for TEM, I wash the specimen 3 x 15 minutes in distilled
water first, 3 x 15 minutes in buffer and start my normal processing
routine for TEM starting with the dehydration cycle. If you have any
questions call me or Email me.
Phil Rutledge, Director
Center for Electron Microscopy
UMBC Bio. Dept.
Phone: (410) 455-3852
FAX: (410) 455-3875
Email: prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu




From: baskin-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu (Tobias Baskin)
Date: Sun, 30 Jan 1994 16:06:36 -0600
Subject: Post-Doc opportunity

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Greetings,
I am looking for a postdoc to join my lab to work on the
relationship between cellulose synthesis and morphogenesis. Experience with
either polarized light or electron microscopy, or with spatial measurements
of growth is desirable. I encourage persons of all sexes, sexual
orientations, colors, nationalities, cultures, sizes, shapes and
physicalities to apply. Please send me your cv, names and contact #'s (or
email handles) of several references, and if available, a statement of your
"world view". If you have further q's, please ask. A brief description of
the project, as funded, follows.

What is the role of cellulose deposition in controlling the degree
of growth anisotropy? Although it is well known that highly anisotropic
growth can be rendered isotropic by the randomization of the direction of
deposition of cellulose microfibrils, it is not known whether the degree of
growth anisotropy is also governed by the alignment of cellulose
microfibrils. The major approach taken in this project is to measure growth
anisotropy at a cellular scale and then quantify the alignment of cellulose
microfibrils. Cells growing at various degrees of growth anisotropy will be
obtained both by taking advantage of natural variations and through use of
low concentrations of microtubule inhibitors. Cellulose alignment will be
quantified throughout the whole wall with polarized light microscopy and at
the innermost layer in metal-carbon replicas viewed in em. Experimental
material will be roots of Arabidopsis and elongating tissue culture cells.
There is support to work with Prof Andrew Staehelin at Boulder to use
rapid-freezing deep etch techniques to make replicas without previous
fixation. The project will also focus on several root morphology mutants in
arabidopsis. These appear to have tissue-specific defects in cellulose
deposition, and the relation between their processing of cellulose and
their aberrant morphology will be studied.

Thanks for your interest,

Tobias Baskin


******************************** ***************
Tobias I. Baskin
109 Tucker Hall /~~~\
Biol. Sci's * Univ. of Missouri c|o o\
Columbia, MO 65211 USA \ = /
Tel:314-882-0173 FAX 314 - 882 - 0123 """
email: baskin-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu





From: JOHNA-at-SCI.WFEB.EDU
Date: 31 Jan 1994 09:49:17 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: removing SEM specimen coatings

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Message-Id: {Chameleon.940131095457.tonygr-at-emlab.mit.edu}

Years ago we used to study cultured hepatocytes with SEM. These cell were
coated with gold/palladium. Following SEM studies we would embed these
specimens in epon and section the same cells for TEM. This worked
beautifully and gave the cells an interesting electron dense outline. Our
SEM fix, of course, was a good glutaraldehyde/osmium fix so that the TEM
fine stucture was good.

John Aghajanian.........JOHNA-at-sci.wfeb.edu




From: baskin-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu (Tobias Baskin)
Date: Mon, 31 Jan 1994 11:16:37 -0600
Subject: TEM:35 vs 45 diamond knives

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Greetings,
Does anyone have any comments on the new(ish) 35 degree diamond
knives that are sold by Diatome (and others?)? I am interested in comments
about "ambient temperature" knives, not "cryo" knives. The Tech Staff at
Diatome say that the 35 degree knives reduce compression in some samples
but not all. They further said that there were NO disadvantages to the 35
degree knives. My application is with growing plant tissues, such as roots.


I am a newcomer to electron microscopy and I appreciate help from
the many wise folks who are a part of this list.

Thanks in advance,
Tobias Baskin

******************************** ***************
Tobias I. Baskin
109 Tucker Hall /~~~\
Biol. Sci's * Univ. of Missouri c|o o\
Columbia, MO 65211 USA \ = /
Tel:314-882-0173 FAX 314 - 882 - 0123 """
email: baskin-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu





From: e-reuter-at-uiuc.edu (Erik Reuter)
Date: Mon, 31 Jan 1994 08:12:36 -0600
Subject: LM: Laser Illumination for light microscopy

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X-Sender: reuter-at-ux1.cso.uiuc.edu
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

I am investigating methods of laser illumination for light microscopy.
Specifically, I would like recommendations on methods of get uniform laser
illumination free of laser speckle and noise. I am aware of one reference,

Ellis, G. W., "A fiber-optic phase-randomizer for microscope illumination
by laser" _J. Cell. Bio._, vol 83, p303a.

but it is rather old, 1979, and I wonder if there are better ways of doing
it nowadays. It was suggested to me that a phase randomized fiber bundle
might do the trick. I was wondering if anyone has tried this? Although the
spatial phases of the light will then vary across the fiber bundle area, I
wonder if you will still get a well defined interference pattern, which
will require vibration to average away and obtain uniform illumination?

Any ideas, experiences, or references will be appreciated. And I will
summarize to the list the information I receive.

Thanks, eer


Erik Reuter, e-reuter-at-uiuc.edu, 217-244-6378(W), 359-4683(H), 244-6375 fax






From: e-reuter-at-uiuc.edu (Erik Reuter)
Date: Mon, 31 Jan 1994 08:12:41 -0600
Subject: LM: high resolution near infra-red microscope objective

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We are in the market to purchase some microscope objectives to operate in
the near infra-red, wavelength range of 700nm to 1100nm, to be used in a
lab-built microscope. We would like to achieve the highest resolution
allowed by diffraction at these wavelengths (~ 1 micron?) with dry
objectives.

The microscope consists of a coaxial laser illuminator, a dichroic beam
splitter, an objective lens, and a eyepiece/C-mount adapter/video camera.
We are examining III/V semiconductor samples.

I would like to hear your experiences and recommendations on suppliers or
manufacturers of infra-red microscope objectives. Are reflecting objectives
our best bet? Who makes the best reflecting objectives? In order to obtain
the best performance, should we purchase the objectives together with
eyepiece/C-mount adapter or camera adapters, since the objectives are
probably made for a specific correction?

Thanks, eer


Erik Reuter, e-reuter-at-uiuc.edu, 217-244-6378(W), 359-4683(H), 244-6375 fax






From: KARL3::DJOVIN :      djovin-at-karl3.dnet.gwdg.de
Date: Tue, 01 Feb 1994 01:19:01 +0100
Subject: LM:laser illumination

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You can get excellent illumination by using a single-mode,
polarization preserving fiber coupled to an output beam expander
and collimator to achieve the desired beam size for input into
a CLSM for example (6 mm). BY using an adjustable collimator
the gaussian beam shape is preserved at any size beam and can
be adjusted to the proper back focal plane size of your objective.

All multi-mode fibers will give speckles and you have to do
something to scramble this at the output (vibration, optical
scramblers). See the literature on fiber optics to see why
this is always going to happen to your original gaussian beam.

We have a nice fiber and input coupler from Point Source
in Winchester, England FAX 44-703-602470 and are using
a Spindler & Hoyer output coupler, Goettingen, FRG
FAX 49-551-69-35-166.

Donna Jovin




From: Jouko M{ki :      jokamaki-at-utu.fi
Date: Tue, 1 Feb 1994 08:29:42 +0200
Subject: Re: removing SEM specimen coatings

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On Mon, 31 Jan 1994 16:49:17 +0200, { JOHNA-at-SCI.WFEB.EDU} wrote:

}
} Years ago we used to study cultured hepatocytes with SEM. These cell were
} coated with gold/palladium. Following SEM studies we would embed these
} specimens in epon and section the same cells for TEM. This worked
} beautifully and gave the cells an interesting electron dense outline. Our
} SEM fix, of course, was a good glutaraldehyde/osmium fix so that the TEM
} fine stucture was good.
}
} John Aghajanian.........JOHNA-at-sci.wfeb.edu


I do not understand why people want to get rid of the coating. It does not
harm the TEM-specimen preparation. It does not harm the images. So what's
the big need for removal.
Actually, if I see a report stating that the same specimen has been first
examined in a SEM with a metal coating and then prepared for TEM and there
is no evidence of metal coating, bells would ring in my head and I would
doubt wether the same samples are in question or not.

/jm

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Jouko K. Maki Navigare necesse est...
Laboratory Manager, Ph.D.
Laboratory of Electron Microscopy Kiinamyllynkatu 10 FIN-20520 TURKU FINLAND
University of Turku Tel.: + 358 21 633 7318
INTERNET: jouko.maki-at-utu.fi FAX.: + 358 21 633 7380




From: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
Date: Tue, 01 Feb 1994 11:41:41 +0000
Subject: Abstracts for the February 1994 issue of the Journal of Microscopy

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html

Sender: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
74250.331-at-COMPUSERVE.COM, ROSS.MACKENZIE-at-OX.AC.UK,
MICROSCOPY-at-ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV
Message-ID: {0097967F.C6A04FFE.3413-at-vax.ox.ac.uk}


ABSTRACTS FOR THE JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY - FEBRUARY 1994



Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 2, February 1994, pp.
87--101.

ESTIMATION OF THE DIRECTIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF SPATIAL FIBRE
PROCESSES USING STEREOLOGY AND CONFOCAL SCANNING LASER MICROSCOPY

T. MATTFELDT,* A. CLARKE"" & G. ARCHENHOLD"", *Department of
Pathology, University of Ulm, Oberer Eselsberg M23, D-89081 Ulm,
Germany. ""Molecular Physics and Instrumentation Group,
Department of Physics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, U.K.

Fibrous structures like polymers, glass fibres, muscle fibres and
capillaries are important components of materials and tissues. A
spatial fibre process is the union of smoothly curved or linear
one-dimensional features of finite length, arranged in an
unbounded three-dimensional reference space according to some
random mechanism. Design-based stereology was combined with
confocal scanning laser microscopy to study samples of
fibre-reinforced composites, which were considered as
realizations of not necessarily isotropic fibre processes. The
methods enable the unbiased estimation of the intensity and of
the directional distribution of spatial fibre processes from
arbitrarily directed pairs of registered parallel optical
sections a known distance apart. The directions of fibres sampled
by a frame of observation on the reference plane are estimated
from the coordinates of the intersection points of the fibres
with both optical planes using confocal scanning laser
microscopy. The true directional distribution of the fibre
process is estimated by weighting each measured direction by the
reciprocal of its chance of being sampled, which can be inferred
from the data. The concept of complete directional randomness for
uniformly and independently distributed spatial directions is
introduced. The cumulative distribution function of the angular
distances between different directions and other exact relations
are derived for complete randomness of vectorial and axial
directions. A Monte Carlo method is constructed to test spatial
fibre processes, whose fibres have negligibly small curvature,
for complete directional randomness. Confocal scanning laser
microscopy was used to study the angular distribution of glass
fibres in a polymer composite which was subjected to increasing
hydrostatic extrusion. The hypothesis of complete directional
randomness had to be rejected for all samples with 1% probability
of error. The directional distribution was of the bipolar type,
with the principal axis directed parallel to the axis of
extrusion. Progressive stretching of the material increased the
degree of anisotropy of the glass fibres. Although presented for
an application in polymer physics, the methods are general and
may also be applied in biological investigations.

******************************************************************

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 2, February 1994, pp.
103--114.

AUTOMATED TRACING AND VOLUME MEASUREMENTS OF NEURONS FROM 3-D
CONFOCAL FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY DATA

A. R. COHEN,* B. ROYSAM* & J. N. TURNER*"", *ECSE Department,
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180-3590, U.S.A. ""
Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, New York State
Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201-0509, U.S.A.

Three-dimensional (3-D) image analysis algorithms and
experimental results that demonstrate the feasibility of fully
automated tracing of neurons from fluorescence confocal
microscopy data are presented. The input to the automated
analysis is a set of successive optical slices that have been
acquired using a confocal scanning laser microscope. The output
of the system is a labelled graph representation of the neuronal
topology that is spatially aligned with the 3-D image data. A
variety of topological and metric analyses can be carried out
using this representation. For instance, precise measurements of
volumes, lengths, diameters and tortuosities can be made over
specific portions of the neuron that are specified in terms of
the graph representation. The effectiveness of the method is
demonstrated for a set of sample fields featuring selectively
stained neurons. Additional work will be needed to refine the
method for unsupervised use with complex data involving multiple
intertwined neurons and extremely fine dendritic structures.

*****************************************************************

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 2, February 1994, pp.
115--126.

ALGORITHMS FOR AUTOMATED CHARACTERIZATION OF CELL POPULATIONS IN
THICK SPECIMENS FROM 3-D CONFOCAL FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY DATA

B. ROYSAM,* H. ANCIN,* A. K. BHATTACHARJYA,* M. A. CHISTI,"" R.
SEEGAL"" & J. N. TURNER"", *Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,
Troy, NY 12180-3590, U.S.A. "" Wadsworth Center for Laboratories
and Research, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY
12201-0509, U.S.A.

Methods are presented for the automated, quantitative and
three-dimensional (3-D) analysis of cell populations in thick,
essentially intact tissue sections while maintaining intercell
spatial relationships. This analysis replaces current manual
methods which are tedious and subjective.
the thick sample is imaged in three dimensions using a confocal
scanning laser microscope. The stack of optical slices is
processed by a 3-D segmentation algorithm that separates touching
and overlapping structures using localization constraints.
Adaptive data reduction is used to achieve computational
efficiency. A hierarchical cluster analysis algorithm is used
automatically to characterize the cell population by a variety of
cell features. It allows automatic detection and characterization
of patterns such as the 3-D spatial clustering of cells, and the
relative distributions of cells of various sizes. It also permits
the detection of structures that are much smaller, larger,
brighter, darker, or differently shaped than the rest of the
population. The overall method is demonstrated for a set of rat
brain tissue sections that were labelled for tyrosine hydroxylase
using fluorescein-conjugated antibodies. The automated system was
verified by comparison with computer-assisted manual counts from
the same image fields.

****************************************************************

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 2, February 1994, pp.
127--141.

MEASUREMENT OF ABSOLUTE TRACER CONCENTRATIONS IN TISSUE SECTIONS
BY USING DIGITAL IMAGING FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY. APPLICATION TO
THE STUDY OF PLASMA PROTEIN UPTAKE BY THE ARTERIAL WALL

P. D. Weinberg,* C. P. Winlove"" & K. H. Parker"", *Department
of Biochemistry and Physiology, University of Reading,
Whiteknights, PO Box 228, Reading RG6 2AJ, U.K. "" Centre for
Biological and Medical Systems, Imperial College of Science,
Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BY,
U.K.

Digital imaging fluorescence microscopy (DIFM) of tissue sections
was used to quantify uptake of labelled plasma proteins by the
arterial wall. Several aspects of the measuring system were
investigated so that absolute tracer concentrations and their
local variation could be derived from digitized images. These
investigations may be relevant to other studies employing DIFM.
Nonlinearities were found to arise from offsets in the video
digitizers, from background fluorescence and stray light within
the microscope and from the transfer characteristics of the
intensified CCD camera. Camera gain controls showed complex
behaviour. Camera output fell substantially for several hours
after switching on and was affected by room temperature. Large
spatial variations in response were caused by the geometry of the
microscope optics and by the image intensifier. However, the
ratios between areas were not affected by light intensity or
camera gain settings. Measured intensities were independent of
the depthwise location of fluorophores within tissue sections but
they were affected by the emission from objects outside the
measuring area. Photobleaching of tracer varied significantly
over the range of excitation intensities and durations used but
was not concentration dependent. Methods used to correct these
effects and obtain a uniform, linear and constant relationship
between concentration and grey level are described.
Using the system and appropriate corrections, in vivo uptake of
sulphorhodamine-B-labelled serum albumin by the rabbit aortic
wall was investigated. Results obtained for the mean uptake of
tracer and its local variation were quantitatively similar to
those previously obtained with nonmicroscopic methods.

****************************************************************

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 2, February 1994, pp.
143--147.

A CRYOGLUE TO MOUNT VITREOUS BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS FOR
CRYOULTRAMICROTOMY

K. RICHTER, Laboratoire d'Analyse Ultrastructurale, CH-1015
Lausanne, Switzerland

Mixtures of ethanol, 2-propanol and 2-butanol can be used as a
cryoglue to mount vitrified biological specimens for ultrathin
cryosectioning. Brought directly from room temperature to a
cutting support at 140 K in the cold chamber of a
cryoultramicrotome, these alcohols stiffen to a viscous and gluey
consistency allowing the attachment or embedding of a vitreous
biological sample. The mass hardens at lower temperatures fixing
the sample well for microtomy. With ethanol: 2-propanol (2:3),
samples are applied at 140 K and ultrathin cutting can be done at
115 K.

******************************************************************

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 2, February 1994, pp.
149--154.

THE USE OF THE STABLE ISOTOPE 44Ca IN STUDIES OF CALCIUM
INCORPORATION INTO DENTIN

T. LUNDGREN, E. U. ENGSTROM,* R. LEVI-SETTI+, A. LINDE & J. G.
NOREN++, Departments of Oral Biochemistry and ++ Pedodontics,
Faculty of Odontology, University of Goteborg, Sweden. *
Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
+ Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of
Chicago, U.S.A.

The incorporation into rat incisor dentin of two calcium
isotopes, the stable 44Ca and the radioactive 45Ca, was studied
using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) step-scanning and
imaging, and autoradiography, respectively. The results
demonstrated a time-dependent incorporation of the calcium
isotopes into the mineral phase of dentin. With the SIMS
step-scanning, detecting 44Ca, the ion yield was high in the
odontoblasts 2 min after intravenous injection. After 10 min a
marked increase in signal intensity was found at the dentin
mineralization front. This result was consistent with those
obtained by 45Ca autoradiography; a peak of incorporation
occurred 10 min after injection of the isotope. Likewise,
localization of 44Ca to the mineralization front could be
demonstrated 10 min after injection by SIMS imaging. In images
obtained at earlier intervals, no such increase in ion yield
could be detected. The results show that the nonradioactive,
stable isotope 44Ca can be used as a marker for biomineralization
in a similar way to radioactive 45Ca.

******************************************************************

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 2, February 1994, pp.
155--164.

STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF CELL WALLS FROM TOMATO CELLS ADAPTED TO
GROW ON THE HERBICIDE 2,6-DICHLOROBENZONITRILE

B. WELLS,* M. C. McCANN,* E. SHEDLETZKY,"" D. DELMER"" & K.
ROBERTS*, * Department of Cell Biology, John Innes Institute,
Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UH, U.K. "" Department of Botany,
Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem
91904, Israel

Evidence from high-resolution images of primary cell walls
suggests that the cell wall is constructed from at least two
independent yet coextensive fibrous networks, one based on
cellulose/hemicellulose and the other on pectin. The ability to
analyse the structure of each of these networks in isolation has
been hampered by a lack of suitable biological material such as
mutants. However, the recent use of the cellulose-synthesis
inhibitor 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB) that prevents the
formation of the cellulose--xyloglucan network while allowing the
pectin network to form a functional wall offers the unique
opportunity of studying at least the pectin network
independently. A range of electron microscopy techniques and a
novel spectroscopy method are used to study the walls from tomato
suspension cells adapted to growth on DCB. Measurements of the
minimum cell wall thickness derived from thin sections of
dehydrated walls show that the marked reduction in level of the
cellulose/hemicellulose network affects neither the thickness of
the wall formed, nor the apparent spacing of pectin molecules.
However, images obtained by the fast-freeze, deep-etch,
rotary-shadowed (FDR) replica technique show that the
three-dimensional architecture of these pectin-rich walls is very
different from that of nonadapted walls. Fourier transform
infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy data and immunogold-labelling
studies provide additional evidence that supports the previous
biochemical data.

****************************************************************

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 2, February 1994, pp.
165--172.

A PARTICLE SEGMENTATION METHOD BASED ON NUCLEATION AND GROWTH OF
THE BACKGROUND

XIN ZHENG & MAX KOLB"", Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique, Ecole
Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46, Allee d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex
07, France. Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, CNRS, 2, Ave.
A. Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex, France

A new algorithm for image segmentation is proposed, which is
capable of extracting particles in the presence of noise and
background fluctuations. It begins with the detection of small
regions belonging to the background, called background nuclei,
and then lets these nuclei grow to become the entire background.
Edge information and region information of the image are used
simultaneously.

******************************************************************

JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY TEL +44 (0)865 248768
37/38 ST CLEMENTS FAX +44 (0)865 791237
OXFORD OX4 1AJ EMAIL rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
UNITED KINGDOM

Or, alternatively, for US and Canadian contributions:

JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY TEL +1 215 758 4222
C/O PROFESSOR DAVID WILLIAMS FAX +1 215 758 4244
MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING EMAIL dbw1-at-lehigh.edu
LEHIGH UNIVERSITY
BETHLEHEM PA 18015-3195
USA

*******************************************************************

TO OBTAIN A FREE SAMPLE COPY OF THE JOURNAL PLEASE CONTACT:
MISS ANNA RIVERS, BLACKWELL SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS LTD, FAX +44
(0)865 721 205.

PERSONAL SUBSCRIPTIONS ARE AVAILABLE AT A REDUCED RATE TO MEMBERS
OF THE ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY, THE MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY OF
AMERICA, AND THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR STEREOLOGY. MEMBERS
SHOULD CONTACT THEIR SOCIETY FOR DETAILS. A PERSONAL RATE IS ALSO
AVAILABLE FROM BLACKWELL SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS LTD. FOR DETAILS
OF THE PERSONAL RATE CONTACT MISS ANNA RIVERS.

********************************************************************




From: Phil Oshel :      PO-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu
Date: 1 Feb 94 08:01:22 CST6CDT
Subject: Re: yet more on removing SEM specimen coatings

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940201080121.320-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

I second Jouko Maki's opinion below. I've never noticed that the
metal coating on the specimen causes any damage (or other problems)
to the knife in sectioning, & it can be cut with a glass knife. So,
the presence of the coating could be considered required to
demonstrate that the section was taken from a SEM specimen.
Phil Oshel

} From: "Jouko M{ki" {jokamaki-at-utu.fi}
} Subject: Re: removing SEM specimen coatings
...
} } Years ago we used to study cultured hepatocytes with SEM. These cell were
} } coated with gold/palladium. Following SEM studies we would embed these
} } specimens in epon and section the same cells for TEM. This worked
} } beautifully and gave the cells an interesting electron dense outline. Our
} } SEM fix, of course, was a good glutaraldehyde/osmium fix so that the TEM
} } fine stucture was good.
} }
} } John Aghajanian.........JOHNA-at-sci.wfeb.edu
...
} I do not understand why people want to get rid of the coating. It
does not
} harm the TEM-specimen preparation. It does not harm the images. So what's
} the big need for removal.
} Actually, if I see a report stating that the same specimen has been first
} examined in a SEM with a metal coating and then prepared for TEM and there
} is no evidence of metal coating, bells would ring in my head and I would
} doubt wether the same samples are in question or not.
}
} /jm
}
} - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
} Jouko K. Maki Navigare necesse est...
} Laboratory Manager, Ph.D.
} Laboratory of Electron Microscopy Kiinamyllynkatu 10 FIN-20520 TURKU FINLAND
} University of Turku Tel.: + 358 21 633 7318
} INTERNET: jouko.maki-at-utu.fi FAX.: + 358 21 633 7380
}




From: JOHNA-at-SCI.WFEB.EDU
Date: 01 Feb 1994 09:59:50 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: 35 vs 45 diamond knives

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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In my efforts to produce even better sections of these 35 um glass beads, I
spoke with the folks at Diatome last week. They advised me to try a new 45
degree diamond knife (I had asked her about a 55 degree knife as someone
had suggested on this bulletin board) and then to try a 35 degree knife.
They predicted that we would get our best sections with the 35 knife.
Sectioning glass beads with a 35 knife, of course, would cause Gib
Ahlstrand to cringe. But we're going to try it to see how it goes.
I'll keep you abreast of our progress. The prediction is: good sections
and a very short edge life.

Cheers: John Aghajanian JohnA-at-sci.wfeb.edu J




From: Tim Maugel :      MAUGEL-at-zool.umd.edu
Date: Tue, 1 Feb 1994 11:41:57 GMT+500
Subject: SEM SHORT COURSE

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Message-Id: {9402011548.AA10683-at-umail.UMD.EDU}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov


************************************************************************
The University of Maryland Short Course

PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

Session I: March 14 - March 18, 1994

Session II : March 21 - March 25, 1994

This intensive four an one-half day course provides participants
with a thorough coverage of the basic theory and practice of scanning
electron microscopy and related techniques, including X-ray
microanalysis. The course employs easy to understand lectures
coupled with supervised laboratory exercises to provide practical
instruction in the operation of scanning electron microscopes
equipped with modern accessories. Class size is limited assuring
those attending of the opportunity for extensive hands on experience
on the instrumentation available. Attendees in the past have
represented a broad range of disciplines (materials, semiconductors,
failure analysis, pharmaceuticals, food science, forensics, biology,
etc.).

For more information about the course, contact:
Tim Maugel
University of Maryland
Department of Zoology
College Park, MD 20742
Phone : (301)405-6898
Fax : (301)314-9358
E-Mail : maugel-at-zool.umd.edu
***************************************************************************
Tim Maugel
University of Maryland
Laboratory for Biological Ultrastructure
Department of Zoology
College Park, MD 20742
Phone: (301)405-6898
Fax: (301)314-9358
EMail: tm11-at-umail.umd.edu




From: *Anatomo Pathologie :      anapat-at-reks.uia.ac.be
Date: Mon, 31 Jan 1994 11:23:15 +0100 (MET)
Subject: Os treatement on grid

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X-Nupop-Charset: English


Hi,

We are using Unicryl as embedding medium for immunoEM experiments. One of
the problems is that you cannot use Os before embedding. Does anyone have
experience with on grid Os after immuno. Which grids? Which protocol?

Thanks

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen (UIA)
Lab Pathology
2610 Wilrijk
BELGIUM

Tel: 32.3.820.25.34
Fax: 32.3.820.22.48
E-mail: anapat-at-uia.ac.be
-------------------------------------------------------------------





From: *Anatomo Pathologie :      anapat-at-reks.uia.ac.be
Date: Wed, 2 Feb 1994 11:26:22 +0100 (MET)
Subject: ploidy analysis

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Message-Id: {Chameleon.940201135753.tonygr-at-emlab.mit.edu}


Hi,

We are at the moment trying to use a Vidas system from Kontron to do some
ploidy analysis using Feulgen. We have to calibrate the system using well
known 2n, 3n, 4n , .... cells. Does anyone have an idea were to get such
celllines or slides for calibration.

Thanks


--------------------------------------------------------------------
Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen (UIA)
Lab Pathology
2610 Wilrijk
BELGIUM

Tel: 32.3.820.25.34
Fax: 32.3.820.22.48
E-mail: anapat-at-uia.ac.be
-------------------------------------------------------------------





From: rsartore-at-monmouth-etdl1.army.mil (Sartore, Richard G.)
Date: Wed, 02 Feb 1994 13:31 +0000
Subject: CHLORINE IN RIE ETCHING

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CHLORINE GAS in RIE Etching

Thanks to everyone for the many useful comments on scrubbers used
for RIE etching. There seems to be a consensus that some sort of
scrubbers are required before exhausting into atmosphere. I have
checked some of the chemical supply house and point of use scrub-
bers are available for modest cost as suggested. If a scrubber is
not already attached to main exhaust in the laborstory, the point
of use scrubber would be more than adequate for low or moderate
users of the RIE system.

Chlorine gas for etching aluminium presents a more costly problem
due to its toxicity and the safety requirements for using in an
enclosed laboratory. Does anyone have experience/recommendation
for alternative gases for the aluminium etch that would not have
toxicity requirments for handling and operation and as a conse-
quence be less costly to handle/use.


Thanks again.

Richard Sartore
US Army Research LAboratory
AMSRL-EP-RA
Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703
RSARTORE-at-MONMOUTH-ETDL1.ARMY.MIL










From: John Mansfield :      John_Mansfield-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 2 Feb 1994 16:51:27 U
Subject: Call for papers: ESEM Symp.

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"Microscopy Mailing List" {microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov}
CC: "Roger Bolon" {bolonrb-at-crd.ge.com} ,
John_Mansfield-at-mse.engin.umich.edu,
"Stuart McKernan" {stuartm-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu}

John Mansfield
North Campus Electron Microbeam Analysis Lab
University of Michigan
2455 Hayward
Ann Arbor MI 48109-2143
Phone: (313)936-3352 FAX (313)936-3352
jfmjfm-at-engin.umich.edu or John.F.Mansfield-at-umich.edu Time: 4:49
PM
Date:2/2/94
NC EMAL

Applications of Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

Dear Fellow ESEM, Wet SEM & Low Vacuum SEM User(s):

Many of the electron microscope manufacturers now offer an "environmental",
"low-vacuum" or "wet" SEM as part of their product lines. These instruments
have the unique capability of forming secondary or back-scattered electron
images while the sample is in what would typically be considered an extremely
poor vacuum. While novel, these instruments have not yet been taken too
seriously by the microscopy community.

To highlight the flexibility and functionality of these low-vacuum systems,
this year's joint Microscopy Society of America and Microbeam Analysis Society
meeting in New Orleans will feature a symposium sponsored by MAS entitled
"Applications of Environmental or Low-Vacuum Scanning Electron Microscopy".

This is an invitation to you and your colleagues to contribute papers to this
symposium.

This symposium will be broadly based and not material, instrument or technique
specific. Submissions covering novel in-situ experiments; advances in
hot-stage, cold-stage or deformation microscopies and studies on non-conducting
materials, ceramics, polymers etc., liquids and emulsions are encouraged. More
"conventional" SEM experiments performed in an environmental SEM are also
appropriate

Organizers:
Roger Bolon
General Electric
Corporate R&D Building K-1
Schenectady NY 12309
Tel: (518) 387-7783
email: bolonrb-at-crd.ge.com

Stuart McKernan
University of Minnesota
High-Resolution Microscopy Center
100 Union St. S.E.
Minneapolis MN 55455-0153
Tel.: (612) 624-6590
e-mail: stuartm-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu

John Mansfield
University of Michigan
North Campus EMAL
413 SRB
2455 Hayward
Ann Arbor MI 48109-2143
Tel: (313) 936-3552
email: John.F.Mansfield-at-umich.edu

Abstract deadline is 15th March
Please submit TWO PAGE manuscripts (plus three copies) to: Meeting Office, PO
Box EM, Woods Hole MA 02543.







From: Phil Oshel :      PO-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu
Date: 3 Feb 94 07:36:07 CST6CDT
Subject: taking impressions

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} From: lherault-at-acs.bu.edu (Ronald LHerault)
} Date: Wed, 2 Feb 94 12:33:32 -0500
} To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
} Subject: Removing coatings.

} We often use replication on specimens that can't be changed by coating.
} Since this is a dental school, we have ready access to polyvynil
} oops, polyvinyl siloxane impression materials. The negatives produced
} are filled with Spurr low viscosity embedding material and oven cured.
} We then mount and coat the specimen for SEM. The only time I ever
} had a problem was when I took an impression of a sand dollar. The
} impression material stuck in the many pores o the saample.

I am not familiar with this material, other than having it used
on me--is it anything like silicone bathtub chaulk? I've used that to
fill the lateral line canals of fish, and have gotten very nice
impressions of the sensory neuromasts, sensory strip and all
(including possible pits of hair cells!?)
Phil Oshel
please see c.v. on MSA bulletin board--job cut








From: KUNDMANN-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Thu, 3 Feb 1994 22:10:29 -0600 (CST)
Subject: EELS imaging and analysis school

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A few spaces remain in the upcoming school on EELS imaging and analysis
techniques to be held at the Gatan R&D facility in Pleasanton, California
during 1-4 March 1994. The school covers the basic theory and practice
of electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy filtered imaging in
transmission electron microscopy and provides opportunities for hands-on
experience with these techniques, both in data acquisition directly
at the microscope and in data analysis at computer work stations.
Registration is open to all interested parties. The school is run at cost,
the registration fee of US $750 covering tuition, course materials, and
lunches (travel, hotel, and other meals are not included).
For further information, please contact

Mike Kundmann
Gatan EELS Software R&D
6040 Washington Street
Downers Grove, IL 60516-1978
USA
(708) 964-2153 (24-hour voice message and/or fax)




From: KUNDMANN-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Thu, 3 Feb 1994 23:00:42 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Digital microscopy school

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Spaces remain in the upcoming school on Digital Microscopy to be held at
the Gatan R&D facility in Pleasanton, California during 22-25 February 1994.
The school covers digital image capture and analysis techniques and their
application to computer-assisted operation of scanning and (fixed-beam)
transmission electron microscopes. The school also provides opportunities
for hands-on experience with these techniques, both in image capture directly
at the SEM or TEM and in data analysis at computer work stations. Registration
is open to all interested parties. The school is run at cost, the registration
fee of US $750 covering tuition, course materials, and lunches (travel, hotel,
and other meals are not included). For further information, please contact

Jacob Wilbrink
Gatan R&D
6678 Owens Drive
Pleasanton, CA 94588-3334
USA
Phone: (510) 224-7316 (24-hour voice mail)
Fax: (510) 463-0204




From: Francisco Javier H Blazquez :      fjhblazq-at-fox.cce.usp.br
Date: Fri, 4 Feb 1994 17:59:31 -0300 (BST)
Subject: Panthera pardus epidermis

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I'm interested in the morphology of Panthera Pardus epidermis.
Does anyone know if there is something unusual about the epithelial
cells of this animal skin?

=============================================================================
Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez |
Universidade de Sao Paulo - Faculdade de | e-mail fjhblazq-at-fox.cce.usp.br
Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos | Voice: 55 195 616122 r. 265
Departamento de Ciencias Basicas/Histologia|
Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225 CP 23 | Fax: 55 195 611689
CEP 13630-000 Pirassununga (Sao Paulo) |
BRAZIL |
==============================================================================







From: Jeffrey.Shield-at-mse.utah.edu (Jeffrey E. Shield)
Date: Fri, 4 Feb 1994 14:55:34 -0700
Subject: Image processing

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Message-Id: {199402042153.OAA07897-at-fcom.cc.utah.edu}

We are attempting to set up some image processing capabilities on our SEM.
Does anyone have any information on systems that can do image analysis
(particle size, phases, etc) on a pc or Mac. Any comments on likes and
dislikes would be extremely helpful, as would neighborhood prices.

Thanks!!





From: chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU (John Chandler)
Date: Fri, 4 Feb 1994 16:25:46 -0700
Subject: Re: Image processing

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Message-Id: {199402042201.AA00887-at-mail.mmmg.com}

} We are attempting to set up some image processing capabilities on our SEM.
} Does anyone have any information on systems that can do image analysis
} (particle size, phases, etc) on a pc or Mac. Any comments on likes and
} dislikes would be extremely helpful, as would neighborhood prices.
}
} Thanks!!

A little more information would be helpful. Do you want to do image
capture and then analysis of those images? Is your SEM analog or digital?
Do you want EDS, too?

One excellent option to look at is the system from 4pi Analysis, Inc.
Their system can interface with digital or analog scopes. They capture
into NIH-Image, the public domain program from NIH that runs on the Mac.
They can also add the capability to do EDS, but that's not required. Their
prices are very reasonable. Their image capture board, which resides in a
NuBus slot takes control of the beam for slow scanned images.

I saw one of their units in a busy, high volume, high quality lab that
could buy pretty much what they want. They have the 4pi and tell me
they're very pleased with it.

Dapple also has a system for image capture. Theirs is passive, and takes
the image the scope gives it. It's also much more expensive.

4pi Analysis, Inc.
3500 Westgate Drive, Suite 403
Durham, NC 27707
(919) 489-1757

Dapple Systems, Inc.
355 W Olive Ave. #100
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
(408) 733-3283

John chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU Fort Collins, CO





From: Glen Macdonald :      glenmac-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Fri, 4 Feb 1994 21:27:42 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: Image processing

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X-Sender: glenmac-at-carson.u.washington.edu

We've simply cabled a framegrabber board from a mac running NIH Image to
the SEM video port. This means manually synching the grab to the scan
sweep, but its cheap and effective. You could probably do the same with
any PC based image system. I've read about the 4pi system and that would
prbably be our choice when our needs for SEM digital capture expand.
Glen MacDonald
Hearing Development Laboratories RL-30
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195
(206)543-8360
glenmac-at-u.washington.edu






From: Keith R. Hallam :      k.r.hallam-at-bristol.ac.uk
Date: Sat, 5 Feb 1994 17:30:12 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: CCD camera / computer video recording

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Message-Id: {25246.9402051730-at-irix.bris.ac.uk}

I want to take the image from a ccd camera on my optical microscope, combine
it with just a few parameters (temperature, sample positioning, etc) output
from a pc and combine them for recoding on a video recorder. Anyone got any
ideas?

Thankyou,

Keith Hallam






From: Linda Jacobs :      ljacobs-at-bigcat.missouri.edu
Date: Sat, 5 Feb 1994 17:56:49 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Computer Program to Control Microscope

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I am not a subscriber to the list. Please post to me personally. If
requested, I will summarize responses as best I can.

A friend is looking for a computer
program written in C or
Pascal (or any language compatible with the hardware) that would enable
her to use the arrow keys on the PC keyboard to move a mechanical
microscope stage in the x and y directions via a PC21 Indexer card and
compumotor stepper motor. We are looking for program or possible source
for program or better place to post this request. Thanks for your help.


Linda Jacobs
Ljacobs-at-bigcat.missouri.edu







From: ARGIL-at-delphi.com
Date: Sat, 05 Feb 1994 22:17:20 -0500 (EST)
Subject: ccd image anotations

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Keith Hallam writes:
} I just want to take the image from a ccd camera... a few parameters ...

Just thought I would offer you the following:

My company makes a series of small devices called video marking and measuring
systems. They hook up in series with the video to your monitor and give you
all kinds of capabilities. For example:
Add labels to the image. You choose the size and style.
Add markers. Choose among 16 styles, up to 16 different ones at once
Use a stopwatch
Count things by marking them. Tally shows on screen.
Measure distances, areas, pathlengths, radius, lots of options.
Draw anything at all freehand.
Put up grids, targets, reference ruler.
Other stuff that I can't think of right now.
Oh.. Send data to a printer or pc.

This may not be what you were looking for, but these systems were designed
for microscope use, and are being used by quite a few people at this time.
They have only been out for about 6 months.

The problem, I think, is that you wanted to take the data from your pc
automatically. This system can't do that, but it does offer a lot of
things that you may find useful.

The marking and measurement system is called the XR-2000 series, and comes
in a few flavors, depending on what type of video you have.

We also make a stand alone real time video processor called the OMNEX
which does many of these things and also video averaging, integration,
memory stuff, low light camera control, and all kinds of other things.

The XR-2000 marking and measurement systems cost around $1700 depending
on the type of video. The OMNEX processor is about $5350.

If you would like to know more, send me a note.

Good luck,

Arthur Gillman
Princeton, NJ




From: Barbara Reine :      reine-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Sun, 6 Feb 1994 15:04:45 -0800 (PST)
Subject: ICEM13

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X-Sender: reine-at-carson.u.washington.edu

ICEM13, July 17-22, 1994 in Paris, France

Deadline for advance registration and submission of papers for the ICEM13
in Paris is March 1, 1994. Before March 1st the registration fee is
2000FFR and after March 1st it increases to 2200FFR. Student registration
is 1100 FFR at all times, including at the meeting. Due to problems with
the mail, the organizing committee will be reasonably flexible about
accepting the "before 1st March" rate. If registrations are post marked
by the 1st of March, they will be accepted at the advance registration
rate.

As for abstracts, they can also be flexible. Everyone must send a copy of
their contribution to the ICEM13 before March 1st, using either fax or
email for the text. These can then be sent to the symposia chair for
review. HOWEVER, the printed copies with complete illustrations must
reach France before the contributions go to the printers. If the
fully-illustrated printed contributions are not received in time, they
may be accepted as talks or posters, but will not appear in the
proceedings.

To receive registration information, etc. (the 3rd Circular) for the
Paris ICEM13, contact Dr. Bernard Jouffrey directly by email at:
jouffrey-at-mssmat.ecp.fr or by fax at: 33 1 41 13 14 30. Send your name,
address, fax no., and email no.

Barbara Reine
MSA Secretary





From: Ross Mackenzie :      ross.mackenzie-at-Materials.oxford.ac.uk
Date: 7 Feb 1994 09:34:28 +0000
Subject: RMS Information Service

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The RMS file server has now been updated to include information from the
January 1994 issue of the Proceedings.

Including

Abstracts from Volumes 172 and 173 of the Journal of Microscopy.

Latest information about the Microscopy of Composite Materials Meeting.

Latest information about Micro 94.

Information about a new RMS Bursary program (The RMS International
Bursaries).

Information about 6 RMS Courses to be held in 1994.


For more information about the RMS or any of its activities contact the
Society by

MAIL: THE ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY,
37/38 ST CLEMENTS,
OXFORD OX4 1AJ,
UNITED KINGDOM.

TELEPHONE +44 (0)865 248768,
FAX +44 (0)865 791237,
EMAIL: RMS-at-VAX.OX.AC.UK

FTP SERVER: FTP to RADM.MATERIALS.OXFORD.AC.UK (IP ADDRESS 163.1.59.101)
LOGON WITH USERNAME 'RMS' AND PASSWORD 'RMS'









From: Keith R. Hallam :      k.r.hallam-at-bristol.ac.uk
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 1994 13:11:55 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: Image analysis - blood cells

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Message-Id: {27672.9402071311-at-irix.bris.ac.uk}

Another question, totally unrelated to the last one.
Has anyone any experience, or references, to the use of image analysis to
differentiate between different types of blood cells in an optical
microscopy image?

Keith Hallam






From: Fermin, Cesar :      Fermin.Cesar-at-tmc.tulane.edu
Date: 07 Feb 1994 17:24:10 -0600
Subject: Philips 300 TEM. Service contrast throughout its

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To: Anyone interested From: Cesar D. Fermin, Ph.D.
Tulane Pathology.

life. Excellent condition. Water chiller included.

Available free, but:

1) you must pay for packing and shipment to your
destination,

2) You must arrange for packing at time of dismantling,#000#
sometimes in April.

3) Respond via e-mail, but acceptance must be arranged
in writing or via fax to me.

Cesar D. Fermin, Ph.D.
Tulane University Medical School
Department of Pathology
1430 Tulane Ave/SL79
New Orleans, La 70112-2699
(504) 584-2521
Fax 587-7389




From: nwatson1-at-metz.une.edu.au (Nikki Watson)
Date: Wed, 9 Feb 1994 13:07:32 +1000
Subject: LM/TEM - info needed on Mac Quadra 840AV

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Via: uk.ac.birmingham.computer-centre.ibm3090; Tue, 8 Feb 1994 11:46:36 +0000

We are considering purcahsing a Quadra 840AV for image capture and
manipulation of phase, DIC and fluorescence microscopy of biological
material, including quick-time - in particular of Platyhelminths. I would
appreciate contact or advice from anyone with experience with this machine
for similar applications. I understand that the image grabber board is
probably inadequate for such applications and would need to be replaced by
a higher quality card. What remaining advantages are there (apart from the
audio which we are not interested in) for the AV machine over an 800 with
the addition of the appropriate card?

There has probably been considerable discussion on this issue in the past
in this group and in the NIH Image group and I would also appreciate
instructions on where to look for this in an FAQ site.

Dr N.A. Watson
Department of Zoology
University of New England
Armidale, NSW, 2351
AUSTRALIA
Fax: 067 711 869
Phone: 067 732181

(using 'Eudora' on a Macintosh)






From: ARGIL-at-delphi.com
Date: Tue, 08 Feb 1994 21:46:36 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Real time video processor

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Tom Gore from Universtiy of Victoria asked about the Argus 10 processor.
My company (Imagen Inc) makes the main competitor to the Argus 10, the
OMNEX. We consider it to be an improvement on the Argus 10 in many ways.

The OMNEX is easy to use. It uses a mouse and on-screen menus. There
are no manual controls at all.

The OMNEX can do real time averaging, integration, memory operations
(subtraction, addition, etc.), take a gradient and lots more.
It has digital contrast enhancement with 20 storage macros and a custom
lut that you can draw with the mouse. It has distance, area, path, event,
radius measurements with four calibrations. It does psuedocolor and
can store 4 images and cycle them automatically (like a slide show).

It can control long exposure cameras for low-light work. There is a
built-in help menu system, although most people don't need it
because the menus are pretty straightforward.

There are quite a few other things that it does that I can't think
of at the moment, but if you like, I can drop a brochure in the
mail (the REAL mail). We have distributors all over US, Canada, and
are now getting into Japan and Europe.

We also have a marking and measuring system that is quite nice. I can
send you that info also.

Hope this tells you maybe what you were looking for. Of course, my
opinion is absolutely politically unreliable, but the device stands
for itself. People seem to enjoy using it. (It even plays breakout.)

Yours,
Arthur Gillman
Princton, NJ




From: Jussi Liipo :      jlp-at-sveka.oulu.fi
Date: Thu, 10 Feb 1994 15:36:38 +0200 (EET)
Subject: Microprobe standards

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Dear Sirs,

We used Cr2O3 standard for Cr2O3 in microprobe analyses. Some time ago
standard was changed to metallic Cr. When analysing Cr2O3 with new
metallic standard we noticed that it gives analyses which are 4 wt% below.
It is obvious that the ghange to metallic Cr standard caused the problem.
Why Cr2O3 and metallic Cr as standards give different values ?
Peak positions are same in both standards.
Best wishes,


Jussi Liipo
Department of Geology
University of Oulu
SF-90570 Oulu
FINLAND






From: kbart-at-itsmail1.hamilton.edu
Date: Thu, 10 Feb 1994 09:07:18 -0500
Subject: Materials Spec. Prep.

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Fellow Microscopists:

I teach SEM to undergraduate Biology students and would like to
provide them with a brief introduction to specimen preparation techniques
used by material scientists. Does anyone know of a review article or basic
text on the subject that would be useful for this purpose? Thanks for any
references you can provide!!!!

Kenneth M. Bart
Director, Electron Microscopy Facility
Hamilton College
Clinton, New York 13323 USA
kbart-at-hamilton.edu
(315) 859-4715





From: kbart-at-itsmail1.hamilton.edu
Date: Thu, 10 Feb 1994 13:33:34 -0500
Subject: Instrumnets for Sale

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Fellow Microscopists:

I have the following surplus equipment in my lab that I would like
to sell:


1. LKB 8800 Ultramicrotome

2. EmScope CPD 750 Critical Point Drier

Both instruments are in good working order, but have not been used for a
few years. If anyone is interested please contact me directly via e-mail ,
do not reply on this Microscopy listserver.

Kenneth M. Bart
Director, Electron Microscopy Facility
Hamilton College
Clinton, New York 13323 USA
kbart-at-hamilton.edu
(315) 859-4715





From: jeanne_barker-at-merck.com
Date: 10 Feb 1994 14:15:15 U
Subject: LM-Acid phosphatase

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Subject: Time:3:20 PM
OFFICE MEMO LM-Acid phosphatase Date:2/10/94

Can anybody recommend a comercial antibody to rat kidney acid phosphatase?
Thanks, Jeanne






From: BOW-at-CSSS.LA.ASU.EDU
Date: Sun, 13 Feb 1994 20:22:04 -0700 (MST)
Subject: Microprobe standards

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X-NUPop-Charset: English

Check my subscription




From: David Garrett :      DGARRETT-at-gab.unt.edu
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 1994 12:37:41 CST6CDT
Subject: TEM - LM Ruthenium Red

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I need to obtain citations and/or procedures for the use of
rutheniun red in the staining of mucopolysaccharides in thin and
semi-thin sections.***************************************
David Garrett "DGARRETT-at-GAB.UNT.EDU"
University of North Texas
Dept. Biological Sciences
(817)565-3964 Fax (817)565-4136
***************************************




From: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
Date: Wed, 16 Feb 1994 11:58:05 +0000
Subject: Journal of Microscopy - Summaries for the March 1994 issue

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mcm1-at-lehigh.edu, dbw1-at-lehigh.edu, mattfeld-at-rzmain.rz.uni-ulm.de,
kmk10-at-phx.cam.ac.uk, pe13-at-phx.cam.ac.uk
CC: HARBJ-at-UVAX01.BIOSTAT.MCW.EDU, JTERLET-at-CEMMA.ADELAIDE.EDU.AU,
74250.331-at-COMPUSERVE.COM, ROSS.MACKENZIE-at-OX.AC.UK,
MICROSCOPY-at-ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV
Message-ID: {0097A24B.8D29F28C.5062-at-vax.ox.ac.uk}

JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY, VOLUME 173 PART 3, MARCH 1994
**************************************************************

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 3, March 1994, pp. 173--181.

ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY OF FREEZE-FRACTURE REPLICAS OF RAT ATRIAL
TISSUE

by L. KORDYLEWSKI, D. SANER & R. LAL, University of Chicago,
Department of Medicine/Cardiology, 5841 S. Maryland Ave.,
Chicago, IL 60637, U.S.A.

Summary

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has provided three-dimensional
(3-D) surface images of many biological specimens at molecular
resolution. In the absence of spectroscopic capability for AFM,
it is often difficult to distinguish individual components if the
specimen contains a population of mixed structures such as in a
cellular membrane. In an effort to understand the AFM images
better, a correlative study between AFM and the well-established
technique of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was
performed. Freeze-fractured replicas of adult rat atrial tissue
were examined by both TEM and AFM. The same replicas were
analysed and the same details were identified, which allowed a
critical comparison of surface topography by both techniques. AFM
images of large-scale subcellular structures (nuclei,
mitochondria, granules) correlated well with TEM images. AFM
images of smaller features and surface textures appeared somewhat
different from the TEM images. This presumably reflects the
difference in the surface sensitivity of AFM versus TEM, as well
as the nature of images in AFM (3-D surface contour) and TEM (2-D
projection). AFM images also provided new information about the
replica itself. Unlike TEM, it was possible to examine both sides
of the replica with AFM; the resolution on one side was
significantly greater compared with the other side. It was also
possible to obtain quantitative height information which is not
readily available with TEM.

þÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄþ

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 3, March 1994, pp. 183--197.

TIP ARTEFACTS IN SCANNING FORCE MICROSCOPY

by U. D. SCHWARZ,* H. HAEFKE, P. REIMANN & H.-J. GšNTHERODT,
Institute of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82,
CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland

Summary

Since its invention in 1986, scanning force microscopy (SFM) has
experienced great success as a characterization method for
topography on small scales. In spite of the enormous potential
of the method, it is limited by the quality of the tip used for
probing the surface topography. Convolutions of non-ideal tip
shapes with the real topography and tip bending, flexing and
jumping effects produce artefacts in the resulting images.
A brief description of the preparation and characteristics of the
most commonly used SFM tips is given. A variety of different
artefacts originating from tip properties is presented and
illustrated with selected scanning force micrographs. Methods to
minimize tip artefacts in SFM images are described.

þÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄþ

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 3, March 1994, pp. 199--210.

CALIBRATION OF THE SCANNING (ATOMIC) FORCE MICROSCOPE WITH GOLD
PARTICLES

by S. XU & M. F. ARNSDORF, Department of Medicine, The University
of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, U.S.A.

Summary

Scanning force microscopy (SFM) holds great promise for
biological research. Two major problems that have confronted
imaging with the scanning force microscope have been the
distortion of the image and overestimation in measurements of
lateral size due to the varying geometry and characteristics of
the scanning tip. In this study, spherical colloidal gold
particles (10, 20 and 40nm in diameter) were used to determine
(1) tip parameters (size, shape and semivertical angle); (2) the
distortion of the image caused by the tip; and (3) the
overestimation or broadening of lateral dimensions. These gold
particles deviate little in size, are rigid and have a size
similar to biological macromolecules. Images of the colloidal
gold particles by SFM were compared with those obtained by
electron microscopy (EM). The height of the gold particles as
measured by SFM and EM was comparable and was little affected by
the tip geometry. The measurements of the lateral dimensions of
colloidal gold, however, showed substantial differences between
SFM and EM in that SFM resulted in an overestimate of the lateral
dimensions. Moreover, the distortion of images and broadening of
lateral dimensions were specific to the SFM tip used. The
calibration of the SFM tip with mica provided little clue as to
the type of distortion and the amount of lateral broadening
observed when the larger gold particles were scanned. The SFM
image also depended on the orientation of the tip with respect
to the specimen. Our results suggest that quantitative SFM
imaging requires calibration to identify and account for both the
distortions and the magnitude of lateral broadening caused by the
cantilever tip. Calibration with gold particles is fast and
nondestructive to the tip. The raw imaging data of the specimen
can be corrected for the tip effect and true structural
information can be derived. In summary, we present a simple and
practical method for the calibration of the SFM tip using gold
particles with a size in the range of biomacromolecules that
allows: (1) selection of a cantilever tip that produces an image
with minimal distortion; (2) quantitative determination of tip
parameters; (3) reconstruction of the shape of the tip at
different heights from the tip apex; (4) appreciation of the type
of distortion that may be introduced by a specific tip and
quantification of the overestimation of the lateral dimensions;
and (5) calculation of the true structure of the specimen from
the image data. The significance is that such calibration will
permit quantitative and accurate imaging with SFM.

þÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄþ

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 3, March 1994, pp. 211--218.

CONTRIBUTION OF ENERGY-FILTERING TEM TO THE DETECTION OF CALCIUM:
APPLICATION TO MAST CELLS

by M. HOROYAN,* M. SOLER,* J. M. MARTIN,""A.-M. BENOLIEL,* M.
FRATERNO,~~ M. PASSEREL,## E. KATCHBURIAN, P. BONGRAND* & C.
FOA*, *INSERM U 387, Laboratoire d'Immunologie, H“pital Ste
Marguerite, 13277 Marseille Cedex 9, France. ""Ecole Centrale de
Lyon, Departement de Technologie des Surfaces, URA CNRS 855, 36
Avenue Guy de Collongue, BP 163, 69131 Ecully Cedex, France.
~~Service commun de Microscopie ‚lectronique, Facult‚ de
M‚decine, Bd Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France. ##Centre de
Microscopie ‚lectronique et de Microanalyse, Facult‚ des Sciences
et Techniques de St J‚rome, avenue Escadrille Normandie-Niemen
(Case 151) 13397 Marseille Cedex 13, France. Department of
Histology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo CEP-0402,3,
Brazil

Summary

The ultrastructural distribution and quantification of calcium
in mast cells prepared by anhydrous processing was investigated
by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM)
using a Zeiss 902 electron microscope. Optimal conditions for
calcium detection were determined using inorganic (calcium
phosphate) and organic (calcium-loaded chelex beads) standards
with known amounts of calcium. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy
(EELS) revealed calcium at the L-2,3 edge and also at the M-2,3
edge for all specimens examined. Comparison with X-ray
microanalysis confirmed the results obtained with EELS. Electron
spectroscopic imaging (ESI) was applied for mapping calcium both
in standards and in cells and we showed that mast cell granules
were the main site of calcium localization. Although, results
have shown that a combination of analytical techniques is
required to obtain reliable results.

þÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄþ

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 3, March 1994, pp. 219--225.

CONTRAST IN THE TRANSMISSION MODE OF A LOW-VOLTAGE SCANNING
ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

by U. GOLLA, B. SCHINDLER & L. REIMER, Physikalisches Institut,
Universita„t uMnster, Wilhelm-Klemm Str. 10, 4400u Mnster, Germany

Summary

The contrast thicknesses (x_k) of thin carbon and platinum films
have been measured in the transmission mode of a low-voltage
scanning electron microscope for apertures of 40 and 100mrad and
electron energies (E) between 1 and 30keV. The measured values
overlap with those previously measured for E (more than or equal
to 17keV) in a transmission electron micro-scope. Differences in
the decrease of x_k with decreasing E between carbon and platinum
agree with Wentzel--Kramer--Brillouin calculations of the elastic
cross-sections. Knowing the value of x_k allows the exponential
decrease in transmission with increasing mass-thickness of the
specimen and the increasing gain of contrast for stained
biological sections with decreasing electron energy to be
calculated for brightfield and darkfield modes.

þÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄþ

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 3, March 1994, pp. 227--237.

MINIMIZING SAMPLE EVAPORATION IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING
ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

by R. E. CAMERON & A. M. DONALD, Polymers and Colloids Group,
Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE, U.K.

Summary

The ElectroScan environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM)
enables wet samples to be observed by eliminating air but
allowing water vapour into the sample chamber. However,
evaporation from, and condensation on, the sample may occur
during the pumpdown sequence used to reach this state, which
means that the sample may not be in its natural state when viewed
if due care is not taken. In this paper, the pumping system of
the ESEM is described mathematically and expressions are derived
for the evaporation and condensation. This treatment is then used
to calculate the optimum pumpdown sequence. The importance of
using the optimized procedure is illustrated by micrographs of
fat emulsions.

þÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄþ

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 3, March 1994, pp. 239--243.

MORPHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE CONFORMATION AS AN ESTIMATE
OF ROUGHNESS

by D. A. SILAGE & G. R. BARAN, Departments of Electrical
Engineering and Operative Dentistry, Temple University,
Philadelphia, PA 19122 U.S.A.

Summary

One of the standard methods for assessing the roughness of a
material subjected to wear uses the surface arithmetic means and
root-mean-square deviation. However, these parameters often do
not provide a qualitative assessment of the difference in
materials worn under the same conditions of load and elapsed
time. The profile and surface roughness parameters are frequently
inconsistent. Such measurements are also required to determine
the wear characteristics of various materials under different
conditions. A morphometric assessment of wear characteristics,
based on the surface area fraction of localized deviations in the
surface texture and stress fractures, is provided, and clearly
indicates the observed difference.

þÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄþ

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 173, Pt. 3, March 1994, pp. 245--256.

VOLUME AND SURFACE AREA MEASUREMENT OF VIABLE CHONDROCYTES IN
SITU USING GEOMETRIC MODELLING OF SERIAL CONFOCAL SECTIONS

by F. GUILAK, Musculo-Skeletal Research Laboratory, Department
of Orthopaedics, Health Sciences Center T18-030, State University
of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8181, U.S.A.

Summary

This study describes a technique for noninvasive determination
of the surface area and volume of chondrocytes using the confocal
scanning laser microscope, and the fundamental limitations
associated with its application. Using geometric modelling
principles, an isointensity surface contour was formed from a
series of optical sections recorded with the confocal microscope.
Using a combined surface- and volume-based algorithm, the surface
area, volume and other morphometric descriptions were calculated
from a polygonal description of the cell surface. The high image
contrast required for repeatable identification of the cell
border was achieved through the use of a fluorescent dye, which
was excluded from cells by an intact membrane. Calibration
results indicated that the theoretical modelling algorithm is
relatively precise when applied to simulated convex (ellipsoidal)
cells, with overall errors of less than 0.5% in surface area and
volume measurements. When applied to low-noise, high-contrast
volume data recorded on the confocal microscope, typical
coefficients of variation of 2--4% were determined for length
measurements, 2--5% for volume measurements and 3--6% for surface
area measurements either for latex microspheres or for
chondrocytes. While the precision of the method is comparable to
standard histological techniques, its accuracy is difficult to
assess, as systematic errors are unpredictable and may be
introduced from several sources.

**************************************************************

FOR DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS, PLEASE CONTACT DR GILLIAN
WILSON, THE JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY, 37/38 ST CLEMENTS, OXFORD OX4
1AJ, UNITED KINGDOM. TELEPHONE +44 865 248768, FAX +44 865
791237, EMAIL RMS-at-UK.AC.OX.VAX.

NB. PAPERS FROM NORTH AMERICA AND CANADA MAY ALSO BE SUBMITTED
TO PROFESSOR DAVID WILLIAMS, MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING,
LEHIGH UNIVERSITY, BETHLEHEM PA 18015-3195, USA. FAX +1 215 758
4244, EMAIL DBW1-at-LEHIGH.EDU.

**************************************************************




From: SELLERS-at-NAUVAX.UCC.NAU.EDU
Date: Wed, 16 Feb 1994 11:34:33 -0700 (MST)
Subject: READ

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Message-Id: {9402161428.AA27449-at-riker.ml.wpafb.af.mil}

USER NAME: MARILEE SELLERS
ADDRESS: SELLERS-at-NAUVAX.UCC.NAU.EDU




From: Jim Stanley :      jstanly-at-mse.ogi.edu
Date: Wed, 16 Feb 1994 13:37:51 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: Digital micrographs on Internet

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Message-Id: {9402161925.AA28519-at-riker.ml.wpafb.af.mil}

Yes, I've thought since being made aware of MOSAIC that a server with
images would be a wellcome addition to the net. I'd be willing to get
involved.
J.T. Stanley
Oregon Graduate Institute
Portland OR







From: nina allen :      allen-at-ac.wfunet.wfu.edu
Date: Wed, 16 Feb 1994 17:47:54 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: Addenum to digital micrograph suggestion

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On Wed, 16 Feb 1994 WALCKSD-at-ml.wpafb.af.mil wrote:

} This is an addenum to my previous suggestion.
}
} One of our computer gurus here at the lab suggested that we already have
} the capability of sending digital images over the microscopy server,
} just uuencode the graphic image and put a header in it saying what it
} is.
}
} Nestor, will this work? Can we standardize such a transmission of an
} image? Can it be tacked on to the end of the Email text?
}
}
} -Scott Walck
}
} Dear Dr. Walck:
The question you should also ask is what resolution will be available if
you send images. In North Carolina we will soon be connected to a
network that will allow high resolution images to be relayed around the
state.

If you get further information about this and the cost of doing it , I
would be very interested. Nina Allen, wake forest university




From: Jim Stanley :      jstanly-at-mse.ogi.edu
Date: Wed, 16 Feb 1994 13:37:51 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: Digital micrographs on Internet

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WALCKSD-at-ml.wpafb.af.mil
CC: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Reply_ RE} } Digital micrographs on I
Reply
from:
John Mansfield
North Campus Electron Microbeam Analysis Laboratory
University of Michigan
2455 Hayward
Ann Arbor MI 48109-2143
Phone: (313)936-3352 FAX: (313)936-3352
jfmjfm-at-umich.edu or John_Mansfield-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
The anonymous ftp server at the University of Michigan could be a good site for
this. I have a directory on feebie.engin.umich.edu for storing MSA & MAS
related stuff, it is /pub/MSA+MAS. You can upload stuff to /pub/incoming and
then email to me so I can move it to the MSA+MAS directory. If it is left in
incoming it is liable to be deleted if the system is rebooted. (incoming is
essentially a /tmp directory). If we got a large number of images I would
archive them to optical disk or tape and then make them available on an MSA+MAS
CD ROM. I was thinking of also making available on this disc archived messages
sent to this list and the sci..techniques.microscopy newsgroup.
I have been working with some peopl here to make the freebie ftp server
accessible from Gopher and Mosaic. It seems that there may be some security
questions, however. I am still working on it. Takes time and I dont seem to
have enough hours in the day lately!!
Cheers Jfm.



--------------------------------------




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From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Wed, 16 Feb 1994 23:05:18 -0600 (CST)
Subject: FTP site and improvements

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All Subscribers:

Scot W. asked about an FTP site etc...

This has been planned for the microscopy server, however, we
have been waiting for our "new" computer to arrive, be
installed & tested. The old system which we are currently running
on is not worth spending any more $$ on and will be sacrificed
to the silicon god in the near future. I expect the new system
to be up, running and debugged within 2 months time..
Hopefully the transition will be seemless, but expect a few hickups.
Just bear with the current setup a little bit longer.

Cheers-

Nestor Zaluzec
Microscopy SysOp
ANL EM Center




From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Wed, 16 Feb 1994 23:25:13 -0600 (CST)
Subject: EMAILing Images over Microscopy Server

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Scott W asked about Emailing images over the server using
uuencode.

The answer is yes it will work, however......

DONOT UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES DO IT!!!!

It will jam up/fill all subscribers Email tremendously.
Their mail boxes will fill and they (and I) will scream
bloody murder. If someone wants a copy of an image they
should contact you directly for it. If you want to make
a particuliar image available to the subsribers for comment
then wait until the new system is up an running and I will
see how to most apprropriately (and simply) make this option
avaiable to those who want to see the data. There are literally
hundreds of subscribers who would not be interested in seeing
your data, while maybe only a few dozen would be interested.

Also uuencode tends not to be universally accepted. Lots
of users of this server donot have the capability to
decode uuencoded data. That is a UNIX based system encoding
many PC and Mac and Vax's which access this system will
not have the appropriate translators (I note that they do exist
however). Thus if you arbitrarily chose to send the data via
a format that many users can't even read then it would be a
waste of everyones time.

BTW this system is a VAX and not a UNIX machine and although
we can translate uuencoded data we prefer alternatives which
preserve more information, particuliarly if the data comes
originally from a Mac or PC.


-----------

Nestor Zaluzec
ANL EM Center





From: Phil Oshel :      PO-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu
Date: 17 Feb 94 07:21:24 CST6CDT
Subject: Re: EMAILing Images over Microscopy Server

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940217072125.480-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

} From: "Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964"
} Scott W asked about Emailing images over the server using
} uuencode.
}
} The answer is yes it will work, however......
}
} DONOT UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES DO IT!!!!
} ...
An ignorant question, for when the new server is up:
Is it possible to have mail sublists, say neuron.microscopy-at-...,
that everyone on micrscopy-at-... could have access to, but not
necessarily automatically get, as we do from this list?
Thumbnails of images could be posted to the sublists for anyone
to browse, and then contact the source of the thumbnail for the full
image. This might make images available to the largest number of
people, without overloading the server (?) or people's mailboxes.
Phil Oshel




From: Lumin Wang :      ZIRCON-at-BOOTES.UNM.EDU
Date: Thu, 17 Feb 1994 09:12 MST
Subject: TEM Technician Position Open

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Message-Id: {9402171357.AA01878-at-riker.ml.wpafb.af.mil}




Please Post in Your Institute



JOB OPENING

RESEARCH TECHNOLOGIST IN TEM LAB.

The University of New Mexico has an opening for a full-time position of Research
Technologist V in the Transmission Electron Microscopy Laboratory in the Department of Earth
and Planetary Sciences. The laboratory have a JEM 2000FX scanning transmission electron
microscope with Noran EDS attachment and a newly installed JEM 2010 high resolution
microscope with a Link ultra-thin window EDS and advanced image processing systems (including
both Gatan live-rate TV system and slow-scan camera as well as IBM PC compatible and
Macintosh computers). The laboratory also has a darkroom and full TEM sample preparation
equipment.
The responsibility of the technologist (under the supervision of the laboratory manager)
includes but not limited to: routine maintenance of the laboratory and all the equipment (electron
microscopes, ion mill, carbon coater, dimpler, diamond saw, microtome and darkroom equipment,
etc.); supervise service engineers; train students, research staff and faculty on the use of
microscopes and laboratory equipment; purchase consumable parts and supplies for the laboratory;
participate in the research projects by preparing TEM samples, performing TEM/AEM analysis,
preparing micrographs, slides and technical reports.
The qualified candidate should have at least a BachelorÕs degree in science and engineering
(Master's degree desirable) and four years of experience in a TEM laboratory (two years with
MasterÕs degree). Experience on TEM maintenance and research projects using analytical and high
resolution electron microscopy, knowledge with both IBM PC and Macintosh computers are
desirable. The salary range is from $22,400 to $30,800/year depending on the qualifications.
Application with a cover letter and resume must be received by Dr. Lumin Wang,
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM
87131-1116, by February 25, 1994.






From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Thu, 17 Feb 1994 10:43:08 -0600 (CST)
Subject: General Question : Sublists....

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Phil Oshel asks if sublists will be available.

The answer is maybe. We will also be getting the newgroup
running and hopefully digest mode (?). It's just too early
to say yes or no. The Newgroup function will effectively
act as a sublist.. Please hold off on questions about the
newsgroups etc.. for awhile, I've just gotten back from
a meeting and have a bunch of catchup work to do, I will
post details and information as new options are added to
the server system. Again it will be ~ 2months before things
are likely running...

Nestor Z.
ANL EMCenter




From: nina allen :      allen-at-ac.wfunet.wfu.edu
Date: Thu, 17 Feb 1994 17:57:19 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: General Question : Sublists....

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Message-Id: {m0pXD11-0007aDC-at-grus.cus.cam.ac.uk}



A new professor in our department wants to purchase a nice used
dissecting/operating microscope . I need names of places where one can
purchase used microscopes.

Thanks for any help,
nina allen, biology, wake forest university




From: ARGIL-at-delphi.com
Date: Sun, 20 Feb 1994 00:25:32 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Unused microscope

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To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Nina Allen asks were to buy a nice used micrscope. I am afraid I can't
help with that. However, I am involved in getting some wonderful scopes
from China. We are getting all types, from low power inspection, to
phase contrast and darkfield 2000X trinoculars.

In general, the prices are lower than used Nikon/Zeiss/Olympus, etc.
The quality is great. Most of these types have never been exported.

I am not ready to supply anything, but will have a sheet of sorts in about
a week. If you would like to know more, send me a note. I am excited
about the qualtiy/price of these devices.

Excuse the misspelled "where" in the first line herein. Slipped an "h".

Arthur Gillman
Princeton, NJ




From: Did I leave myself logged in ? :      pam-at-siva.bris.ac.uk
Date: Mon, 21 Feb 1994 16:11:47 GMT
Subject: GaAs

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Resent-Message-Id: {9402201724.AA24776-at-gandalf.rutgers.edu}

Here is a summary of the recent discussion concerning magnetic specimens in
a TEM:



TEM work on steel specimens can be very difficult, because they are almost
always magnetized. You may be able to reduce the magnetic inhomogenieties
a bit by passing the specimens through a strong AC field, a process
industrially known as 'degaussing'. I believe degaussing coils can be
purchased from most electronics supply stores that deal in the television
market. In use, you insert the specimen into the center of the coil and
withdraw it very slowly, with the AC current flowing through the coil.




Besides doing what Robert Keller suggests, you should note the objective
lens current for a non-magnetic sample and set the lens to the same value.
Then you can bring the specimen to the eucentric height by noting when the
image is at the minimum contrast condition.

Russell Cook
Electron Microscopy Center for Materials Research
Argonne Natonal Laboratory
Argonne, IL





Dear Colleagues,

Does anybody know an accurate value for the lattice parameter of GaAs
at 120K (or 100K) ?

Many thanks,

Paul Midgley.




From: Nancy L. Desmond :      nld-at-galen.med.virginia.edu
Date: Mon, 21 Feb 1994 16:16:44 -0500
Subject: point spread function

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What are people using as a standard for determining the point
spread function when the image is visualized with bright field
(transmitted) light at high (1.3-1.4) numerical aperture? All of
the articles I've seen involve fluorescence microscopy. Thanks
for any leads.

Nancy Desmond
Neurosurgery
University of Virginia




From: {bandaru-at-gandalf.rutgers.edu}:ddn:wpafb
Date: 2-21-94 12:01pm
Subject: Imaging Magnetic Materials

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Message-Id: {9402221505.AA29320-at-mogate.sps.mot.com}
To: WALCKSD:ml:wpafb, SCHELTFJ:ml:wpafb
Subj: Imaging Magnetic Materials
Orig-Author: {finger Displays information about a user {bandaru-at-gandalf.rutgers.edu} }:ddn:wpafb
-----------------------------------------------------------
A request for suggestions from those having experience with the Imaging of
Magnetic Materials( Fe based). Any ideas on how to correct for the OL
astigmatism , or good references to the above will be greatly appreciated.
Please mail your requests to bandaru-at-gandalf.rutgers.edu
Thanks in advance, Prabhakar R. Bandaru





From: COOK-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Tue, 22 Feb 1994 10:51:04 -0600 (CST)
Subject: LogEtronics/Egoltronics

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The address for the company that manufactures the automatic dodging enlarger is:
Logetronics Corporation, 7001 Loisdale Road, Springfield, VA 22150
(703) 971-1400

The company that repaired our enlarger recently is:
Egoltronics Corporation, 7036 Tech Circle, Manassas, VA 22110
(703) 751-5522




From: EMLAB-at-opus.mco.edu
Date: Tue, 22 Feb 1994 16:23:54 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: SCANNING LIGHT SOURCE

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X-Nupop-Charset: English

LogEtronics has been bought out by another company (I believe) and has
changed the name to Egoltronics Corp. Address is: 7036 Tech Circle
Manassas, Virginia
22110
703-335-1501
(fax) 703-335-1234

This info was/is current as of August 1993




From: George.C.Ruben-at-Dartmouth.EDU (George C. Ruben)
Date: 22 Feb 94 18:07:54 EST
Subject: primary IgG coupled to colloidal gold

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I need to attach a 3-8 nm colloidal gold [preferably 5nm] particle
directly to the primary antibody. Does anyone know of a company or companies
that will do this with client's antibody?

George.C.Ruben-at-Dartmouth.edu
tel. (603) 646-2144
fax. (603) 646-1347




From: {bandaru-at-gandalf.rutgers.edu}:ddn:wpafb
Date: 2-21-94 12:01pm
Subject: Imaging Magnetic Materials

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Message-Id: {9402222328.AA20467-at-riker.ml.wpafb.af.mil}
To: WALCKSD:ml:wpafb, SCHELTFJ:ml:wpafb
Subj: Imaging Magnetic Materials
Orig-Author: {finger Displays information about a user {bandaru-at-gandalf.rutgers.edu} }:ddn:wpafb
-----------------------------------------------------------
A request for suggestions from those having experience with the Imaging of
Magnetic Materials( Fe based). Any ideas on how to correct for the OL
astigmatism , or good references to the above will be greatly appreciated.
Please mail your requests to bandaru-at-gandalf.rutgers.edu
Thanks in advance, Prabhakar R. Bandaru










From: David Morilak :      morilak-at-cmgm.stanford.edu
Date: Tue, 22 Feb 1994 19:46:27 PST
Subject: Re: primary IgG coupled to colloidal gold

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George:

You might try E-Y Laboratories. They specialize in colloidal gold conjugates
(tracers, antibodies, etc), and I think (!) I remember that they would
conjugate your reagent for you. Anyway, it might be worth checking:

E-Y Laboratories, Inc.
107 N. Amphlett Blvd.
San Mateo, CA 94401
415-342-3296

Good luck

David Morilak
morilak-at-cmgm.stanford.edu
-------




From: {Hoehn-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu}:ddn:wpafb
Date: 2-22-94 7:15pm
Subject: Lacquer as protective coating

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Message-Id: {9402231439.AA22563-at-riker.ml.wpafb.af.mil}
To: WALCKSD:ml:wpafb, SCHELTFJ:ml:wpafb
Subj: Lacquer as protective coating
Orig-Author: {"Joel Hoehn" {Hoehn-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu} }:ddn:wpafb
-----------------------------------------------------------
I am trying to protect the front side of some Fe-3%Si while polishing from the
back side in a tenupol using 95% acetic / 5% perchloric solution. I have heard
of a sort of lacquer used for the procedure and would like to know if anyone
could tell me of a supplier of such a compound. From what I understand, the
usual microscopy type suppliers (i.e. ted pella, spi, etc.) do not carry this
sort of product, but some industrial application type companies do.

Any leads would be helpful.



Joel Hoehn e-mail: Hoehn-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu
Dept. of Chem. Engg & Materials Science phone#: (612) 625-1018
University of Minnesota
421 Washington Ave. S.E.





From: {jrmicha-at-saix367.sandia.gov}:ddn:wpafb
Date: 1-4-94 3:57pm
Subject: Magnetic specimens in TEM

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Message-Id: {9402231451.AA22632-at-riker.ml.wpafb.af.mil}
To: WALCKSD:ml:wpafb, SCHELTFJ:ml:wpafb
Subj: Magnetic specimens in TEM
Orig-Author: {jrmicha-at-saix367.sandia.gov (MICHAEL, JOSEPH)}:ddn:wpafb
-----------------------------------------------------------
I spent 6 years at BEthlehem Steel's research department using TEM and STEM to
study steel microstructures. The most important thing that can be done to
minimize the difficulty of magnetic specimens is to make the specimen blank as
thin as possible. Normally, we would electrochemically polish the specimen
blanks to a thickness of about 50 microns before we would jet polish them to
perforation. This minimizes the amount of magnetic material within the field
of the lens.

We tried de,agnetizing the specimens, but found that the fields generated
within the coil usually destroyed the thin area of the specimen.

Joe Michael
Sandia National Laboratori





From: clinton-at-rorc.usbm.gov
Date: Wed, 23 Feb 1994 11:38:20 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Re: Getting files off of a Kevex 8000 DEC computer

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On Wed, 23 Feb 1994, Griffin, Robin wrote:

}
} We have a Kevex 8000 PDP 11 DEC EDS computer with horrible 8 inch
} Bernoullis. They are expensive, unreliable. We have two questions.
}
} 1) Has anyone successfully used kermit to communicate with a pc from this
} type of computer?
}
} 2) Is there a file translation utility that would transfer the intensity
} vs. energy to an ascii
} format?
}
We have a similiar system with some of the same needs. We replaced the 8
inch Bernoullis with twin Bernoullie 44MB drives and improved things
considerably. If you do this you will have to replace a chip on one of
the boards in the computer. This may be the only item you have to
purchase from Kevex.

As for kermit, we have placed kermit on the system with success. We had
a couple of problems doing it though. The first was getting kermit on a
proper media. The second was adding it to the menu. We purchased a
program called TIFMKR from Kevex and had them load Kermit on the same
disk. TIFFIT/TIFMKR converts Images from Advanced Digital Imaging, Screen
Images, and
EDS images to TIFF format files that can be transfered from the DEC to
your PC using Kermit. Unfortunately the conversion is fairly low
resolution and not practical for the Advanced Imaging images. Kevex also
wants a lot of money for this package but they will negotiate. Check with
Kevex for specific information.

Chris Clinton





From: MYERS.S-at-AppleLink.Apple.COM (Myers, Sharon)
Date: 23 Feb 94 17:31 GMT
Subject: Lacquer as protective coating

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There is a red lacquer MICROSTOP used for 'the window pane' method and to
protect tweezers, etc. while chemically thinning samples. The lacquer was
thinned with acetone. We had it at North Carolina State. It had been in the
lab of Professor Ray Benson, at (919) 515-2706.

You could also try photoresist. It should be very easy to obtain at U of Minn,
is chemically resistant, and removable with acetone or oxygen plasma. Some
types of photoresist clean up from samples easier than others.






From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Wed, 23 Feb 1994 13:57:50 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Gen Info: #750!

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X-Nupop-Charset: English

All Microscopy Subscribers: Feb 23, 1994


Just a bit of information for those of you that
are interested in details. The Microscopy Listserver
just recorded its 750th subscription request. Seems like
it was a reasonable idea after all. ;-)

If you add up the total number of Email transmissions that
the system has handled over the last 5 months we have sent
out over 250,000 individual messages. No wonder my
computer is getting tired!

Honors & a beer (or whatever he would like when I see him) for
being the 750th subscriber go to:

Mike Bench
Dept. of Chem Eng & Mat. Sci
Univ. of Minnesota

=============================
Nestor J. Zaluzec
ANL EM Center





From: Bill Monroe
Date: Wed, 23 Feb 1994 15:21:23 -0600
Subject: Formvar films cast on glass

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I am passing on the following message for discussion:

Electron Microscope Center
Mississippi State UniversitySubject: Formvar films cast on glass

Question: Our laboratory staff has tried various methods
over the years to get the formvar film to release from
glass slides on a regular, consistent basis while producing
formvar-coated TEM grids.(Problem: the films sometimes do
not release at all, sometimes release too wrinkled to use,
etc.) We use formvar prepared in chloroform, and make use
of an Effa Film Caster Apparatus (Ernest F. Fullam, Inc.).
I would appreciate any suggestions which might help
alleviate this dilemma.




From: Rodney L Kuehn-1 :      kuehn002-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu
Date: Wed, 23 Feb 1994 17:04:27 -0600 (CST)
Subject: uranyl acetate fixation and staining of lignin

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Can anyone tell me the mechanism of UAc fixation and staining of wood
components, specifically lignin, for EM? I am interested in learning about the
chemical groups of the sample that may be involved. I am also interested
in learning about the structure and chemical groups of lignin and have not
been able to find any recent information.






From: IAN HALLETT :      ihallett-at-marccri.marc.cri.nz
Date: Thu, 24 Feb 1994 16:37:48 GMT+1200
Subject: Water for Immunocytochemistry

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Like many people we have been using double distilled water for
washing etc in immuno gold protocols. We will soon have much easier
access to an ultrapure (type 1, 18 M ohm) water system. Does anyone
know if this will cause any difficulties or is it essentially the same.

Also some people manage to get away with "straight" distilled water,
any comments?

Ian Hallett
EM Facility
HortResearch
Auckland New Zealand




From: RETEP-at-anat.uct.ac.za
Date: 24 Feb 94 08:39:16 SAST-2
Subject: Re: TEM:Water for immuno

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Regarding the request about water purity and immuno staining.

I think it very much depends on your local water source. We have used
normal distilled water without any problems at all and have in fact
obtained very good localizations. Some of the researchers here use
the ultra pure water but that is mainly for in situ hybridization,
although light microscopy immuno work has been carried out with the
ultra pure water without any hassles as well.



Peter RichardsPeter D. G. Richards
Dept Anatomy and Cell Biology
UCT Medical School
Observatory
7925
RSA
Tel: 021-406 6285.




From: RETEP-at-anat.uct.ac.za
Date: 24 Feb 94 08:44:56 SAST-2
Subject: TEM: Formvar Coating

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Message-ID: {MAILQUEUE-101.940224084456.800-at-anat.uct.ac.za}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Regarding the recent query about formvar coating passed on from Bill
Munroe.

I do all my coating in a similar way but without the film caster. I
find that the glass slides I use for the film have to be clean but
not ultra clean. If the glass is to clean then there are problems
with removal of the film on to the water surface, as the formvar
sticks well to the glass, as Bill has obviously found.

When the glass slide is to dirty then obviously a poor film results,
however with a slight "greasyiness" the films come off well and
evenly with no wrinkling.

Peter RichardsPeter D. G. Richards
Dept Anatomy and Cell Biology
UCT Medical School
Observatory
7925
RSA
Tel: 021-406 6285.




From: nwatson1-at-metz.une.edu.au (Nikki Watson)
Date: Thu, 24 Feb 1994 17:34:01 +1000
Subject: Re: Formvar films cast on glass

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Message-Id: {199402240633.AA04058-at-metz.une.edu.au}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"


Bill,
I coat glass slides with Formvar on a regular basis and have had
similar trouble in the past. I have solved it completely, however, by a
very simple means. Just wipe a finger across your forehead and lightly coat
the side of the slide on which the released coating will be (works best
towards the end of the day, obviously). Then with a teatowel or the corner
of your lab coat, buff the slide moderately clean. ie. leave a microscopic
layer of body grease on the surface. This ensures that the Formvar will
release if you have scored all around the slide edges with a sharp razor
blade. No need for fancy equipment - just dip the slide slowly, at an angle
so one corner releases first, into a wide mouthed vessel of distilled
water. The cast film with its grids is then very easily picked up with
Parafilm rolled across the film and lifted.

Good luck

Nikki Watson


Dr N.A. Watson
Department of Zoology
University of New England
Armidale, NSW, 2351
AUSTRALIA
Fax: 067 711 869
Phone: 067 732181

(using 'Eudora' on a Macintosh)






From: {eades-at-uimrl5.mrl.uiuc.edu}:ddn:wpafb
Date: 2-23-94 3:59pm
Subject: Kontron

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Message-Id: {9402241152.AA26083-at-riker.ml.wpafb.af.mil}
To: WALCKSD:ml:wpafb, SCHELTFJ:ml:wpafb
Subj: Kontron
Orig-Author: {"alwyn eades" {eades-at-uimrl5.mrl.uiuc.edu} }:ddn:wpafb
-----------------------------------------------------------

Do Kontron still exist? Are they now part of a bigger company?
Do they still make inage analysis systems? Does somebody have a US phone
number?
Alwyn Eades
Center for Microanalysis of Materials
University of Illino









From: Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers :      GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Date: Thu, 24 Feb 1994 08:47:56 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Formvar films

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Our trick for getting consistent release ofFormvar films is to spray
the slide with Fantastic or 409 spray cleaner and polish the slide dry
without rinsing. The residual detergent film allows easy release of the film
and it is generally of good quality. In our humid climate we also store
the solution and the posdre in a sealed container with silica gel.
*****************************
* Greg Erdos *
* Director, ICBR EMCL *
* University of Florida *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 *
* gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* 904-392-1295 *
*****************************




From: {eades-at-uimrl5.mrl.uiuc.edu}:ddn:wpafb
Date: 2-23-94 3:59pm
Subject: Re: Kontron

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To: WALCKSD:ml:wpafb, SCHELTFJ:ml:wpafb
Subj: Kontron
Orig-Author: {"alwyn eades" {eades-at-uimrl5.mrl.uiuc.edu} }:ddn:wpafb
-----------------------------------------------------------

Do Kontron still exist? Are they now part of a bigger company?
Do they still make inage analysis systems? Does somebody have a US phone
number?
Alwyn Eades
Center for Microanalysis of Materials
University of Illino










From: RETEP-at-anat.uct.ac.za
Date: 24 Feb 94 16:50:25 SAST-2
Subject: Immuno and water

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Message-ID: {MAILQUEUE-101.940224165025.288-at-anat.uct.ac.za}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Further to the requests about water and immuno staining.

Some of the local proponents of immuno work out here are using only
local tap water without any purification. Certainly the results are
good and there does not appear to be any background problems as a
result.
Peter D. G. Richards
Dept Anatomy and Cell Biology
UCT Medical School
Observatory
7925
RSA
Tel: 021-406 6285.




From: JOHNA-at-SCI.WFEB.EDU
Date: 24 Feb 1994 09:53:46 -0500 (EST)
Subject: removing stubborn formvar films from glass slides

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When all else fails: we use nose grease rather then forehead grease (of
course, if you are a woman or a man wearing makeup this doesn't work at all
). If nose grease doesn't work, we score the slide normally and place it
face side down over a 65mm plastic culture dish containing a few drops of
hydrofluoric acid (be careful! this is bad stuff) for a few seconds. Then
we exhale on the slide as usual and generally the films strip easily. Too
long of an exposure to HF acid results in poor films so you have to
practice with it depend upon humidity, barometric pressure, how the stars
are aligned, and so on.... If all this doesn't work, we try again tomorrow
! Good luck.

John Aghajanian JohnA-at-sci.wfeb.edu





From: Rodney L Kuehn-1 :      kuehn002-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu
Date: Thu, 24 Feb 1994 08:57:12 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Re: Formvar films cast on glass

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Richard,

We use ethylene dichloride as the solvent. The slides are cleaned first
in ethanol until the grease-streaks disappear. After drying the slide for
a minute or two, we score the bottom and side edges (45 degree angle to
face of slide) with a razor blade,
then we also score the face of the slide on all four sides with a razor
blade. I score several times along the bottom face. If one set of score
marks fails, the other is likely to succeed. We usually use Gold
Seal Microslides but have have used other brands as well. Problems are rare.

Rod


On Wed, 23 Feb 1994, Richard F. Kuklinski wrote:

} I am passing on the following message for discussion:
}
} From: Bill Monroe
} Electron Microscope Center
} Mississippi State UniversitySubject: Formvar films cast on glass
}
} Question: Our laboratory staff has tried various methods
} over the years to get the formvar film to release from
} glass slides on a regular, consistent basis while producing
} formvar-coated TEM grids.(Problem: the films sometimes do
} not release at all, sometimes release too wrinkled to use,
} etc.) We use formvar prepared in chloroform, and make use
} of an Effa Film Caster Apparatus (Ernest F. Fullam, Inc.).
} I would appreciate any suggestions which might help
} alleviate this dilemma.






From: George.C.Ruben-at-Dartmouth.EDU (George C. Ruben)
Date: 24 Feb 94 10:18:46 EST
Subject: Re: Water for Immunocytochemistry

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Message-id: {9707269-at-donner.Dartmouth.EDU}

The ultrapure water water systems clean out particles, organics and ions---
they do not, however, degas the water. Small bubbles can be a problem in
photography (pin holes in emulsion) or in putting grids underwater on filter
paper(small bubbles form on the grids and make them hard to manipulate) in
preparation to picking up carbon films.
We do not consider any of these problems serious and use ultrapure water all
the time!

George.C.Ruben-at-Dartmouth.edu




From: BOW-at-CSSS.LA.ASU.EDU
Date: Thu, 24 Feb 1994 8:48:43 -0700 (MST)
Subject: RE:Getting files off of a Kevex 8000 DEC computer

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In Center for HREM, Arizona State University (ASU), we read all EDS and
EELS data in a Vax system by "RT 11". Then we can convert these binary
data using a program "convascii" that was written by our computer
manager Mr. Paul R. Perkes, into a ascii files. Then read these files
either from Mac or PC.

If you are interested in this "convascii" program, you have to contact
Mr. Paul R. Perkes
email:smtp%"perkes-at-asuhrm.la.asu.edu"




From: Rod Salazar :      rod_salazar-at-qmgate.anl.gov
Date: 24 Feb 1994 10:24:22 U
Subject: Lacquer as protective coati

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Message-Id: {9402241627.AA09713-at-anl.gov}

Lacquer as protective coating
In our lab we use a product called Miccroshield 1 ( Miccroshield 2 is its
solvent ) as a protective coating during etching of silicon crystals in 5% HF
+ 95% HNO3. It's a lacquer that is brush on, drys quickly and is easily
removed.
From the MSDS here's the manufacturer info:

TOLBER DIVISION/PYRAMID PLASTICS INC.
220 WEST 5TH STREET
HOPE, ARKANSAS 71801
# (501) 777-5759






From: David Henriks :      73531.1344-at-CompuServe.COM
Date: 24 Feb 94 11:39:00 EST
Subject: TEM: Lacquer for electro/chemical polishing

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In response to reuests for suppliers of protective lacquer for electropolishing
I would like to inform you that Microshield Lacquer is available from:

South Bay Technology, Inc.
1120 Via Callejon
San Clemente, CA 92673 USA

TEL: 714-492-2600
Toll-free: 800-728-2233
FAX: 714-492-1499

The Microshield Lacquer has been used for many years with our Model 550
Electropolisher and Model 550 Chemical Jet Polisher. It is acetone soluble and
is available in an 8 ounce kit. Please reference P/N 02-01890-01.

Best regards-

David Henriks





From: IAN HALLETT :      ihallett-at-marccri.marc.cri.nz
Date: Fri, 25 Feb 1994 09:44:55 GMT+1200
Subject: Re: Formvar films cast on glass

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X-Nupop-Charset: English

Bill

We use formvar dissolved in Dichloroethane (0.6%). We cast onto
slides which have been polished in a drop of liquid detergent, leaving a
very thin film over the slide and dried 60 C for 10 minutes or so. After
dipping the slide in the formvar solution we leave to dry for 10 minutes
or so befor stripping, this gives much more consistant release.


Ian Hallett
EM Facility
HortResearch
Auckland New Zealand
EM Facility




From: gilkey-at-biosci.arizona.edu (John C. Gilkey)
Date: Fri, 25 Feb 1994 09:44:55 GMT+1200
Subject: Re: Formvar films cast on glass

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Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
To: Microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

} Question: Our laboratory staff has tried various methods
} over the years to get the formvar film to release from
} glass slides on a regular, consistent basis while producing
} formvar-coated TEM grids.......

From David Bentley:

When we have trouble with the film not releasing, we briefly 'polish' the
slides with a Kimwipe (which may actually end up depositing a thin film of
grease from our fingers on the slide); if this does not work, we use
Kimwipes to clean the slides with Windex, which seems to leave a 'parting
layer' of some kind on the glass. We use Gold Seal slides from Clay Adams
(cat. # 3052). The films generally part well when the slides are _fresh_
(e.g. less than three months after the seal of the _inner_ mylar bag of the
shipping container is broken). The slides than begin to exhibit patchy
'frosting' or 'fogging' which is visible when a slide is held up to the
light; the film seems to stick to the fogged areas. This fog eventually
covers the entire surface of the slide, and can be removed by acid (5%
HCl/95% ethanol) cleaning followed by Windex.






From: Dr. R. Beanland :      beanland-at-liverpool.ac.uk
Date: Thu, 24 Feb 1994 18:36:25 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: Lacquer

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In the last mail alwyn eades said:
}
}
} The general view is that the best lacquer is "Lacomit", a bright red
} lacquer.
} It is resistant to almost all polishing solutions but is removed easily by
} normal solvents, for example acetone. The red colour helps to see whether
} it has been cleanly removed.
} Unfortunately, it is not avaiable in the USA. As far as I know it is still
} avaiable in England. If you get someone to bring you a large bottle, it
} will last until there are no more electron microscopes.

If you do get someone to do this, either get them to bring a bottle of
'lacomit thinner' as well - over time the undiluted stuff tends to turn into
a jelly which needs occasional thinning. Also, when you remove it, (I
usually use acetone), make sure that the wash is completely clear with
no trace of pink; if this is not done, a residue is left which is almost
impossible to remove and sits all over your thin area. 8).


Richard Beanland,
Dept. of Mat. Sci. and Eng.,
University of Liverpool,
P.O. Box 147,
Liverpool,
England.




From: wacb-at-aplcomm.jhuapl.edu (Bill Christens-Barry)
Date: Thu, 24 Feb 1994 14:36:00 -0500
Subject: microscopy server commands: need list and target

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Microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Nestor,

I'm not sure what my options are regarding the microscopy list. I
previously tried to unsubscribe
by sending a message (UNSUBSCRIBE MICROSCOPY wacb-at-aplcomm.jhuapl.edu) to
listserver-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov,
but still I get swarms of email from the list. Perhaps this (MICROSCOPY)
was the wrong name to use for
the list. Now, in a more circumspect and appreciative mood, I would like
to see what other options I have
for achieving a more managable flow to me from the list. Some lists have a
"digest" mode that collects
all of the messages to the list on a single day into a single mailing to
the list members, and this would
probably be appropriate for me here.

And so, I ask, how and where do I send a message that will elicit a list
all of the commands and
options that exist for list members? What is the command syntax that will
do this for me? "help"
or "index" etc. are frequently used in some lists to get the kind of
response I have in mind.

Sorry to send this directly to you, but I don't know how else to address
this sort of bootstrapping
(or maybe I should say bootstripping) problem.

Thanks.

Bill Christens-Barry
wacb-at-aplcomm.jhuapl.edu






From: Scott Simmons :      SRS-at-zeus.ahabs.wisc.edu
Date: Thu, 24 Feb 1994 15:51:28 CST
Subject: (Fwd) Re: Formvar films cast on glass

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940224155128.448-at-ahabs.wisc.edu}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

While greasing the slide this way works great, anyone who
subsequently grows cells on the grid may need to be concerned about
the grease transferring to the formvar. I have found that just polishing
the slide with a kimwipe (not too much or the formvar will stick) is
usually enough to get it to release.




Bill,
I coat glass slides with Formvar on a regular basis and have had
similar trouble in the past. I have solved it completely, however, by a
very simple means. Just wipe a finger across your forehead and lightly
coat
the side of the slide on which the released coating will be (works best
towards the end of the day, obviously). Then with a teatowel or the
corner
of your lab coat, buff the slide moderately clean. ie. leave a
microscopic
layer of body grease on the surface. This ensures that the Formvar
will
release if you have scored all around the slide edges with a sharp
razor
blade. No need for fancy equipment - just dip the slide slowly, at an
angle
so one corner releases first, into a wide mouthed vessel of distilled
water. The cast film with its grids is then very easily picked up with
Parafilm rolled across the film and lifted.

Good luck

Nikki Watson


Dr N.A. Watson
Department of Zoology
University of New England
Armidale, NSW, 2351
AUSTRALIA
Fax: 067 711 869
Phone: 067 732181

(using 'Eudora' on a Macintosh)






From: Rick A. Harris :      szrick-at-othello.ucdavis.edu
Date: Thu, 24 Feb 1994 09:53:52 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: Formvar films cast on glass

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On Wed, 23 Feb 1994, Richard F. Kuklinski wrote:

} I am passing on the following message for discussion:
}
} From: Bill Monroe
} Electron Microscope Center
} Mississippi State UniversitySubject: Formvar films cast on glass
}
} Question: Our laboratory staff has tried various methods
} over the years to get the formvar film to release from
} glass slides on a regular, consistent basis while producing
} formvar-coated TEM grids.(Problem: the films sometimes do
} not release at all, sometimes release too wrinkled to use,
} etc.) We use formvar prepared in chloroform, and make use
} of an Effa Film Caster Apparatus (Ernest F. Fullam, Inc.).
} I would appreciate any suggestions which might help
} alleviate this dilemma.
}

This always works for me:

I use formvar in ehthylene dichloride and if it is over a month old I
discard it. I have real problems with Gold Seal micro slides but no
problems with Fisher pre-cleaned micro slides, cat no. 12-552. I wipe
the slide with a kimwipe but I don't over do it. I don't have a fancy
film caster, I just dunk the slide into .25 to .4% w/v soln. for a few
seconds and then let it air dry for a minute. I then run the side of my
forceps lightly around the edge of the slide, not on top of the slide but
on the angle made by the top and side of the slide. Next, I breath on
the slide to form a moist layer (I have always done this, don't know
why). Then I gently dip slide straight down while holding it at an angle
of about 45 degrees. Works every time, never wrinkles. Gold
Seal slides would not release formvar. Some people like to use glass
strips from the microtome but I have not tried this.

Rick A. Harris
Supervisor, Microsopy Facility
Evolution and Ecology, Storer Hall
Univer. of Calif., Davis




From: Jouko M{ki :      jokamaki-at-utu.fi
Date: Fri, 25 Feb 1994 08:18:11 +0200
Subject: RE: Film removal

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Hello,

I have read this discussion with interest. There seem to be extremely many
methods with all the same principle.

The main idea seems to be that you have to make the surface of the object
glas hydrophilic with some method. The usual way is to coat the glas with a
"monolayer" of some polaric molecules, e.g. detergent, as many of you have
suggested. This layer then attracts the water molecules and they are
slipping in between the glas and the formwar thus removing the formwar-
layer.
There are many different hydrophilic commercially awailable solutions with
which you can even adjust the strength of hydrophilicity - as well as the
opposite = hydrophobicity.

This monomolecular layer is also good against microscopic pits in the glas
surface because it covers the pit to some extent.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Jouko K. Maki Navigare necesse est...
Laboratory Manager, Ph.D.
Laboratory of Electron Microscopy Kiinamyllynkatu 10 FIN-20520 TURKU FINLAND
University of Turku Tel.: + 358 21 633 7318
INTERNET: jouko.maki-at-utu.fi FAX.: + 358 21 633 7380




From: Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers :      GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Date: Fri, 25 Feb 1994 08:37:25 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Plant cell walls

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Message-Id: {9402251306.AA22593-at- nrcbsa.bio.nrc.ca}

In response to Tony Travis:

Plant cell walls become highly fluorescent after fixation with
glutaraldehyde. A student here used that method to estimate total cell wall
by morphometrics. I think he left them in 10% glut overnight.
*****************************
* Greg Erdos *
* Director, ICBR EMCL *
* University of Florida *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 *
* gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* 904-392-1295 *
*****************************




From: tivol-at-tethys.ph.albany.edu
Date: Fri, 25 Feb 1994 10:21:47 EST
Subject: Deconvolution

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Dear Alwyn,

In reply to your deconvolution questions: 1) The maximum entropy sol-
ution is not always the smoothest; in particular, the m.e. solution for dif-
fraction gives peaks which get sharper as the phase set is extended. Since,
for your example, the maximum resolution is limited by the probe diameter, this
effect may not occur; however, if the solution tree gives maximum likelihood
for a set of structures which are not smooth, there is nothing which would
guide the solution to a smoother structure. That is, suppose there are two
structures the first of which is smooth and nearly correct and the second of
which is rough at a scale smaller than the probe diameter and whose envelope is
even more nearly correct. M.e. would follow the path of the rougher structure,
and would not necessarily smooth it out. 2) Leaving aside the question of
whether atoms are delta functions--especially when they are at the sum of the
Van der Walls radii apart--maximum entropy can find such a structure and will
find a structure whose envelope follows the contact points of the atoms with
the probe. The often-published STM images of a silicon surface demonstrate
what one might expect. It is not a bad idea, however, to include atomicity or
other constraints explicitly, and, I believe, this can be done easily in a m.e.
calculation. I hope this helps.


Yours,

Bill Tivol
tivol-at-tethys.ph.albany.edu




From: Paul Webster :      Paul_Webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 25 Feb 1994 12:35:43 -0500
Subject: IgGs & Gold

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IgGs & Gold
Dear Dr Ruben,
I tried to send this message out on the bulletin board but I seem to be having
problems with the connection. I hope that this will answer some of your
questions. Feel free to call me if you want more information etc.

There are many reviews out in the literature covering the different methods for
producing colloidal gold probes and then coupling them to proteins, including
IgGs (look under Jan De Mey, Jan Leunissen, Ralph Albrechts). The methods are
easy to follow and easy to do.
If you would prefer someone else to do this then I think the lab in Utrecht,
Holland provides this service - the contact is George Postuma, Dept of Cell
Biol. University of Utrecht, The Netherlands (phone number 011 31 30 507 654) -
this is the lab where Jan Slot works, by the way.
Coupling immunoglobulins to gold requires lots of protein so make sure you have
large supplies of your antibodies, especially if you want to do double label
experiments and need IgGs coupled to more than one gold size. If you only have
limited supplies of antibody and are planning simple immunocytochemical
experiments then it will be simpler and less expensive to use protein A-gold.
This will bind to rabbit antibodies and a few other IgGs. However, mouse
monoclonals, in general have poor or no affinity for protein A. In this case,
buy an unconjugated rabbit anti-mouse and use this as a bridge (ie apply first
antibody; rabbit anti-mouse or anti-rat etc; apply protein A gold).
Contact me if you want to use the antibodies for double labeling. These are
simple methods using bridging antibodies and protein A-gold.
Paul Webster
Yale School of Medicine
(203) 785 5072
Good Luck.






From: tivol-at-tethys.ph.albany.edu
Date: Fri, 25 Feb 1994 18:29:36 EST
Subject: Deconvolution

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Posted: Fri, 25 Feb 94 17:55:01 -0500

Dear Alwyn,

In reply to your deconvolution questions: 1) The maximum entropy sol-
ution is not always the smoothest; in particular, the m.e. solution for dif-
fraction gives peaks which get sharper as the phase set is extended. Since,
for your example, the maximum resolution is limited by the probe diameter, this
effect may not occur; however, if the solution tree gives maximum likelihood
for a set of structures which are not smooth, there is nothing which would
guide the solution to a smoother structure. That is, suppose there are two
structures the first of which is smooth and nearly correct and the second of
which is rough at a scale smaller than the probe diameter and whose envelope is
even more nearly correct. M.e. would follow the path of the rougher structure,
and would not necessarily smooth it out. 2) Leaving aside the question of
whether atoms are delta functions--especially when they are at the sum of the
Van der Walls radii apart--maximum entropy can find such a structure and will
find a structure whose envelope follows the contact points of the atoms with
the probe. The often-published STM images of a silicon surface demonstrate
what one might expect. It is not a bad idea, however, to include atomicity or
other constraints explicitly, and, I believe, this can be done easily in a m.e.
calculation. I hope this helps.


Yours,

Bill Tivol
tivol-at-tethys.ph.albany.edu




From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Fri, 25 Feb 1994 22:33:36 -0600 (CST)
Subject: File Transfer Dec-> Others

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At the ANLEMC we also use Process Software's FTP & TCP/IP software
on the Dec PDP 11's. We use this on both normal PDP 11's and
also EDAX PV9900 systems (PDP 11/73 based). All systems transfer
both images and spectra back and forth between Dec, Mac, and PC
systems. To transfer images we send data in raw (binary) format
and then use a variety of programs to import and read the data.
For example we can read EDAX Image files directly into the
NIH Image program for fast viewing and sorting. We can also
transfer spectra both in binary (Edax) format or alternatively
translate the spectra on the EDAX system into the MSA (Microscopy
Society of America) format, which is a simple ASCII file. Once
the data is in the MSA format it can be directly transported
into any data analysis/spreadsheet progran on your favorite
platform. The MSA format is in the public domain and can be
downloaded from the EMMPDL.

Nestor Zaluzec
ANLEMC




From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Fri, 25 Feb 1994 22:53:12 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Problems & Question with the Email

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Friday 2/25/94 ~ 11 pm

All Subscribers

I've been off line for the last 2 days, however, I did recieve
your collective messages that some of you were having problems.
the system should be fixed by now, but please keep me informed of
problems whenever they occur. The lastest problem was relatively
simple the disk was full and hence Email was either being
rejected or sent out with some or all of the text of messages missing.
Sorry about that.... :-(

As for the other questions about creating a sublists, digest
modes, etc..... These have always been possiblities and I'm
always open to the suggestions for improvements (no offense
will be taken on anyones comments/suggestions for improvements).
Basically these items are on my list of things to do, but as
I mentioned earlier this month (or was it last month?) , I'm
trying to procur a new system, install it
debug and generally get it up and running and then decommission
this computer (all in my spare time). Until I have these all completed,
I'm going to have to preserve the status quo.

Cheers - Nestor
ANL EM Center





From: PEROVIC Doug Dragan :      perovic-at-ecf.toronto.edu
Date: Sun, 27 Feb 1994 20:46:15 -0500
Subject: Call for Papers

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***************************************************************************
CALL FOR PAPERS
***************************************************************************

We are organizing a focused workshop entitled:

"INTERFACE FORMATION AND DYNAMICS IN LAYERED STRUTURES"

This workshop will be part of the Scanning Microscopy 1994 Meeting to be
held in Toronto, Canada, 9-11 May, 1994.

The objective of this workshop is to bring together academic and industrial
researchers working in the field of epitaxial heterostructures. Topics will
include:
-surface and interface energetics of defect formation
-sensitivity of materials properties to interface imperfections
-characterization techniques for interface studies
-epitaxial growth modes
-phase separation processes
-point and line defect engineering
-applications of mismatched materials.

The workshop has been organized on the same lines as the Gordon and European
Science Foundation Research Conference format. Accordingly there will be
much time for discussion. Moreover there will be a large number of invited
speakers including:

G.C. Aers (NRC-Ottawa)
J.-M. Baribeau (NRC-Ottawa)
E. Bauer (U. Clausthal)
D.K. Biegelsen (Xerox)
D. Cherns (U. Bristol)
A.G. Cullis (DRA-Malvern)
C.B. Duke (Xerox)
K. Eberl (Max Planck Inst.)
L.C. Feldman (AT&T)
E.A. Fitzgerald (AT&T)
J.M. Gibson (U. Illinois)
M. Grinfeld (Rutgers U.)
D.E. Jesson (ORNL)
B.A. Joyce (Imperial College)
K.L. Kavanagh (UCSD)
R.E. Mallard (BNR-Ottawa)
B. Meyerson (IBM)
B. Orr (U. Michigan)
C.J. Palmstrom (Bellcore)
H.E. Ruda (U. Toronto)
M. Saran (Northern Telecom)
L.J. Schowalter (Rensselaer)
T. Tiedje (UBC)
P.W. Voorhees (Northwestern U.)
G.C. Weatherly (McMaster U.)
Y.-N. Yang (U. Maryland)
A. Zangwill (Georgia Tech)

The deadline for submission of contributed papers is 15 April, 1994.

For further information about the workshop please contact:

Doug D. Perovic
Department of Metallurgy
and Materials Science,
University of Toronto,
Toronto, M5S 1A4 Canada
Tel: (416) 978-5635
Fax: (416) 978-4155
Email: perovic-at-ecf.utoronto.ca




From: {ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov}:ddn:wpafb
Date: 2-28-94 7:34am
Subject: Problems & Question with the Email

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To: WALCKSD:ml:wpafb, SCHELTFJ:ml:wpafb
Subj: Problems & Question with the Email
Orig-Author: {"Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964"
{ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov} }:ddn:wpafb
-----------------------------------------------------------
Friday 2/25/94 ~ 11 pm

All Subscribers

I've been off line for the last 2 days, however, I did recieve
your collective messages that some of you were having problems.
the system should be fixed by now, but please keep me informed of
problems whenever they occur. The lastest problem was relatively
simple the disk was full and hence Email was either being
rejected or sent out with some or all of the text of messages missing.
Sorry about that.... :-(

As for the other questions about creating a sublists, digest
modes, etc..... These have always been possiblities and I'm
always open to the suggestions for improvements (no offense
will be taken on anyones comments/suggestions for improvements).
Basically these items are on my list of things to do, but as
I mentioned earlier this month (or was it last month?) , I'm
trying to procur a new system, install it
debug and generally get it up and running and then decommission
this computer (all in my spare time). Until I have these all completed,
I'm going to have to preserve the status quo.

Cheers - Nestor
ANL EM Center





From: RETEP-at-anat.uct.ac.za
Date: 1 Mar 94 09:03:04 SAST-2
Subject: RE:DIPRMS ORAL

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CAN ANYONE ASSIST?

I am looking for microscopically orientated people who may be
visiting South Africa in the next 6-12 months.

I have recently submitted and had accepted the DipRMS thesis, but am
trying to assist the Royal Microscopical Society in finding a
microscopist who would be able to convene a local viva board. The
person would have to meet the Royal Microscopical Society's approval,
as being a person able to perform such a function.

If you know of anyone or if you are able to assist yourself could you
please contact me directly at

RETEP-at-ANAT.UCT.AC.ZA

or phone/write to me at the telephone number/address below.

PLEASE DO NOT respond via the Mailserver.


Peter D. G. Richards
Dept Anatomy and Cell Biology
UCT Medical School
Observatory
7925
RSA
Tel: 021-406 6285.




From: PEROVIC Doug Dragan :      perovic-at-ecf.toronto.edu
Date: Tue, 1 Mar 1994 07:14:35 -0500
Subject: RE:DIPRMS ORAL

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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***************************************************************************
CALL FOR PAPERS
***************************************************************************

We are organizing a focused workshop entitled:

"INTERFACE FORMATION AND DYNAMICS IN LAYERED STRUTURES"

This workshop will be part of the Scanning Microscopy 1994 Meeting to be
held in Toronto, Canada, 9-11 May, 1994.

The objective of this workshop is to bring together academic and industrial
researchers working in the field of epitaxial heterostructures. Topics will
include:
-surface and interface energetics of defect formation
-sensitivity of materials properties to interface imperfections
-characterization techniques for interface studies
-epitaxial growth modes
-phase separation processes
-point and line defect engineering
-applications of mismatched materials.

The workshop has been organized on the same lines as the Gordon and European
Science Foundation Research Conference format. Accordingly there will be
much time for discussion. Moreover there will be a large number of invited
speakers including:

G.C. Aers (NRC-Ottawa)
J.-M. Baribeau (NRC-Ottawa)
E. Bauer (U. Clausthal)
D.K. Biegelsen (Xerox)
D. Cherns (U. Bristol)
A.G. Cullis (DRA-Malvern)
C.B. Duke (Xerox)
K. Eberl (Max Planck Inst.)
L.C. Feldman (AT&T)
E.A. Fitzgerald (AT&T)
J.M. Gibson (U. Illinois)
M. Grinfeld (Rutgers U.)
D.E. Jesson (ORNL)
B.A. Joyce (Imperial College)
K.L. Kavanagh (UCSD)
R.E. Mallard (BNR-Ottawa)
B. Meyerson (IBM)
B. Orr (U. Michigan)
C.J. Palmstrom (Bellcore)
H.E. Ruda (U. Toronto)
M. Saran (Northern Telecom)
L.J. Schowalter (Rensselaer)
T. Tiedje (UBC)
P.W. Voorhees (Northwestern U.)
G.C. Weatherly (McMaster U.)
Y.-N. Yang (U. Maryland)
A. Zangwill (Georgia Tech)

The deadline for submission of contributed papers is 15 April, 1994.

For further information about the workshop please contact:

Doug D. Perovic
Department of Metallurgy
and Materials Science,
University of Toronto,
Toronto, M5S 1A4 Canada
Tel: (416) 978-5635
Fax: (416) 978-4155
Email: perovic-at-ecf.utoronto.ca





From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu
Date: Tue, 1 Mar 1994 09:40:22 -0500 (EST)
Subject: LR-White

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I have always used gelatin capsules for embedding material in LR-White
and I was wondering if anyone has tried using Beem capsules. If I dry
the Beem capsules overnight in a 50 C vacuum oven, would this help? I'm
currently doing immuno-labeling on Euplodes and would like to be able to
spin the specimens down into a conical Beem capsule. Any suggestions? I
appreciate any info on this method.
Thanks,
Phil Rutledge
prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu




From: DPCAMPBELL :      DPCAMPBELL-at-CSUPomona.Edu
Date: 1 Mar 94 11:51:00 PST
Subject: LM IMAGE ANALYSIS ON PC/MAC

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Message-Id: {Chameleon.940227100440.tonygr-at-emlab.mit.edu}


This is a request for help. A zoology faculty member wants to count
fiber types (muscle fiber cross sections, stained for I, IIA and IIB)
and to obtain cross section areas for the fibers. If I understand
the needs correctly, we will need software that will allow "sliding"
two images and aligniment of the two for fiber type identification.
Then, a more usual morphorometry of doing the X-sec. Defining the
boundry by hand for the area determination is acceptable. Is there
anyone who is doing this or has experience with muscle firber
analysis that can recommend software for either the PC or Mac platform?
I can capture the image into a PC system in my lab for them, save it
in a standard format .tga or tiff etc., but have no microcomputer level
analytical software. Any suggestions, vendors etc will be appreciated.
Pardon the typo, live time VAX.
Thanks David P. Campbell





From: Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers :      GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Date: Tue, 01 Mar 1994 17:29:12 -0500 (EST)
Subject: LR White & BEEM capsules

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Message-Id: {Chameleon.940227100440.tonygr-at-emlab.mit.edu}

We also ended up with a big mess when heat polymerizing LR White in
polyethylene BEEM caps. However a polypropylene micro-fuge tube will work
just fine. Only problem is that one must saw out the specimen or use
doggie toenail clippers to cut off the end of the tube wherein lies the
specimen and then tease it out. LR White does not bind to the polypropylene
but it doesn't slip right out either. If you use the clippers be sure to do
this inside your closed fist so that the specimen is not launched across the
room never to be seen again.
The clipped off tip must then be remounted on something appropriate
for sectioning using super glue. Works best if you file done the cut surface
so that it is smooth and makes good contact with the plastic stub such as those
sold by Pella.

**********************************************************
* Greg Erdos ** *
* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
**********************************************************




From: chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU (John Chandler)
Date: Tue, 1 Mar 1994 16:11:15 -0700
Subject: Re: LR-white

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} Phil Rutledge asked about polymerizing LR-white in Beem capsules. We tried
} drying at 60 C for 4 hours (haven't tried overnight). Results were
} just as bad as with undried capsules. Poor polymerization of the resin.
} We ended up with a real funky mess.
} -Jay Jerome
} jjerome-at-isnet.is.wfu.edu

I've never used LR-white, but I've talked with one of the distributors
about its notorious polymerization properties. They told me that they
think BEEM capsules are not suitable for polymerizing LR-white. The reason
is that the capsules are too porous and permeable to water. Any water will
interfere with polymerization. They have never had any trouble
polymerizing, as long as they use gelatin capsules.

As I said, I have no experience (yet), but this might help others. I'd be
interested in comments from those who use it successfully.


John chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU Fort Collins, CO





From: kayton-at-ohsu.edu (Robert Kayton,MAC,CROET)
Date: Tue Mar 1 15:44:07 PST 1994
Subject: E.M. Position

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Message-Id: {m0pbe6h-0000PNC-at-stjohns.ohsu.edu}
Message-Version: 2
} To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
POSITION AVAILABLE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Research Associate postition open at the Department of Pathlogy in research
related to cytoskeletal components of megakaryoscytes and the process of
platelet fromation. Successful applicant will have a M.S. or equivalent,
experience in electron microscopy and immunology techniques. Experience in
standard biochemical and molecular biology techniques preferred.

Contact by phone or regular Mail:

Dr. Paula Stenberg, E.M. Director
Department of Pathlogy, L113
Oregon Health Sciences University
Portland, OR 97201

(503)494-2280




From: kayton-at-ohsu.edu (Robert Kayton,MAC,CROET)
Date: Tue Mar 1 16:06:03 PST 1994
Subject: Evan's Blue & Blood Brain Barrier

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Message-Id: {m0pbeRw-0000P0C-at-stjohns.ohsu.edu}
Message-Version: 2
} To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Evan's Blue and Blood Brain Barrier


A general question for light level resolution. We use Evan's Blue circulated
in vivo for 30 minutes to see if there has been a breakdown of the blood brain
barrier. Animals are then perfused (4% para.) the brains sectioned with a
vibratome (100 microns). Question is: If we dehydrate and mount in permount
will the Evan's blue stay put or get leached out? Any experience with similar
situation would be helpful.

Bob Kayton
C.R.O.E.T. L606
Oregon Health Sciences Universtiy
Portland, OR. 97007
503 494 2504
E-mail kayton-at-ohsu.edu




From: RETEP-at-anat.uct.ac.za
Date: 2 Mar 94 14:29:07 SAST-2
Subject: Re LR White

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Message-ID: {MAILQUEUE-101.940302142907.352-at-anat.uct.ac.za}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Regards LR white and BEEM Capsules.

London Resin and beem capsules do not mix. At least they did not
when the resin first came onto the market.

I certainly had a great deal of difficulty at that time but I believe
the formulation has changed slightly so it might now.

If I remember the last time I used the resin it polymerised with the
material of the BEEM capsule or at least the surface layer.

Peter D. G. Richards
Dept Anatomy and Cell Biology
UCT Medical School
Observatory
7925
RSA
Tel: 021-406 6285.




From: RETEP-at-anat.uct.ac.za
Date: 2 Mar 94 15:30:04 SAST-2
Subject: LM: Evans Blue

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Message-ID: {MAILQUEUE-101.940302153004.576-at-anat.uct.ac.za}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Regarding the query about the azo vital dye Evans Blue.

I have not had any personal experiance with the dye but there
should be no problem with dehydrating and mounting. Be sure to
dehydrate in alcohols and xylene or equivelant.


Peter D. G. Richards
Dept Anatomy and Cell Biology
UCT Medical School
Observatory
7925
RSA
Tel: 021-406 6285.




From: Louisa.Howard-at-Dartmouth.EDU (Louisa Howard)
Date: 02 Mar 94 09:07:12 EST
Subject: LRWhite-BEEM

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Message-id: {8843570-at-blitzen.Dartmouth.EDU}

Phil:
our lab's experience with yeast, LR White and capsules:
two ways:
1. small sample size: Place suspension of sample in LR White in a BEEM
capsule, seal and centrifuge ( inside a tube, whose bottom is padded with
cotton). Seal the BEEM INSIDE a large gelatin capsule. Available through
drugstore or EM supply house. If you can't find a large enough gelatin
capsule; use the OOO. Simply "trim" the beem capsule(that extra ridge where
the cap goes on), so it will slide in.Then carefully seal the BEEM capsule
inside two OOO gelatin capsule bottoms, that have been filled with LR White.
A bit sloppy, but very effective. Works for us 100%. You just need to wear
gloves and put down extra paper to catch any LR white drops, while you are
filling and sealing
2. large sample size: leave material in OO capsules. Place these capsules
inside a BEEM capsule, that has been cut to accomodate the capsules (The top
half is cut away). Clinical centrifuge, as above.

hope this helps
Louisa. Howard-at-dartmouth.edu

P.S. If you have access to a vacuum oven, you can use the BEEM capsules
alone. This avoids the problems associated with porous BEEM capsules and the
presence of oxygen.






From: gilkey-at-biosci.arizona.edu (John C. Gilkey)
Date: 02 Mar 94 09:07:12 EST
Subject: Re: LM IMAGE ANALYSIS ON PC/MAC

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Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
To: MICROSCOPY-at-ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV

} Is there anyone who is doing this or has experience with muscle firber analysis
} that can recommend software for either the PC or Mac platform?

NIH-Image, a freeware image processing program for the Macintosh
available from the National Institutes of Health at zippy.nimh.nih.gov,
directory /pub/image, has facilities for image alignment (in several
modes), area determination (including thresholding/density slicing to
segment the regions of interest, and automatic counting, analysis and
labelling of these regions), and much more.






From: David Henriks :      73531.1344-at-CompuServe.COM
Date: 24 Feb 94 11:39:00 EST
Subject: TEM: Lacquer for electro/chemical polishing

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---------- Forwarded Message ----------


----- Transcript of session follows -----
421 nw.oirtorm.net.kiae.su (tcpld)... Deferred: Connection timed out during user open with oirtorm.net.kiae.su

----- Unsent message follows -----
Received: from anlemc.msd.anl.gov by cpuv1.net.kiae.su with SMTP id AA11761
(5.65.kiae-1 for {alekseev-at-nw.oirtorm.net.kiae.su} ); Fri, 25 Feb 1994 02:43:27 +0300

In response to requests for suppliers of protective lacquer for electropolishing
I would like to inform you that Microshield Lacquer is available from:

South Bay Technology, Inc.
1120 Via Callejon
San Clemente, CA 92673 USA

TEL: 714-492-2600
Toll-free: 800-728-2233
FAX: 714-492-1499

The Microshield Lacquer has been used for many years with our Model 550
Electropolisher and Model 550 Chemical Jet Polisher. It is acetone soluble and
is available in an 8 ounce kit. Please reference P/N 02-01890-01.

Best regards-

David Henriks






From: Bernhardt Sainieidukat :      sainieid-at-badlands.NoDak.edu
Date: Wed, 2 Mar 1994 11:21:17 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Re: LM IMAGE ANALYSIS ON PC/MAC

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On Wed, 2 Mar 1994, John C. Gilkey wrote:

} } Is there anyone who is doing this or has experience with muscle firber analysis
} } that can recommend software for either the PC or Mac platform?
}
} NIH-Image, a freeware image processing program for the Macintosh
} available from the National Institutes of Health at zippy.nimh.nih.gov,
} directory /pub/image, has facilities for image alignment (in several
} modes), area determination (including thresholding/density slicing to
} segment the regions of interest, and automatic counting, analysis and
} labelling of these regions), and much more.

Here's the README file from Image:

NIH Image
---------
NIH Image is a public domain program for the Macintosh for doing digital
image processing and analysis. It can acquire, display, edit, enhance,
analyze, print, and animate grayscale and color images. It reads and writes
TIFF, PICT, PICS and MacPaint files It features multiple windows,
MacPaint-like editing and 8 levels of magnification. It supports Data
Translation and Scion frame grabber cards. Image requires at least 4MB of
RAM and 8-bit video. The following files in the directory /pub/image contain
NIH Image, documentation, source code, and example images.

nih-image1xx_fpu.hqx NIH Image 1.xx application. Requires FPU.
nih-image1xx_nonfpu.hqx Version that does not require floating-point
nih-image1xx_docs.hqx Documentation in Word 5.0 format
nih-image1xx_source.hqx Think Pascal 4.0 source
images Directory with images in TIFF and PICT format
stacks Example stacks(3D images and movies) (directory)
nih-image_spinoffs Contains variants of NIH Image(directory)
programs Directory containing miscellaneous related
programs

File Formats
------------
Files are in one of three formats. Those with a ".hqx" suffix are BinHex
encoded Mac binary files, those with a ".bin" suffix are MacBinary encoded
Mac binary files, and those with a ".txt" suffix are a plain text files. The
BinHex and MacBinary formats represent the two parts of a Mac file(the data
fork and the resource fork) as a single file. They permit storage of a
complete Mac file on a non-Mac system, such as this server.

Most files were compressed using the Mac utility Stuffit 1.5.1 and uploaded
using Fetch, which does the BinHex or MacBinary encoding. Both utilities can
be found in the util directory. The best way to retrieve files is to use
Fetch, which automatically does Binhex (or MacBinary) decoding and file
decompression. Unfortunately, Fetch requires a Mac directly connected to the
Internet. If this is not the case, use an FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
utility to transfer the files to a local host and then transfer them to a
Mac via modem.

For Macs not directly on the Internet, BinHex files must be transferred to
a Mac using "ascii" mode and then decoded and decompressed using Stuffit or
some other Mac compression utility, such as Compact Pro. MacBinary files
must be transferred to an intermediate host using FTP in "binary" mode,
then transferred to a Mac in "MacBinary" mode and decompressed using
Stuffit or Compact Pro. A copy of Stuffit 1.5.1 is in the directory
/pub/util in MacBinary format. The document "ftp-primer.txt" in the
documents directory provides more information on file formats and FTP.


NIH Image Mailing List
----------------------
There is an NIH Image mailing list. It was set up by a group in the Soil
Science Department at the University of Minnesota. To subscribe, send a
message containing the line "subscribe nih-image {your name} " to
soils.umn.edu.


DepthGauge
----------
DepthGauge is a control panel that allows rapid switching between
monitor depths settings(e.g. 8-bit color and 24-bit color).


Fetch(/pub/util)
----------------
Fetch is a slick utility that allows networked Macs to transfer files
over the Internet using the File Transfer Protocol(FTP). It does
BinHex decoding and file decompression as the files are transferred.

Giffer(/pub/image/peograms)
-----------------------
Giffer is a shareware program useful for converting from GIF to Pict
format, and vis-versa.

ImageFFT(/pub/image/image_spinoffs)
-----------------------------------
ImageFFT is an extension to NIH Image to support frequency domain (power
spectrum) display and editing. It can do a 512x512 FFT in 18 seconds on a
Mac IIfx.

ImageFractal(/pub/image/image_spinoffs)
---------------------------------------
ImageFractal is a version of Image modified to compute the Fractal Index
of objects by the Richardson Plot or the Tile-amalgamation methods.

Image/MG(/pub/image/image_spinoffs)
-----------------------------------
Image/MG is an extension of Image supporting quantitative evaluation
of cerebral blood flow, glucose metabolism, and protein synthesis.

NCSA PalEdit(/pub/image/programs)
-----------------------------
NCSA PalEdit is a public domain program from the National Center for
Supercomputing Applications for creating and customizing color palettes.
With PalEdit, you can modify the whole palette or individual entries in the
palette, to create a set of colors tailored to your needs. PalEdit can save
palettes in a format compatible with NIH Image.

MockWrite
---------
MockWrite is a simple DA text editor that is convenient for editing macros
written in Image's Pascal-like macro programming language.

Projectionist(/pub/image/programs)
------------------------------
Projectionist is a utility that allows you to animate stacks created
by Image and saved in PICS format. Because all the frames in the
stack do not need to be loaded into RAM, Projectionist requires
less memory than image. This preliminary version uses the standard
system palette, so stacks created with Image may lose some of
their colors when animated with Projectionist.





From: Glen Macdonald :      glenmac-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Wed, 2 Mar 1994 10:02:19 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: LM IMAGE ANALYSIS ON PC/MAC

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There are a couple of solutions to this problem that we've used. First,
capture one image, then print it on mylar with a laser printer (or to
paper and photocopy onto mylar if your printer doesn't do mylar). then
capture the image to be overlaid and hold the mylar transparency over the
computer monitor. This usually works best with a high contrast image
on the mylar- otherwise the gray in the background details will obscure
the lookup image on the monitor. this works well for physical disectors.
The second image can be grabbed during the long print time.

Second, NIH Image, a public domain image analysis program for the Mac,
allows alignment of two overlaid images. You can capture the first image,
duplicate it, and then capture the second image and perform a live paste
which superimposes the live image over the captured image. Live paste
allows moving the stage until the live image aligns. - This sounds easy,
but usually quite tedious in practice.

The simplest way to align images in Image is to capture your images and
then run one of the alignment macros that either come with Image or are
avaialble from the User_macros folder from Zippy.nimh.nih.gove (NIH Image
ftp source). One alignment macro allows drawing lines on images in a
stack, then all members of the stack are automatically aligned. Another
macro, which I wrote, works on pairs of images. Draw a line between two
landmarks common to the two images, then the macro will rotate one of the
images to rotationally align the two lines and transparently paste it over
the other image. You tweak the XY registration by hand.

Most PC software
with macro capabiblity should allow creating the same type of macros. 24
bit software may allow putting the two images to be aligned into different
color planes, then aligning. -
Glen MacDonald
Hearing Development
Laboratories RL-30
University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195
(206)543-8360
glenmac-at-u.washington.edu
-





From: Tony Hollenkamp :      afh-at-dmp.csiro.au
Date: Thu, 3 Mar 1994 09:05:13 +1100 (DST)
Subject:

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unsubscribe






From: Glen Macdonald :      glenmac-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Wed, 2 Mar 1994 16:18:55 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: Evan's Blue & Blood Brain Barrier

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We just tried Evan's blue for the same purpose. It was somewhat visible
in wet tissue coverslipped with glycerol. Dehydrating through ethanols
and clearing in xylene, coverslipping with DPX (our standard protocol for
paraffin and vibratome sections) dramatically improved the
fluorescence. Nearly one week later there is no noticeable fading or
diffusion. Sure is pretty.

Could you email your labelling method - concentrations, route of
administration and survival times? I'll get the grad. student who did
this to make her method available to send to you.

Glen MacDonald
Hearing Development Laboratories RL-30
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195
(206)543-8360
glenmac-at-u.washington.edu






From: *Anatomo Pathologie :      anapat-at-reks.uia.ac.be
Date: Thu, 3 Mar 1994 13:42:06 +0100 (MET)
Subject: Re: LR-White

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Hi,

We regularly use Unicryl and Beem capsules. It works perfectly. Unicryl
however does not - in our honest opinion - polymerise in gelatine
capsules.


--------------------------------------------------------------------
Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen (UIA)
Lab Pathology
2610 Wilrijk
BELGIUM

Tel: 32.3.820.25.34
Fax: 32.3.820.22.48
E-mail: anapat-at-uia.ac.be
-------------------------------------------------------------------





From: EMLAB-at-opus.mco.edu
Date: Thu, 03 Mar 1994 08:50:36 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: LR WHITE

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I have read on this e-mail system about polymerization of LR WHITE RESIN
in a vacuum oven. Do you close the lids of the BEEM capsules when in the
oven or leave them open?






From: Francisco Javier H Blazquez :      fjhblazq-at-fox.cce.usp.br
Date: Thu, 3 Mar 1994 14:51:11 -0300 (BDT)
Subject: LR WHITE

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I`m interested in the morphology of Panthera sp. epidermis. If anyone
knows something about it, please, contact me. Thank you.


=============================================================================
Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez |
Universidade de Sao Paulo - Faculdade de | e-mail fjhblazq-at-fox.cce.usp.br
Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos | Voice: 55 195 616122 r. 265
Departamento de Ciencias Basicas/Histologia|
Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225 CP 23 | Fax: 55 195 611689
CEP 13630-000 Pirassununga (Sao Paulo) |
BRAZIL |
==============================================================================






From: Francisco Javier H Blazquez :      fjhblazq-at-fox.cce.usp.br
Date: Thu, 3 Mar 1994 15:10:18 -0300 (BDT)
Subject: Phanthera pardus epidermis

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I`m interested in the morphology of Panthera sp. epidermis. If anyone
knows something about it, please, contact me. Thank you.


=============================================================================
Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez |
Universidade de Sao Paulo - Faculdade de | e-mail fjhblazq-at-fox.cce.usp.br
Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos | Voice: 55 195 616122 r. 265
Departamento de Ciencias Basicas/Histologia|
Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225 CP 23 | Fax: 55 195 611689
CEP 13630-000 Pirassununga (Sao Paulo) |
BRAZIL |
==============================================================================








From: gfw93 :      gfw93-at-aber.ac.uk
Date: Fri, 04 Mar 1994 13:01:08 +0000
Subject: TEM - Post-sectioning Osmium Staining

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To: Microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

I have obtained fixed (2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1M sodium cacodylate buffer)
lung (rabbit) tissue which has been embedded in LR White and Spurr resin.
However, they have NOT been stained with osmium tetroxide prior to embedding.
Could anyone suggest possible methods of osmium staining post sectioning?
Thankyou.

Gerald Watts, Univ. Wales, Aberystwyth, UK.
gfw93-at-aber.ac.uk




From: smithj-at-acad.winthrop.edu
Date: Fri, 4 Mar 1994 18:33:48 -0500
Subject: Direct Imaging for TEM

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Microscopists:
I am interested in imaging from my TEM directly. For
starters, let's say at 1Kx1Kx8bit. Is anyone out there putting
the moral equivalent of a CCD in the column? (I suspect that
you'd cook an actual CCD in a hurry, not to mention that you
don't need response to photons). I see problems with file size,
but what are the physical reasons that we don't capture
images this way?
Julian Smith III
Dept. of Biology
Winthrop University
Rock Hill, SC 29733
Vox 803-323-2111
Fax 803-323-2246




From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Sun, 6 Mar 1994 10:36:19 -0600 (CST)
Subject: TEM-PREPARATION OF TEM SAMPLES

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From: S0F6296-at-SUMMA.TAMU.EDU
Date: Fri, 4 Mar 1994 14:18:35 -0600 (CST)
Subject: TEM-PREPARATION OF TEM SAMPLES

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subject:-TEM-PREPARATION OF TEM SAMPLES(PURE COPPER)

I would want to know if it is possible to indicate and to know the initial
macro shear direction on a photo of a 3mm TEM disk sample submitted to an
shear deformation by extrusion.Moreover, can we prepare and observe square
samples instead of conventional disk samples for TEM.I know that some studies
have been made in Russia using square samples and showing the direction of
initial shear on the pictures.
Thanks a lot by advance for any help.
Stephane Ferrasse
Email address:S0F6296-at-ZEUS.TAMU.EDU




From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Sun, 6 Mar 1994 10:37:08 -0600 (CST)
Subject: TEM-PREPARATION OF TEM SAMPLES (PURE COPPER)

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From: S0F6296-at-SUMMA.TAMU.EDU
Date: Fri, 4 Mar 1994 14:20:11 -0600 (CST)
Subject: TEM-PREPARATION OF TEM SAMPLES (PURE COPPER)

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TEM-PREPARATION OF TEM SAMPLES

I am studying pure copper samples with the Phillips EM400 and I have problems
because my samples seem to be too thick to observe grains,subgrain boundaries
and dislocations that I want to observe.
My preparation is the following:
1-rough polishing with 600 grit abrasive powder to produce 100-150 micrometers
thick parallel sided sheets by using a simple jig.
2-use of a conventional punch device to obtain a 3mm disk
3-use of the Tenupol automatic double jet electropolisher
The electrolyte is:20% nitric acid-80% methanol (conditions:methanol cooled
in dry ice).
QUESTIONS:
1-I don't know if the voltage that I use is good(8-10V);the same for the value
of my flow rate (it takes me about 2-4mn to thin my specimen under these
conditions)
2-Is it better to have small (those I obtained are about 40-100 micrometer in
diameter) or big holes for TEM observations ?
3-For observing grains and subgrains do we have to use diffraction patterns or
Kikuchi lines (as it is the case for dislocation observations) to find a better
orientation ? More generally, is orientation important to see grain boundaries?
4-I use the highest voltage (120 kV) .Is it correct?
5-Is there something wrong in my initial preparation ( electrolyte,..)?
Thanks a lot by advance for any help,
Yours Faithfully.
Stephane Ferrasse
University of Texas A&M
phone:409-845-1790 (USA)
Email address:S0F6296-at-ZEUS.TAMU.EDU






From: RETEP-at-anat.uct.ac.za
Date: 7 Mar 94 08:32:35 SAST-2
Subject: Re:Botany LM

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Message-ID: {MAILQUEUE-101.940307083235.256-at-anat.uct.ac.za}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

I am passing on a query from Peter Linder (Linder-at-botany.uct.ac.za)
regarding clearing agents for Botanical Specimens.

He is working with pollen and was wondering if anyone knew of a
clearing agent(s) that dealt effectively with tannins. The ones he
has used tend to make a mess of the tannins so that they form
obnoxious lumps.

Any suggestions?Peter D. G. Richards
Dept Anatomy and Cell Biology
UCT Medical School
Observatory
7925
RSA
Tel: 021-406 6285.




From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu
Date: Mon, 7 Mar 1994 10:46:24 -0500 (EST)
Subject: gelatin capsules

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Does anyone know the manufacturer of gelatin capsules or if a conical
gelatin capsule is available? Since LR-White doesn't seem to work with
BEEM capsules, has anyone tried UniCryl with BEEM capsules? I'm doing a
lot of cell suspensions for immuno and a conical capsule is ideal. I
appreciate all info on this subject.
Thanks,
Phil Rutledge
prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu




From: SPIE Staff :      spie-at-mom.spie.org
Date: Mon, 7 Mar 1994 12:16:56 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Advance Program: Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology

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Advance Technical Program:

Photomask Japan '94
-------------------

Symposium on Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology

Sponsored by Japan Chapter of SPIE, Co-sponsored by BACUS and
SPIE

22 April 1994
Kanagawa Science Park
Kawasaki City, Kanagawa
Japan
============================================================


Contents
========

1.0 Symposium on Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology
2.0 Hotel Accommodations
3.0 Registration Information
4.0 General Information
5.0 How to Receive More Information


1.0 PHOTOMASK AND X-RAY MASK TECHNOLOGY
=======================================

Technical Conference 2254
Friday 22 April 1994
SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2254


Symposium Chair: Touru Yoshizawa, SPIE Japan Chapter
Steering Committee Chair: Yoshio Tanaka, Oki Electric Industry
Co., Ltd. (Japan)

Steering Committee Members: Naoaki Aizaki, NEC Corp. (Japan);
Hideaki Hamada, ETEC Systems Japan Ltd. (Japan); Naoya Hayashi,
Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd. (Japan); M. Ohtaki, Toppan Printing
Co., Ltd. (Japan); K. Nakashima, Lasertec Corp. (Japan); Norio
Saitou, Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan); Kazumasa Shigematsu, Fujitsu Ltd.
(Japan); Yoshiki Suzuki, KLA Japan Ltd.; Yoichi Takehana, HOYA
Corp. (Japan); Tadahiro Takigawa, Toshiba Corp. (Japan);
Yoshihiro Todokoro, Matsushita Electronics Corp. (Japan);
Yaichirou Watakabe, Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (Japan); Hideo
Yoshihara, NTT Advanced Technology Corp. (Japan); James A.
Reynolds, Reynolds Consulting (U.S.)


2.0 HOTEL ACCOMMODATIONS
========================

The Japan Travel Bureau, Inc. (JTB) has been appointed as the
official travel agent for the symposium and will handle
reservations of hotel accommodations. Inquiries and applications
should be addressed to:

Japan Travel Bureau, Inc.
International Travel Division
Convention Center (Ref. CD100748-014)
1-13-1 Nihombashi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103 Japan

Phone: +81-3-3276-7885
Fax: +81-3-3272-1277
Telex: TOURIST J24418 (Answer Back)

Hotel KSP (Symposium site)
3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku
Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213
Phone: +81-44-819-2211
Y12,650 single w/bath
Y24,200 single use of twin room
Y25,300 twin w/bath

Hotel Sunroute Den-En Takatsu
(15-minute walk to the conference site)
508 Futako, Takatsu-ku
Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213
Phone: +81-44-814-3122
Y8,500 single w/bath
Y18,000 twin w/bath

Note:

1. The room rates do not include meals.
2. 3 or 6% tax and 10% service charge will be added to the bill
when checking out.
3. Should you fail to arrive at the hotel on your scheduled
check-in date, your reservation will be automatically
canceled.


Application and Payment
-----------------------

Participants wishing to reserve hotel accommodations should
contact the JTB no later than 20 March 1994. Application for
hotel accommodations should be accompanied by remittance of the
hotel deposit (one-night room charge) plus a handling fee of Y500
and sent to JTB. No reservation will be confirmed in the absence
of this payment. Personal checks are not accepted. All payments
must be in Japanese yen. Payment should be in the form of:

* a bank transfer to the Japan Travel Bureau, Inc., account at
the Bank of Tokyo, Marunouchi Office, 1-4-2 Marunouchi,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 Japan (Account number 1025740/Ref.
CD100748-014)

* bank draft payable to the order of the Japan Travel Bureau,
Inc.

* The following credit cards may be used for payment of hotel
deposit: Master Card, Diners Club, Visa Card, AMEX.


Cancellation
------------

In the event of hotel reservations which must be canceled,
written notification should be sent to JTB. The following
cancellation fees will be deducted before refunding:

Up to 9 days before the first night of stay: Y2,000
Up to 2 to 8 days before: 20% of daily room charge (minimum
Y2,000)
Less than 2 days before, or no notice given: 100% of daily room
charge



3.0 REGISTRATION INFORMATION
============================

To preregister for Photomask Japan '94 contact:

Secretariat-Photomask Japan '94
c/o Business Center for Academic Societies Japan
Conference Department
5-16-9 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 Japan

Phone: +81-3-5814-5800
Fax: +81-3-5814-5823


* Registration Fees:

SPIE Member . . . . . . . . . .Y25,500
Working Group Member
(e.g., BACUS) . . . . . . . Y28,500
Nonmember . . . . . . . . . . .Y30,000


* Cancellation Policy:

No refunds will be made for cancellations
received after 16 April 1994.


* Method of Payment (choose one):

All payment must be made in Japanese yen.

* A bank draft for total fee payable to the order of
Photomask Japan.

* Bank transfer to the account of Photomask Japan, A/C
No. 075-1834926, Daiichi Kangyo Bank, Hongo Branch,
Tokyo.

* Credit card (Visa, Diners Club, MasterCard, or
American Express)

On-site registration will be accepted at the conference site on
22 April. If you must register on site, please plan to arrive 30
minutes before the program begins. Registration badges are
required for admittance to the conference. The technical
conference will begin at 8.30.


4.0 GENERAL INFORMATION
=======================

* Registration and Information Hours

Registration takes place in front of KSP Hall, Third Floor

Friday 22 April 8.00 to 16.00


* Speakers'/Chairs' Registration Desk

Located in front of KSP Hall, Third Floor

Friday 22 April 8.00 to 16.00


* Location/Travel Information

Photomask Japan '94 will be held at the Conference Hall of
Kanagawa Science Park (KSP Hall), 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku,
Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan. Phone: +81-44-819-2211


* Climate

The temperature in April ranges between 10 degrees C and 19
degrees C and the average humidity is 65%.


* Visa Requirements

Participants from countries which require a visa to enter Japan
should apply at the nearest Japanese embassy well in advance of
departure. If you have any questions or requests to obtain a
visa, please contact the Secretariat-Photomask Japan ;94 as soon
as possible.

Secretariat-Photomask Japan '94
c/o Business Center for Academic Societies Japan
Conference Department
5-16-9 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 Japan

Phone: +81-3-5814-5800
Fax: +81-3-5814-5823


5.0 HOW TO RECEIVE MORE INFORMATION
===================================

The complete text of the printed advance technical program for
Photomask Japan '94 is available via anonymous FTP at:

mom.spie.org meetings/programs/photomask_japan.txt


It is also available through SPIE's automated e-mail server:

Send an e-mail message to,

info-optolink-request-at-mom.spie.org

with the following text in the message body:

send [optolink.meetings.programs]FILENAME.txt


To request a printed advance technical program via e-mail
contact:

spie-at-mom.spie.org

For information regarding this meeting or other SPIE symposia or
publications, contact SPIE at:

P.O. Box 10
Bellingham, WA 98227-0010 USA
Telephone: 206/676-3290 (Pacific Time)
Telefax: 206/647-1445
Telex: 46-7053
E-mail: spie-at-mom.spie.org
Anonymous FTP: mom.spie.org.

This advance technical program is based on commitments received
up to the time of publication and is subject to change without
notice.

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From: P.V.Hatton-at-sheffield.ac.uk
Date: 8 Mar 94 09:28:40
Subject: Biological XRMA meeting

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**********************************************************************
Biological X-ray microanalysis - applications and recent developments
**********************************************************************

The biological XRMA group of the Royal Microscopical Society are
holding their Spring Meeting at the University of Sheffield on April
7th 1994. Papers will be presented on a variety of subjects
including specimen preparation, elemental mapping, analysis of plant
tissue extracts and biological-material interactions. Registration
fees are 25 pounds for RMS members and 35 pounds for others.

Further details are available from:

Dr Paul Hatton,
School of Clinical Dentistry,
University of Sheffield,
Claremont Crescent,
Sheffield
S10 2TA, UK

tel. (+742) 670222 ext. 3051
email. P.V.Hatton-at-sheffield.ac.uk

********************* end of message ********************************




From: pjj-at-utxvms.cc.utexas.edu (Peter Joyce)
Date: Tue, 08 Mar 1994 15:13:11 -0700
Subject: Re: Particle Tracking Software

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Message-Id: {Chameleon.940308105340.tonygr-at-emlab.mit.edu}

Subscribe : pjj-at-utxvms.cc.utexas.edu

Peter Joyce
GRA Materials Science UT-Austin
{mezy301-at-utxvms.cc.utexas.edu}

ETC 6.120 - ME Dept.
University of Texas
Austin, TX 78712

Office: (512) 471-5723






From: !glenmac-at-u.washington.edu (Robert Kayton,MAC,CROET)
Date: Wed Mar 2 16:18:55 -0800 1994
Subject: Re: Evan's Blue & Blood Brain Barrier

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Sender: kayton-at-ohsu.edu (Robert Kayton)
Message-Version: 2
} To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

We just tried Evan's blue for the same purpose. It was somewhat visible
in wet tissue coverslipped with glycerol. Dehydrating through ethanols
and clearing in xylene, coverslipping with DPX (our standard protocol for
paraffin and vibratome sections) dramatically improved the
fluorescence. Nearly one week later there is no noticeable fading or
diffusion. Sure is pretty.

Could you email your labelling method - concentrations, route of
administration and survival times? I'll get the grad. student who did
this to make her method available to send to you.

Glen MacDonald
Hearing Development Laboratories RL-30
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195
(206)543-8360
glenmac-at-u.washington.edu






From: _ _ _ _ _ MARK W. LUND _ _ _ _ _ :      LUNDM-at-XRAY.BYU.EDU
Date: Tue, 8 Mar 1994 20:26 MST
Subject: stm standards

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Does anyone know of scanning probe standards of height and length?
Is there anything NIST traceable?

I am also interested in knowing about any small suppliers of probe
microscopes.

Regards,
Mark W. Lund
MOXTEK
Orem UT





From: walambe-at-erenj.com (William Lamberti)
Date: Wed, 09 Mar 1994 10:40:38 -0500
Subject: SEM Job Opening at Exxon Research

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March 8, 1994



Feb 1994 SEM Research Technician Opening

There is an immediate opening for a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
Technician at Exxon Research and Engineering Company's Corporate Research
Laboratory in Clinton, New Jersey. As a member of the
Microcharacterization Team at
Corporate Research, this position will involve the operation of a JEOL SEM with
associated Energy Dispersive and Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometers. The
position
will involve the creative application of high resolution SEM imaging and
elemental
characterization of samples related to a wide range of projects at Exxon's
Corporate
Research Laboratory. The position will also involve general laboratory
operations, sample
preparation, SEM maintenance and computer analysis of the SEM data (both image
analysis and spectral analysis).

Successful candidates should have experience in chemistry, physics or material
science with a Baccalaureate degree or equivalent experience. Previous SEM
experience
and experience with high vacuum systems and computers (DOS, Unix, and VMS) is
highly desirable. Since a number of projects are simultaneously in
progress, it is essential
for the SEM technician to be very organized and to pay attention to detail
and accuracy in
reporting results.

Qualified candidates please send resume to:

William Lamberti
Associate Research Physicist
Exxon Research and Engineering Company
Clinton Township
Route 22 East
Annandale, New Jersey 08801

Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/H/V

All resumes must be received by April 8, 1994.



William A. Lamberti
Office LA-196
Exxon Research and Engineering Company
Route 22 East
Annandale, NJ 08801
Email: walambe-at-erenj.com







From: S0F6296-at-SUMMA.TAMU.EDU
Date: Wed, 9 Mar 1994 10:02:31 -0600 (CST)
Subject: TEM-PREPARATION OF TEM SAMPLES(PURE Cu)

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TEM-PREPARATION OF PURE COPPER SAMPLES
Thank you first to all those who have given me useful information about
preparation of pure copper samples.
I would want to know however something else about specimen washing and more
precisely about storage of copper.I have read (Eddington-Practical electron
microscopy) that Cu can not be stored because of oxydation.Then must we use Cu
immediatly after jet polishing or can we keep it in a dessicator?If it is the
case, for how long?
Thanks in advance for any help.
Regards.
Stephane Ferrasse
University of Texas A&M--email:S0F6296&ZEUS.TAMU.EDU




From: Richard Lareau :      lareau-at-MONMOUTH-ETDL1.ARMY.MIL
Date: Wed, 09 Mar 1994 12:24:32 -0500 (EST)
Subject: SIMS Workshop '94...

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I realize that the Microscopy Listserv is predominantly used for those
microscopies involving light or electrons, however, for those interested in
"ions" this may be of interest!




(page 1)

- FIRST NOTICE -

SEVENTH ANNUAL WORKSHOP ON
SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROMETRY

Microelectronics Center of North Carolina (MCNC)
and Holiday Inn - RTP

Research Triangle Park, NC

May 10-12, 1994

This workshop is an informal gathering of scientists for discussions relating to
fundamental aspects, instrumentation and applications of Secondary Ion Mass
Spectrometry.


PROGRAM

On Tuesday evening, May 10, 1994, the Seventh Annual Workshop on SIMS
will commence with a registration/mixer from 7 - 9 pm. On Wednesday morning,
May 11, a special topics session will focus on fundamentals, application and
techniques related to secondary ion imaging. Other topics of interest will be
accepted for inclusion in follow-on sessions or the third day's program.
Following Wednesday's sessions there will be an evening cocktail hour, dinner,
and vendor presentations. The third day will be devoted to user's group
meetings and contributed presentations.

The format for this workshop will be informal, with topics of interest to
both the novice and experienced SIMS user. You are encouraged to prepare an
oral or poster presentation on any aspect of SIMS that may be of interest to
your fellow workshop attendees. Open forum user's groups are planned for
magnetic sector, time-of-flight, and quadrupole-based mass spectrometer
instruments. Technical representatives from the instrumentation companies have
been invited to address issues involving instrumentation, modifications,
methodologies, and new equipment.

______________________
(page 2)



PRESENTATIONS Please indicate on the registration form provided if you are
interested in presenting an oral or poster presentation on a topic which may be
of interest to other workshop attendees. An abstract must be submitted to
the organizing committee by April 15, 1994. As a special option this year, you
are invited to submit a full length manuscript for a special issue of the new
journal - Microbeam Analysis .

REGISTRATION
Please note: the registration fee is $50.00 if received before April 25,
1994; a late registration fee of $100 will apply after this date. The SIMS
Workshop is now being held under the auspices of the Microbeam Analysis Society.
Checks should be made payable to: Microbeam Analysis Society and sent
directly to Dr. Steven Hues with the completed registration form below - to be
received no later than April 25, 1994.
Note: The registration fee is waved for full-time student presenters only!

LOCAL ACCOMMODATIONS
A block of rooms has been reserved at the Holiday Inn - Research Triangle
Park, NC [919-941-6000], at a reduced rate of $72/night + tax (mention the SIMS
Workshop). Rooms must be reserved before April 19, 1994 to be eligible for
this reduced rate. All inquires pertaining to reserving rooms or details on the
facilities, as well as payment for your room, should be made directly to the
Holiday Inn - Research Triangle Park, NC. The closest airport with free Holiday
Inn Shuttle connection (~10 min.) is the Raleigh-Durham International. Bus
transportation to and from the hotel and MCNC is also provided.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

REGISTRATION: DEADLINE FOR RECEIPT OF PAYMENT, April 25, 1994

Name:_______________________________________________________________

Institution: _______________________________________________________

Address: ___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


Citizenship:__________________________________________

Email: _______________________________________________

Phone # ______________________________________________

FAX # ________________________________________________

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

____ I will attend the 7th Annual Workshop on SIMS.

____ I will not attend; please include my name on the mailing list for future
workshops.

____ I would like to contribute an oral (or poster) presentation at the
meeting:
____ Oral presentation
____ Poster presentation

Title: _________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________


____ Yes, I will submit a manuscript for publication in a special issue of
Microbeam Analysis.



_______________________
(page 3)

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE:

Steven M. Hues
Naval Research Laboratory
(202) 767-2671

Greg Gillen
National Institute of Standards and Technology
(301) 975-2190

Richard T. Lareau
Army Research Laboratory
(908) 532-0119

IMPORTANT: Registration form and the $50 registration fee must be received no
later than April 25, 1994 !!!


Please complete the registration form provided (see pg. 2), cut at dotted line,
and return with registration fee enclosed (made payable to the Microbeam
Analysis Society) to:

Steven M. Hues
Naval Research Laboratory
Code 6170
4555 Overlook Ave., S.W.
Washington, D. C. 20375-5342



____________



Best regards,

Richard T. Lareau, Ph.D.
US Army Research Laboratory
Electronics and Power Sources Directorate
AMSRL-EP-EC-M, Myer Research Center
Fort Monmouth, New Jersey 07703-5601

(908) 532-0119 [Voice]
(908) 544-3576 (or -2899) [FAX]
EMAIL -} lareau-at-monmouth-ETDL1.army.mil





From: Michael Cammer :      cammer-at-aecom.yu.edu
Date: Wed, 9 Mar 1994 17:08:24 -0500 (EST)
Subject: the perfect stage temperature controller for Nikon Diaphot

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We are considering the purchase of a stage heater/cooler for the Nikon
Diaphot. Our main concern is cooling, e.g. stable tempertaure at approx. 22
degrees C.
Does anybody have a recommendation of a particularly good stage
temperature controller. Right now we have a water cooled system but
problems include 1.) vibration and 2.) too narrow for access with high
N.A. objectives.
Thanks-
Michael Cammer






From: Erkki Heikinheimo :      EHEIKIN-at-redhot.hut.fi
Date: Thu, 10 Mar 1994 09:56:50 EET-2
Subject: EMAS Regional Workshop, June 15-17, 1994

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940310095650.288-at-redhot.hut.fi}
To: MICROSCOPY-at-ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV

The European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) organises

The 1st EMAS Regional Workshop on June 15-17, 1994, in Helsinki,
Finland:

Electron probe microanalysis of materials today - practical aspects

The workshop is intended as a comprehensive introduction for those
who are involved with SEM+EDS or EPMA based microanalysis applied
to inorganic materials. The emphasis will be on the possibilities and
limitations of the methods, and to give enough guidelines, procedures
and examples in order to keep the discussion, for which there will be
ample time, on a practical and basic level. The participants are
encouraged to bring in their own problems for debate. The workshop
language is English.

Main subjects:

* Electron-specimen interaction: X-ray generation & detection, spatial
resolution
* Analytical electron microscopy (AEM): possibilities and limitations
* Correction procedures in microanalysis
* Practical problems with EDS analysis & practical aspects of WDS
analysis
* Characterisation of EDS detectors
* Standardless vs. quantitative EDS analysis: what can you expect?
* SEM + EDS or EPMA with WDS?
* Thin surface layer (1 nm - 1 m) analysis with EPMA or SEM + EDS
* AEM as a tool for practical problems
* How accurate are your results?
* Strategy for applying microanalytical techniques

The main lecturers are: Dr. Peter Karduck (Gemeinschaftslabor fuer
Elektronenmikroskopie, RWTH Aachen), Dr. W. A. Patrick Nicholson,
Dept. of Physics & Astronomy, Univ. of Glasgow) and Dr. Peter Willich
(Fraunhofer Institut fuer Schicht- und Oberflaechentechnik, Hamburg).

Posters are invited. Interpretation of the word "regional" can be done in
a broad sense. For additional information please see below.

Erkki Heikinheimo
*************************************************************
Erkki Heikinheimo e-mail: eheikin-at-redhot.hut.fi
Helsinki Univ. of Technology Lab. of Metallurgy
SF-02150 Espoo phone +358-0-4512759
FINLAND fax +358-0-4512798
*************************************************************




From: Randi Holmestad :      randih-at-imf.unit.no
Date: Thu, 10 Mar 1994 13:17:28 +0100
Subject: EMAS Regional Workshop, June 15-17, 1994

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Subscribe randih-at-imf.unit.no




From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu
Date: Thu, 10 Mar 1994 11:11:05 -0500 (EST)
Subject: bacteria/glass beads

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Has anyone had any experience in processing bacteria grown on 3mm glass
beads for SEM? The cells are grown in suspension and the positioning of
the beads is irrelevant. Want to look at surface for adhesion properties
study. I want to try normal SEM processing procedures but would
appreciate any info on an easy method.
Thanks,
Phil Rutledge
prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu




From: *Anatomo Pathologie :      anapat-at-reks.uia.ac.be
Date: Fri, 11 Mar 1994 09:59:24 +0100 (MET)
Subject: Small specimens in immuno TEM

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Hi,

We are working on an immunoEM project localizing different epitopes in S.
mansoni worms. Some of the life cycle stages are fairly small. We are
embedding in Unicryl but we have some problems with the small specimens.
I tried to put them in gelatine but this gives a problem with the
sectioning properties of Unicryl. Does anyone have a better solution. We
thought of putting them in agar, but I don't like the temperature this
requires (immunoreactivity).

Any help would be appreciated.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen (UIA)
Lab Pathology
2610 Wilrijk
BELGIUM

Tel: 32.3.820.25.34
Fax: 32.3.820.22.48
E-mail: anapat-at-uia.ac.be
-------------------------------------------------------------------





From: baskin-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu (Tobias Baskin)
Date: Fri, 11 Mar 1994 08:58:27 -0600
Subject: Re: Small specimens in immuno TEM

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Greetings,
We use LOW gelling temperature agar for our tiny specimens. Sigma
sells a variety of these, and we use type VII. I forget exactly what the
melting T is, but it melts readily on the low setting of a hot plate. We
fix, rinse, and then put a few microliters (5-15?) of molten agar around
the sample. It sets up "instantly". We use a 2% agar/water solution. Then
we dehydrate and embedd as usual. We also throw in a bit of fast green at
100% ethanol, for ease of finding the samples. I have taken this stuff into
several kinds of resin and never had any prboblems sectioning, light or em
level. Also, we routinely do immunocytochem localizing microtubules, a
fairly senstive antigen, so I don't the heat is a big problem.
I hope this is useful for you. Please reply if you have further q's.
Good Luck,
Tobias Baskin



} Hi,
}
} We are working on an immunoEM project localizing different epitopes in S.
} mansoni worms. Some of the life cycle stages are fairly small. We are
} embedding in Unicryl but we have some problems with the small specimens.
} I tried to put them in gelatine but this gives a problem with the
} sectioning properties of Unicryl. Does anyone have a better solution. We
} thought of putting them in agar, but I don't like the temperature this
} requires (immunoreactivity).
}
} Any help would be appreciated.
}
} --------------------------------------------------------------------
} Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen (UIA)
} Lab Pathology
} 2610 Wilrijk
} BELGIUM
}
} Tel: 32.3.820.25.34
} Fax: 32.3.820.22.48
} E-mail: anapat-at-uia.ac.be
} -------------------------------------------------------------------
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Tobias I. Baskin Baskin-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu
University of Missouri * Division of Biological Sciences * 109 Tucker Hall
Columbia, MO 65211 USA voice: 314-882-0173 fax: 314-882-0123
___ ____ ^ ____ _____
/ \ / / \ / \ /
/ | / / \ / /
/___ / /__ /_____\ / /__
/ / / \ ( /
/ / / \ \ /
/ /____ / \ \____/ /_____





From: ROSEANN CSENCSITS (708) 252-4977, -7902 :      CSENCSITS-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Fri, 11 Mar 1994 9:40:47 -0600 (CST)
Subject: TEM: Brightness vs Accelerating Voltage

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Does anyone know a reference with a derivation of the brightness equation
relating brightness to accelerating voltage? Shimoyama, etal, 1972, seem
to pull it from the air, and then everyone else seems to just reference them.
Shimoyama has B=IeV/pikT where I is emission current density, V is relativistic
voltage, T is filament temp. This is stated to be the relativistically
corrected expression of the Langmuir theoretical value. Langmuir's equation
is I=I(0) (eV/kT) sin2(phi) where I is the max current density in a focused
spot, I(0) is the current density at the cathode, T is temp, and phi is the
half angle of focused spot.

So does anyone know of a derivation of the brightness vs voltage equation
that can be believed??

Thanks,
Roseann Csencsits
Argonne National Lab




From: Wil Bigelow :      Wil_Bigelow-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 11 Mar 1994 11:29:49 U
Subject: Bright vs kV

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Subject: Time:11:24 AM
OFFICE MEMO Bright vs kV Date:3/11/94
Roseanne: I think you can find the matter of the variation of
brightness and accelerating voltage treated in a very
understandable manner in Hall's 2nd Ed of "Introd. to
Electron Micros.". One of the best general explanations
of the characteristics of self-biased guns with tungsten
filaments is contained in Chs. VI and VIII of the book "The
Electron Microscope" by M. E. Haine, InterSci Pubs. I ran off
some calcs of the variation of brightness vs both temp and
kV for an illustration in class one time - if you send me your
FAX number, I'll be glad to send you a copy. BIGELOW-at-UMICH.EDU
FAX: 313-763-4788







From: Wil Bigelow :      Wil_Bigelow-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 11 Mar 1994 11:38:07 U
Subject: Add'n on Bright. vs kV

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Subject: Time:11:37 AM
OFFICE MEMO Add'n on Bright. vs kV Date:3/11/94
Sorry, I neglected to mention that Hall's discussion of brightness vs kV
appears on p. 158.






From: David Morilak :      morilak-at-cmgm.stanford.edu
Date: Fri, 11 Mar 1994 10:58:23 PST
Subject: Re: Small specimens in immuno TEM

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I don't do EM, and I've never worked with worms, but I have embedded small
pieces of rat spinal cord in agar for vibratome sectioning and it didn't hurt
immunoreactivity any for a number of peptides, 5-HT, or tyrosine hydroxylase.
The agar stays molten at about 50-55 ¡C, and your tissue is exposed to that
for only a very short time. It may even help to cool (not freeze!) your
samples slightly before embedding - just a thought. All I did was to attach
the blocked pieces to a glass coverslip with SuperGlue, and then squirt the
molten agar over and around them. It really isn't embedding in the sense that
I'm sure the agar doesn't permeate the tissue at all, but it gave sufficient
support to allow sectioning in a consistent plane. You might also consider Low
Melting Point agarose (I believe it's available from BRL?) which would keep
temperature to a minimum, but it's expensive. Hope this helps...

David Morilak
Dept Psychiatry
Stanford University
morilak-at-cmgm.stanford.edu

-------




From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Sun, 13 Mar 1994 9:43:55 -0600 (CST)
Subject: TEM-Sample Prep/Electropolishing

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RE: Getting a small hole while electropolishing
Another "trick"

Another method of setting the automatice cutoff for light sensor
s in electropolishers is to temporarily replace your specimen with
a conventional TEM aperture. Use an aperture with about a 10-20
micron size hole (it can be an old used one out of your scope) and
then turn on the entire electropolishing unit (except the voltage)
get the flow of liquid running and adjust the "sensitivity" until
your instrument just detects the hole. This is a bit more systematic
than just arbitrarily setting the sensor without a calibration point.

Just my 2 cents worth...

Nestor Zaluzec
ANL EMCenter





From: IAN HALLETT :      ihallett-at-marccri.marc.cri.nz
Date: Mon, 14 Mar 1994 09:17:56 GMT+1200
Subject: Re: Small speciments in immuno TEM

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To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

You could try embedding in alginate. This can be done at room
temperature (or cooler). We have used a method based on
Tamponnet et al, Stain Technology 1988, v 63, 155-158. for
ultrastructure of free cells and protoplasts.

Mix the cells with a 1-2% sodium alginate solution in buffer (0.1M
cacodylate in the original). Extrude the solution through a narrow
pippet/syringe into a solution containing 50mM Calcium chloride (or
let drops fall into this, or spread a thin film on a slide and dip into this)
where the alginate coagulates and holds the cells together.

The only problem we have had is with different batchs of alginate.
Some coagulate well and some fail to.

Ian Hallett
Paul Sutherland




From: Francisco Javier H Blazquez :      fjhblazq-at-fox.cce.usp.br
Date: Mon, 14 Mar 1994 09:29:16 -0300 (BDT)
Subject: Re: Panthera pardus epidermis

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} Do you have
} reason to think that the epidermis in the cat family is different in some
} special way from the epidermis of other mammals?

I wish thank you for your answer. I will give some explanation. I was in
my lab when a engineer asked to speak to me. He was very excited about
something he had discovered about the way that the epithelial cells of
Panthera pardus epidermis are disposed. He wanted some information or a
slide (histological section) of this animal to confirm his ideas, but he
did not explained what ideas or what was his intention. He alleged
professional secret. That sounds strange, isn t? I am a public employee so I
must aid people who ask me aid, they pay my salary. I did a search in
Biological Abstract and found nothing. I will do a search in Zoological
Abstract, maybe I will be luckier. Thank you.

=============================================================================
Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez |
Universidade de Sao Paulo - Faculdade de | e-mail fjhblazq-at-fox.cce.usp.br
Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos | Voice: 55 195 616122 r. 265
Departamento de Ciencias Basicas/Histologia|
Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225 CP 23 | Fax: 55 195 611689
CEP 13630-000 Pirassununga (Sao Paulo) |
BRAZIL |
==============================================================================














From: Nancy L. Desmond :      nld-at-galen.med.virginia.edu
Date: Mon, 14 Mar 1994 08:51:21 -0500
Subject: how to convert TIFF spec. 5 files to specification 6

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I need to convert TIFF files generated in a PC program using
specification 5 to TIFF files following specification 6 for use
on a Silicon Graphics machine that requires specification 6.
Does anyone know of a program that can do this conversion?
Thanks for any pointers.

--
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Nancy L Desmond, Ph.D.
Department of Neurosurgery
University of Virginia
Health Sciences Center, Box 420
Charlottesville, VA 22908

804.924.5607 (voice)
804.982.3829 (fax)
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^




From: Phil Oshel :      POSHEL-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu
Date: 14 Mar 94 08:55:45 CST6CDT
Subject: Re: bacteria/glass beads

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940314085545.384-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

} From: rutledge phil {prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu}

} Has anyone had any experience in processing bacteria grown on 3mm glass
} beads for SEM? The cells are grown in suspension and the positioning of
} the beads is irrelevant. Want to look at surface for adhesion properties
} study. I want to try normal SEM processing procedures but would
} appreciate any info on an easy method.
} Thanks,
} Phil Rutledge
} prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu
}
Probably the quickest way is to pour your bacteria/beads solution
into a funnel with a 0.22 or 0.45 micron nucleur-pore membrane
filter, then run your fixatives/ OsO4/ dehydration etc. solutions
through the same funnel, maybe 5 min. each by volume sample. Dry by
CPD or hexamethyldisilizane at 60 C or Peldri. Pour out onto stub
with something sticky & conductive on it, like conductive tape or a
THIN coat partially dried silver paste (not paint).
Phil Oshel




From: Francisco Javier H Blazquez :      fjhblazq-at-fox.cce.usp.br
Date: Mon, 14 Mar 1994 09:29:16 -0300 (BDT)
Subject: Re: Panthera pardus epidermis

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} Do you have
} reason to think that the epidermis in the cat family is different in some
} special way from the epidermis of other mammals?

I wish thank you for your answer. I will give some explanation. I was in
my lab when a engineer asked to speak to me. He was very excited about
something he had discovered about the way that the epithelial cells of
Panthera pardus epidermis are disposed. He wanted some information or a
slide (histological section) of this animal to confirm his ideas, but he
did not explained what ideas or what was his intention. He alleged
professional secret. That sounds strange, isn t? I am a public employee so I
must aid people who ask me aid, they pay my salary. I did a search in
Biological Abstract and found nothing. I will do a search in Zoological
Abstract, maybe I will be luckier. Thank you.

=============================================================================
Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez |
Universidade de Sao Paulo - Faculdade de | e-mail fjhblazq-at-fox.cce.usp.br
Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos | Voice: 55 195 616122 r. 265
Departamento de Ciencias Basicas/Histologia|
Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225 CP 23 | Fax: 55 195 611689
CEP 13630-000 Pirassununga (Sao Paulo) |
BRAZIL |
==============================================================================














From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Mon, 14 Mar 1994 15:07:27 -0600 (CST)
Subject: TEM: SAED plotting program for PC

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X-Nupop-Charset: English


Request for SAED program

Sharath
Yes you did miss something. Look in the EMMPDL subdirectory
called CBED. There is a program there by John Porter which
plots Stereograhic projections &CBED patterns. By adjusting the
convergence angle you will get a conventional SAED pattern.
I'm not sure if the UMICH library mirror has the master copy, however
I would be very suprized if it doesnot since John Mansfield is
very careful on backups and copies. I've appended a copy of
the program abstract to this message.


Nestor Zaluzec
ANLEMC
---------------
Title :STERPROJ_IBM_V4
Keywords :Stereographic Projection, CBED, SAD, TEM, AEM,
HOLZ
Computer :IBM PC/XT/AT or compatible
Operating System :PC-DOS
Programming Language :QUICKBASIC 4.5
Hardware Requirements :Hewlett Packard HP7470A Plotter required.
Author(s) :John R. Porter
Correspondence Address :Rockwell International Science Center,
:Thousand Oaks, CA 91360.
Abstract:

This QuickBASIC program plots stereographic projections, CBED and
HOLZ line simulations, and performs axis/angle pair calculations.
Output is to the screen or a Hewlett Packard HP 7470A Plotter. Stereographic
projections are drawn to scale for subsequent manipulations with a standard
18cm. Wulff net and can be plotted for cubic, hexagonal, tetragonal and
monoclinic crystal systems in any orientation. Plotted poles can be
restricted to those allowed by structure factor considerations (for certain
structures) or restricted to those in certain Laue zones. The program
leads the user through menus to determine the structure and orientation
for the projection, which is then plotted accordingly. Version 4.00 is
significantly enhanced compared to earlier versions.

EDITORS NOTE: THIS IS A NEW UPDATED VERSION OF STERPROJ- IBM
(FEB.1990)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------





From: Wil Bigelow :      Wil_Bigelow-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 14 Mar 1994 17:40:33 U
Subject: Bright. & Acc. Voltg.

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Subject: Time:5:16 PM
OFFICE MEMO Bright. & Acc. Voltg. Date:3/14/94
My previous comment in response to Roseann Csencsits did not did not actually
answer her question concerning the origin of the equation commonly used for
brightness vs acc. voltage, because Hall doesn't take into account relativistic
effects. A better source is the book "Transmission Electron Microscopy" by
Reimer (Springer-Verlag 1984). The underlying equation is Eq. 4.10 on p. 90,
which Reimer derives in a fairly understandable manner. This equation can be
recast in terms of accelerating voltage U (in Reimer's terminology) by
substituting eU for E and mc^2 for Eo (see table 2.1, p. 21), whereupon the
terms for the 'relativistic voltage' Ur= U + (e/2mc^2)U^2 can be formed, and
the equation becomes b = j/pi + (j/pi)(e/kT)Ur. Assuming the (j/pi) term is
small compared to the rest of the equation, and can be neglected, this reduces
to the approximation Roseann asked about. For a good definition of the
'relativistic voltage' see p. 30 of Spence. The experimental measurement of
brightness is discussed by Spence in Sect. 7.2. Reimer also discusses this the
brightness equation in Sect. 2.1 of his book "Scanning Electron Microscopy".






From: wacb-at-aplcomm.jhuapl.edu (Bill Christens-Barry)
Date: Tue, 15 Mar 1994 09:46:12 -0500
Subject: Re: TEM: SAED plotting program for PC

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Message-Id: {Chameleon.940314095337.tonygr-at-emlab.mit.edu}
Microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Nestor,

This is my second attempt to get some feedback on my request to get off the
microscopy list.
I've also sent the proper (but nonfunctional) message to listserver. Still
I am swamped
with msgs from the list.

Please remove my name from the list, and please let me know if there's a
problem. I'm not
the only person with this problem - there are enoguh of us that we are
considering forming
a new list: those_who_can't_unsubscribe_from_the _microscopy_list :}

Thanks.

Bill C-B






From: wacb-at-aplcomm.jhuapl.edu (Bill Christens-Barry)
Date: Tue, 15 Mar 1994 09:51:50 -0500
Subject: Please remove me from the microscopy list

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Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Nestor,

This is my second attempt to get some feedback on my request to get off the
microscopy list.
I've also sent the proper (but nonfunctional) message to listserver. Still
I am deluged
with msgs from the list.

Please remove my name from the list, and please let me know if there's a
problem. I'm not
the only person with this problem - there are enoguh of us that we are
considering forming
a new list: those_who_can't_unsubscribe_from_the _microscopy_list :}

Thanks.

Bill C-B






From: PHMOULDK-at-usthk.ust.hk
Date: Wed, 16 Mar 1994 16:22:03 HKT
Subject: TEM - Wanted: heating stage.

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I am looking for a secondhand heating stage and control unit for a
JEOL 100 CXII with side entry goniometer.It should be in good condition.

The model required is EM-SHH (JEOL), or third party manufactures considered.

Please send replies to Dr.K Moulding
Department of Physics,
The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,
Clear Water Bay,
Hong Kong.

or e-mail: phmouldk-at-usthk.ust.hk

Thanks in advance.

K.Moulding.




From: PHMOULDK-at-usthk.ust.hk
Date: Wed, 16 Mar 1994 16:22:03 HKT
Subject: TEM - Wanted: heating stage.

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From: PHMOULDK-at-usthk.ust.hk
Date: Wed, 16 Mar 1994 16:22:03 HKT
Subject: TEM - Wanted: heating stage.

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From: {del-at-sol1.lrsm.upenn.edu}:ddn:wpafb
Date: 3-16-94 11:08am
Subject: Thinning Cerium Oxide

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To: WALCKSD:ml:wpafb, SCHELTFJ:ml:wpafb
Subj: Thinning Cerium Oxide
Orig-Author: {del-at-sol1.lrsm.upenn.edu (David E. Luzzi)}:ddn:wpafb
-----------------------------------------------------------
We need to thin a single crystal of Cerium Oxide (CeO2) to electron
transparency but are having major difficulties with brittleness. Does
anyone have experience with this, or analogous materials? Thanks in advance.

David E. Luzzi
Dept. of Materials Science
University of Pennsylvania
3231 Walnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6272

luzzi-at-sol1.lrsm.upenn.edu








From: Lumin Wang :      ZIRCON-at-BOOTES.UNM.EDU
Date: Wed, 16 Mar 1994 16:19 MST
Subject: Looking for used optical microscope

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I am looking for two second-hand reflective optical microscopes. One should be
something like Bausch&Lomb Stereo Zoom 7, the other should have well
calibrated focal depth. Can anyone tell me where to look? Thanks.

Lumin Wang
TEM Lab., Univ. of New Mexico
Bitnet: zircon-at-unmb




From: ARGIL-at-delphi.com
Date: Thu, 17 Mar 1994 00:25:19 -0500 (EST)
Subject: optical microscopes

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Lumin Wang wrote:
} I am looking for two second-hand reflective optical microscopes. One should
} something like Bausch&Lomb Stereo Zoom 7, the other should have well
} calibrated focal depth...

I have no information on used microscopes. Maybe a dealer could help.
I am, however, involved in importing new microscopes of all types. In
fact, we have a 10X-160X zoom that is priced very low.

Email me with questions, or for more info.

Arthur Gillman
Princeton, NJ




From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Thu, 17 Mar 1994 9:48:10 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Unsubscribing

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All Subscribers,

There have been a few problems during the last fe months with users
trying to unsubscribe from the list. For the most part the problems were
related to how they tried to unsubscribe, the MOST common problem
was related to mail forwarding! The basic problem was that the
particuliar user would subscribe from one address then have
that computer forward mail to a different second address on a differnet
computer system.

Upon attempting to Unsubscribe, the user would supply his/her
second address to the server, rather than the original subscription
address. Since the "second" address was unknown to the server
nothing happened and they continued to receive their mail! This
has happend at least a dozen times in the last few months so
please remember to Unsubscribe you must inform the server
of your original subscription address, not the one to which
you have your mail forwarded. This is particuliarly important
for sites/users that heavily use aliases and forwarding, so
try to give me a break and remember from whence you came!.

The other problem which requires less investigative work, but is
still a headache is that you must unsubscribe to the Listserver
not to Microscopy List. (See below)


Also I've had a few comments come back saying that people are not
sure if their messages have been posted. If your message is posted
you WILL receive a copy back of your original message. The most common
problem here is some subscribers simply "REPLY" to a message. This
is fine AS LONG AS your Email system recognizes that the message
came from the MICROSCOPY-at-ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV, then there is no problem
Some Email systems reply to the originator of the message (i.e. the
person who started the question/comment). If this is the case then
the members of this listserver will not see your reply! Please check
your Email header before you send out a REPLY and insure that the
message is going to MICROSCOPY-at-ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV. If you do not
receive a copy of the message you posted, then it is 99+% likely that
your message was not posted to the subscription list....

------------------------------------------------------------------

Just a reminder to Unsubscribe you should send a message to:

Listserver-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

and include the following line in your mail message

Unsubscribe Microscopy Username-at-HostAddress

where Username = User Name that you originally subscribed with
HostAddress = Address of the host you originally subscribed from
====================================================================

Alot of traffic goes through the computer now adays, and I'm pretty
much swamped with things to do.... Yes, the new Alpha system has finally
arrived, however, haven't had time to setup the software so it will
still be awhile before anything is upgraded. We are now approaching
the 900 subscriber mark so business is booming, but the Gov. has cut
back our funds & people.

The never-ending-battle continues.........

Nestor J. Zaluzec
ANL EM Center
& Proprietor of the "Hotel California" Microscopy Listserver :-)




From: tivol-at-tethys.ph.albany.edu
Date: Thu, 17 Mar 1994 14:22:46 EST
Subject: Good electron optics text

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On the question of brightness vs voltage, I REPLYed, which sent my response
only to the sender. Others may be interested in Principles of Electron
Optics by P.W. Hawkes and E. Kasper, Academic Press, a good two-volume set
with more than I want to remember about electron microscopy.

Bill Tivol




From: Mikko Lammi :      mlammi-at-messi.uku.fi
Date: Fri, 18 Mar 1994 09:14:15 +0200
Subject: Invitation to SCANDEM -94

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The 46th Annual Meeting of the Scandinavian Society for
Electron Microscopy, June 13-15, 1994, Kuopio, Finland

INVITATION AND CALL FOR CONTRIBUTIONS

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM

The aim of the symposium is to focus interest broadly
in the recent developments of microscopy, not only
emphasizing the importance of electron microscopy but
paying attention also to the development of e.g. confocal
microscopy, immunocytochemistry, image processing
and image analysis.

The scientic program is designed to have two plenary
sessions and parallel sessions for biological and
materials scientists. The following sessions are
included in the program:
- High resolution microscopy
- Confocal microscopy
- Image processing, analysis and quantitation (plenary)
- Electron microscopy in molecular biology
- Scanning probe microscopies (plenary)
- Electron beam assisted microanalysis
- Immuno electron microscopy
- Environmental cell pathology of plants
- Electron microscopy in clinical medicine
- New techniques and products

Invited speakers are amongst others A. Bardal (Norway),
C.-H. von Bonsdorff (Finland), F. Cuisinier (France), S.
Enestršm (Sweden), H.E. Gaub (Germany), H. Gundersen (Denmark),
M.S. Gunthardt-Goerg (Switzerland), T. Holopainen (Finland),
S. Huttunen (Finland), L. Kanerva (Finland), I. Kottke (Germany),
T. Lepistš (Finland), A.B. Maunsbach (Denmark), M. Mšrgelin
(Sweden), J. Paranko (Finland), J.C. Russ (USA), M. Ruhle
(Germany), E. Soini (Finland), P. Willich (Germany).

LANGUAGE

The congress language is English

ABSTRACTS

Papers are invited on all aspects of electron microscopy
and related techniques. The extended abstracts will be
published as a separate proceedings book of the
meeting. The abstracts, including photos and references,
may contain two pages. The first page should contain
text only, the second page may be used for text, figures
and tables. The abstract must neve exceed two pages.
Use a word-processor with TIMES 12 font and italics
for taxonomic terms. The text and figures must fit
inside a rectangle measuring 160 mm x 240 mm (width
x height). One camera-ready original with one
photocopy should be sent before March 31, 1994 to:
Dr. Raija Tammi, Department of Anatomy, University of
Kuopio, P.O.Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland

POSTERS

At the poster exhibition, a short time will be reserved
to each participant for oral presentation. An area of
1100 x 1300 mm (width x height) is allocated for the
poster.

SOCIAL PROGRAM

A Get-Together Party will take place on June 12, at the
Snellmania Building of the University of Kuopio. On June
13, we take off for a cruise on Lake Kallavesi and
continue with the smoke sauna and supper at JatkŠn-
kŠmppŠ (Lumberjacks' Lodgings). On June 14, there is
reception at the City Hall and after this the conference
dinner at the Hotel Arctia

REGISTRATION

The registration fee is 800 FIM for members, 950 FIM
for non-members (if you join the society you will get
advantage of membreship immediately), and 650 FIM for
students and technicians. The fee includes the Get-
Together Party, daily lunches and coffees and one copy
of the published abstracts. Please contact SCANDEM 94
Secretariat, c/o Finnish Medical Society Duodecim,
Savilahdentie 6, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland (fax. Int.+
358-71-240361). Deadline is April 15, 1994. Surcharge
for registration is 150 FIM.

DEADLINES

March 31, 1994 Submission of abstracts
April 15, 1994 Registration

LOCATION

Kuopio is located in the centre of the Lake-district of
Finland about 400 km northeast of Helsinki. Connections
to Kuopio by air, train or bus are good. The venue site of
the meeting is the Snellmania Building of the University
of Kuopio close to the centre of Kuopio.




From: Dr. R. Beanland :      beanland-at-liverpool.ac.uk
Date: Fri, 18 Mar 1994 13:35:04 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: Brittle TEM samples

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David,
I also routinely make TEM samples from GaAs and InP, which are
reasonably brittle (but not as bad as YBCO). I simply mount the samples
in thermoplastic wax on a glass slide about 20 mm x 20mm and polish down
to about 100 microns using the finest grit paper I can find - 'worn out'
1200 grit paper is fine. I then mount it in Lacomit on a PTFE or nylon
stub and chemically polish it to transparency using Cl in methanol jet
from a wash bottle chopped in half and held upside down in a clamp. I
can make 30 samples in a morning and the kit costs virtually nothing to
make! The only thing to be careful of is to make sure that the wax
('Crystalbond' in my case) lies all around the sample so that no corners
stick out, and to go slowly.
If your material is as bad as 1-2-3 superconductor, you may need to be
a bit more high-tech; I haven't done it myself, but work done here used
a Dimpler to very slowly polish down to about 5 microns before ion milling
to transparency. The samples took about 2 days to make and when they
broke (about 1 in 5 samples) it was heart rending. I can give you the Email
address of the person who did this, if you want - he's moved on now.

Regards,

Richard Beanland,

Department of Materials Science and Engineering,
University of Liverpool,
P.O. Box 147,
Liverpool L69, 3BX,
England.




From: Phil Oshel :      POSHEL-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu
Date: 16 Mar 94 09:20:01 CST6CDT
Subject: Re: Panthera pardus epidermis

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X-NUPop-Charset: English

} From: Francisco Javier H Blazquez {fjhblazq-at-fox.cce.usp.br}
} } Do you have
} } reason to think that the epidermis in the cat family is different in some
} } special way from the epidermis of other mammals?
}
Try doing a literature search of "Science" and "Nature" for the
last 5 or so years, using "self-organizing" and "Turing" in your
keywords along with "leopard" & "jaguar". The title may have been
something along the lines of "How the Leopard got his spots". Also,
it may have been in the research news section and not an article.
There was a short piece (which I copied & can't find), about some
group discovering that the spots on a leopard's (or jaguar's) where a
self-organizing phenomenon similar to some chemical reactions (the
ones that swirl in a petri-dish?); the principle involved had been
proposed orginally by Alan Turing (of math & comupter fame). Your
engineer may have stumbled across this.
?
Then again, it may be more mundane, like something
to do with intercellular junctions.
Phil Oshel
(312) 274-6348





From: pjj-at-utxvms.cc.utexas.edu (Peter Joyce)
Date: Fri, 18 Mar 1994 10:25:13 -0700
Subject: Re: Panthera pardus epidermis

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Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT

I just subscribed, got my welcome to microscopy notice and then sent out 2
messages regarding LM on the same day (about a week ago). I never saw
either one or heard any response - although I have been catching up on the
EM discussion of thinning CeO, etc. Just checking did my messages get out?
Is there somewhere I can browse old messages from the list - an ftp site?

P. Joyce

Peter Joyce
GRA Materials Science, University of Texas
Phone: (512) 471-5723

Internet: pjj-at-utxvms.cc.utexas.edu






From: pjj-at-utxvms.cc.utexas.edu (Peter Joyce)
Date: Fri, 18 Mar 1994 11:20:49 -0700
Subject: LM - 2 questions

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I have two questions. We have a Leica MeF3 inverted metallograph we just
purchased about a year ago. The bulb in the main lamphouse burned out and
it was not easy to replace. The manual calls it a 12V/100W LV halogen
bulb. When removed all it says on it is Philips. I tried to get Leica to
tell me what it's called and who to get it from apart from them (they only
had one in stock in Houston) and they were no help at all - although they
did try to help me, sort of. The supplier they gave me as their source
didn't know anything about being an OEM soure for Leica or Reichert or
whoever they are??? What I'm looking for is anyone who has been this or as
similar cycle with Leica equipment, or the name of a GOOD specialty bulb
store that's been tried and tested on microscope equipment. I tried one
really poor one in FLA and another not so bad in NY with little success.

Second question is related to an earlier post of mine from a few months
back. I inquired about the use of index matching fluid to help observe my
specimens. The response raised more questios than answers, thanks just the
same. Experiments have shown that witha thin layer of oil and no coverslip
(coverslip helps keep my optics safe from contamination, esp. inverted
scope!) the difference in my specimens is night and day. I get really good
clarity. The facts are - I'm looking at rough composite prepreg (carbon
fibers in polysulfone) and the surface is much too diffuse to see anything.
I went to our Plant Biology dept. who gave samples of permount oil, Zeiss
immersion oil, mineral oil, and clove oil and some coverslips. The
coverslips had little or no effect on optical performance with the oils.
Also the Zeiss immersion oil was not very fruitful. The other 3 oils, in
particular the clove oil gave excellent clarity at about 200x in darkfield.
I went back to the Plant Biology guys for data on the clove oil,
specifically the refractive index - they couldn't help me. I called the
chemical supplier Sigma Chemical they haven't done that test. I checked
the library, there no such data on clove oil and no mention at all of
permount oil or mineral oil in the Chemistry CRC and the like. Is there
anyone out there using the immersion technique who can comment on the use
of such oils and the source of such data? Anyone ever studied clove oil?
We're also observing a strange side effect, when the oil is applied tiny
white lines, (maybe cracks in the surface of the material) become visible.
We're not sure if they're there before the application of the oil because
before the oil is applied we can't see well enough. The available data
wouldn't suggest this type of oil should be attacking the polysulfone.
Perhaps this effect actually arises from the oil getting in pre-existing
cracks and highlighting them. Any comments.

P. Joyce

Peter Joyce
GRA Materials Science, University of Texas
Phone: (512) 471-5723

Internet: pjj-at-utxvms.cc.utexas.edu






From: chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU (John Chandler)
Date: Fri, 18 Mar 1994 12:34:46 -0700
Subject: LM Bulbs (was: LM - 2 questions)

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} I have two questions. We have a Leica MeF3 inverted metallograph we just
} purchased about a year ago. The bulb in the main lamphouse burned out and
} it was not easy to replace. The manual calls it a 12V/100W LV halogen
} bulb. When removed all it says on it is Philips. I tried to get Leica to
} tell me what it's called and who to get it from apart from them (they only
} had one in stock in Houston) and they were no help at all - although they
} did try to help me, sort of. The supplier they gave me as their source
} didn't know anything about being an OEM soure for Leica or Reichert or
} whoever they are??? What I'm looking for is anyone who has been this or as
} similar cycle with Leica equipment, or the name of a GOOD specialty bulb
} store that's been tried and tested on microscope equipment. I tried one
} really poor one in FLA and another not so bad in NY with little success.

I just happen to have my local independent light microscope service person
in the lab today doing routine maintenance. He tells me that, unless
you're using a specialty housing, you should do fine with any standard 12V
100W lamp of the ANSI code FCR. You can get these from OSRAM, Philips or
Ushio. There should not be any real difference between them. This lamp is
rated at 50 hours lamp life at 12V.

John chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU Fort Collins, CO





From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu
Date: Fri, 18 Mar 1994 15:48:15 -0500 (EST)
Subject: LM-Bulbs

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There were a couple of questions concerning LM bulbs and where to
purchase them. I quit going to the manufacturers of LMs unless there was
no alternative. I have been buying my bulbs from Bulbman,Inc. in Reno,
Nevada for over 10 years. They seem to be pretty knowledgable about the
bulbs and they have always been able to provide the bulbs or tell me
where they may be purchased other than the manufacturer. Their toll free
number is 1-800-648-1163. They also take PO's for small amounts of bulbs.
You don't have to order more than you need to get a good price if the
bulb you want is available. Hope this info helps.
Phil Rutledge




From: nwatson1-at-metz.une.edu.au (Nikki Watson)
Date: Sat, 19 Mar 1994 13:39:02 +1000
Subject: Vendors of CCD video cameras

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I am seeking contact addresses/faxes/e-mail for distributors and
manufacturers of CCD video cameras for biological light microscopy
(currently brightfield, darkfield, phase and DIC) to be used in conjunction
with a VCR and Macintosh Quadra 650 and image grabbing and manipulating
facilities.

A colleague in this department uses a Pulnix TM-765 for similar purposes
and this camera would be ideal. I have faxed the President of Motion
Analysis, Inc at Eugene, OR, which was the the agent when he purchased his
camera a couple of years back, but have had no reply. Can anyone give me
other contacts or agents for Pulnix, and/or information on other
manufacturers/agents for similar systems. We need a camera control system
also, and hoped to pay only in the $2500-3000 range.

Any information on Australian distributors would also be welcome.

Thanks

Nikki Watson

Dr N.A. Watson
Department of Zoology
University of New England
Armidale, NSW, 2351
AUSTRALIA
Fax: 067 711 869
Phone: 067 732181

(using 'Eudora' on a Macintosh)






From: Glen Macdonald :      glenmac-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Sat, 19 Mar 1994 18:16:13 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: Small specimens in immuno TEM

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For additional support you can cut the conical tip from a BEEM capsule,
place your sample insidek (i did this for rat spinal cord) and fill the
capsule with agar. Then take the cap off, supergl;ue the thing to the
slide after trimming down the open end of the BEEM capsule to expose a
couple of millimeters of sample.

a thin walled polyethylened vial cap also works, if you can find an
appropriate size, and will be easier to retirm if you need to keep
sectioning farther down.

Glen MacDonald
Hearing Development Laboratories RL-30
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195
(206)543-8360
glenmac-at-u.washington.edu

On Fri, 11 Mar 1994, David Morilak wrote:

} I don't do EM, and I've never worked with worms, but I have embedded small
} pieces of rat spinal cord in agar for vibratome sectioning and it didn't hurt
} immunoreactivity any for a number of peptides, 5-HT, or tyrosine hydroxylase.
} The agar stays molten at about 50-55 !C, and your tissue is exposed to that
} for only a very short time. It may even help to cool (not freeze!) your
} samples slightly before embedding - just a thought. All I did was to attach
} the blocked pieces to a glass coverslip with SuperGlue, and then squirt the
} molten agar over and around them. It really isn't embedding in the sense that
} I'm sure the agar doesn't permeate the tissue at all, but it gave sufficient
} support to allow sectioning in a consistent plane. You might also consider Low
} Melting Point agarose (I believe it's available from BRL?) which would keep
} temperature to a minimum, but it's expensive. Hope this helps...
}
} David Morilak
} Dept Psychiatry
} Stanford University
} morilak-at-cmgm.stanford.edu
}
} -------
}




From: _ _ _ _ _ MARK W. LUND _ _ _ _ _ :      LUNDM-at-XRAY.BYU.EDU
Date: Sun, 20 Mar 1994 20:06 MST
Subject: Clove Oil

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I would suggest buying refractive oils from Cargille Labs in Cedar Grove
New Jersey, 201-239-6633. They sell liquids certified for refractive
index from about 1.25 to 2.0 (this is from memory, and therefore mostly
suspect). I have used refractive index kits containing 80 or so
liquids that cover a range, but if you are just looking for something
for immersion microscope objectives that is more consistant than
clove oil they can supply one quarter ounce bottles.

regards, and Shalom to Azriel

Mark W. Lund
MOXTEK
Orem UT





From: sassaroli-at-msvax.mssm.edu
Date: Mon, 21 Mar 1994 10:41:57 -0500
Subject: Re: Vendors of CCD video cameras

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} I am seeking contact addresses/faxes/e-mail for distributors and
} manufacturers of CCD video cameras for biological light microscopy
} (currently brightfield, darkfield, phase and DIC) to be used in conjunction
} with a VCR and Macintosh Quadra 650 and image grabbing and manipulating
} facilities.
}
} A colleague in this department uses a Pulnix TM-765 for similar purposes
} and this camera would be ideal. I have faxed the President of Motion
} Analysis, Inc at Eugene, OR, which was the the agent when he purchased his
} camera a couple of years back, but have had no reply. Can anyone give me
} other contacts or agents for Pulnix, and/or information on other
} manufacturers/agents for similar systems. We need a camera control system
} also, and hoped to pay only in the $2500-3000 range.
}
} Any information on Australian distributors would also be welcome.
}
} Thanks
}
} Nikki Watson
}
} Dr N.A. Watson
} Department of Zoology
} University of New England
} Armidale, NSW, 2351
} AUSTRALIA
} Fax: 067 711 869
} Phone: 067 732181
}
} (using 'Eudora' on a Macintosh)


I have looked around in my files and have a few suggestions and corrections.

In my lab we use a couple of Hamamatsu C2400 CCD-video cameras, one with an
intensifier coupled to it. I could not find the price for just the CCD
camera + controller, but you can contact

Robert A. Wick, Ph.D.
Photonic Microscopy, Inc.
2625 Butterfield Road, 103 West
Oakbrook, IL 60521
Tel 312-571-1241
Fax 312-571-1244

Other addresses+numbers (form Laser Focus World, Buyers' Guide, 1994)

PULNIX America, Inc.
1330 Orleans Dr.
Sunnyvale, CA 94089

Tel 408-747-0300
Fax 408-747-0880
___________________________________

Dage-MTI Inc
701 N. Roeske Ave.
Michigan City, IN 46360

Tel 219-872-5514
Fax 219-872-5559
___________________________________

DALSA CCD Image Sensors Inc.
605 McMurray Rd
Waterloo, Ontario, N2V 2E9, Canada

Tel 519-886-6000
Fax 519-886-8023
___________________________________
Also the address of Motion Analysis Corp.
(Pres. Tom D. Whitaker) is

Motion Analysis Corp.
3617 Westwind Blvd.
Sanat Rosa, CA 95403-1067

Tel 707-579-6500
Fax 707-526-0629
___________________________________

Hope this will be of some help.
Massimo






From: S0F6296-at-SUMMA.TAMU.EDU
Date: Tue, 22 Mar 1994 12:21:15 -0600 (CST)
Subject: SEM-preparation of Cu and Cu-alloy

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I am studying pure copper and copper-niobium samples with SEM.I would want to
observe microstructural morphology of the specimen.Is some specific preparation
of the specimen needed (for example special cleaning,etching...)?I would want to
avoid any kind of preparation involving high temperatures.
Thanks in advance for any help.
Stephane Ferrasse
Texas A&M University_E-mail:S0F6296&ZEUS.TAMU.EDU




From: Michael Cammer :      cammer-at-aecom.yu.edu
Date: Tue, 22 Mar 1994 17:49:23 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Axiomat

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A laboratory in our department is seeking a buyer/barterer for an Axiomat
with good Nomarski (the machine was used for microtubule motility assays
etc.) and other optics.
If you are interested, please send us a message.
Thanks-
Michael Cammer cammer-at-aecom.yu.edu






From: baskin-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu (Tobias Baskin)
Date: Tue, 22 Mar 1994 18:13:41 -0600
Subject: TEM/LM acetonitrile dehyd

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Greetings,
Has anyone tried dehydration in acetonitrile instead of ethanol,
as suggested by Edwards et al Micr. Res. Tech 21:39-50 (1992)??? Experience
with plant tissue would be particularly relevant, but any comments will be
welcomed.

Thanks,
Tobias Baskin





From: Diane Montpetit :      MONTPETITD-at-QCRSSH.AGR.CA
Date: 23 Mar 1994 07:44:53 -0500 (EST)
Subject: vendors of CCD video cameras, reply to Nikki Watson

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In Canada we have a vendor that sells Sony CCD video cameras, the
address is: Soquelec,
5757 Cavendish blvd, suite 101
Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H4W 2W8
Tel:514 482-6427
fax:514 482 1929

Hoping that it will be of some help.
Diane Montpetit
Food Research Center, Agriculture Canada
Quebec, Canada.




From: Diane Montpetit :      MONTPETITD-at-QCRSSH.AGR.CA
Date: 23 Mar 1994 08:08:48 -0500 (EST)
Subject: vendors of CCD cameras, reply to Nikki Watson

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In Canada we have a vendor selling Sony CCD cameras:
Soquelec
5757 Cavendish blvd, suite 101, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H4W 2W8
tel:514-482-6427
fax:514-482-1929
Hoping that it will be of some help
Diane Montpetit
Food Research Center, Agriculture Canada, Quebec, Canada





From: Fermin, Cesar on Mon, Mar 21, 1994 11:49 AM
Date: 23 Mar 1994 11:32:03 -0600
Subject: Internet/Ref. Workshop

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EM Users {Microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov}
Message-id: {01HAB7TLR1O2000JLU-at-VAX.ANES.TULANE.EDU}
Content-transfer-encoding: 8BIT


________________________________________________________


ÒEnterpriseÓ Computing in Medicine:
Using computer networks effectively with Macintosh computers

Led by: James Harrison, M.D., Ph.D. and Cesar Fermin, Ph.D.


Saturday March 26, 1994, 9:00 AM to 12:00 Noon

Rm 6545, Dunlap Library, Tulane University School of Medicine

Preregistration Required: please call Bea (504) 584-2436
FAX 587-7389

Outline:

Introduction to the structure of computer networks
Local networks and network protocols; Larger networks; The Internet; Network
structure at Tulane Medical Center

Local network functions
Controlling network connections with the Chooser; File sharing; E-mail;
Networked scheduling; Lab system access; Remote access (connecting from home);
Software tools: Alias Manager; Microsoft Mail; Eudora; Meeting Maker; Termy;
Apple Remote Access; ARA Commander.

Using the Internet
IP addresses and MacTCP; E-mail and internet addresses; Listserv groups; Telnet
and File Transfer Protocol (FTP); Transfer formats: binhexing and compression;
Special communication protocols: the World Wide Web and Gopher; USENET news
groups; Internet resources in the biomedical sciences; Software tools: MacTCP,
NCSA Telnet, Fetch, Versaterm Link, Binhex 4.0, Stuffit, Compactor, Mosaic,
TurboGopher, ph.

Reference searching and management
Using Grateful Med for Medline searching; Current Contents on diskette;
Reference management with EndNote; Software tools: Grateful Med 2.0, EndNote
Plus, Microsoft Word

Procedures for connecting to the network at Tulane






From: Diane Montpetit :      MONTPETITD-at-QCRSSH.AGR.CA
Date: Wed, 23 Mar 1994 15:40:49 -0500
Subject: REPLY TO NIKKI WATSON, VENDORS OF CCD VIDEO CAMERAS

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In Canada we have a vendor selling Sony CCd cameras:
Soquelec
5757 CAVENDISH BLVD, SUITE 101, MONTREAL, QUEBEC, CANADA, H4W 2W8
TEL:514 482-6427
FAX:514 482-1929

HOPING THAT IT WILL BE SOME HELP,, dIANE MONTPETIT, FOOD RESEARCH CENTER,
QUEBEC, CANADA ,MONTPETITD-at-QCRSSH.AGR.CA





From: David Garrett :      DGARRETT-at-gab.unt.edu
Date: Wed, 23 Mar 1994 15:06:34 CST6CDT
Subject: Plastics microtomy

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Message-Id: {9403232102.AA03771-at-riker.ml.wpafb.af.mil}

I am looking for suggestions on thin sectioning polymeric materials
(polypropylene/synthetic rubber) for TEM analysis. I am having
difficulty transfering sections (~80 nm) from the knife to grids. Common
problems with the sections are curling and flying away. I was
wondering if anyone has had any success embedding these types of
materials.
***************************************
David Garrett "DGARRETT-at-GAB.UNT.EDU"
University of North Texas
Dept. Biological Sciences
(817)565-3964 Fax (817)565-4136
***************************************




From: Paul Webster :      Paul_Webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 23 Mar 1994 16:35:00 -0500
Subject: Plastic sectioning

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Plastic sectioning
I am looking for suggestions on thin sectioning polymeric materials
(polypropylene/synthetic rubber) for TEM analysis. I am having
difficulty transfering sections (~80 nm) from the knife to grids. Common
problems with the sections are curling and flying away. I was
wondering if anyone has had any success embedding these types of
materials.
***************************************
David Garrett "DGARRETT-at-GAB.UNT.EDU"
University of North Texas
Dept. Biological Sciences
(817)565-3964 Fax (817)565-4136
***************************************

If you are sectioning on a dry knife you might like to try the trick that
Tokuyasu used for recovering cryosections. Pick them up on the surface of a
drop of sucrose or other inert solution held in a small wire loop. The liquid
will stop your problems with static and the surface tension should flatten out
the sections. Once the sections are recovered, place the liquid drop onto a
coated grid. The recovery solution can be removed by floating the grid
specimen face down on drops of water. I have seen this method used
successfully for rubberized samples in Arizona. It will not be of much use to
you if you cannot wet your sample.






From: ZEIK-at-uss.com
Date: Thu, 24 Mar 1994 8:51:27 -0500 (EST)
Subject: RE:SEM-PREP OF CU AND CU-NB ALLOYS

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Message in response to questions asked by Stephane Ferrasse, Texas A&M.

I assume you are interested in the morphology and distribution of niobium
precipitates within a copper matrix. I have worked on rapidly solidified
Cu-Nb microcomposites at Iowa State a couple of years ago and have published
a technique which has given me excellent results in the SEM. Detailed
procedures may be found in ASTM STP 1165, Metallography: Past, Present and
Future, George Vander Voort et al., ASTM, 1993, article written by myself
and collegues from Iowa State and Penn State.

Briefly, the technique involves an attack-polish method to remove some of the cumatrix. After a standard grind polish finishing on 0.25um diamond with
kerosene as the lubricant, the sample was first immersed in a 20%HF, 20%H2SO4,
20%HNO3, 40%H2O solution to remove the smeared Nb created during polishing.
Then the samples are immersed in a 30%H3PO4, 15%CH3COOH, 10%HNO3, 45% Ethanol
solution to remove some of the copper surrounding the Nb ppts. To aide in this
process, this step was performed in an ultrasonic cleaner - promoted
homogeneous removal of copper. Final rinsing was done in the ultrasonic cleaner
using fresh, 111 trichlorotrifluoroethane. The copper removal and final cleaningstep was repeated as necessary until the desired results were obtained.

Kevin L. Zeik
U.S.Steel Technical Center
Monroeville, PA 15146
EMail_Zeik-at-USS.COM




From: DRStadden:R_D:Armstrong
Date: 3-23-94 2:55pm
Subject: Image Archiving

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To: MICROSCO:CENTRAL
cc: DRStadden:R_D:Armstrong
Subj: Image Archiving
Forwarded: Message from DRStadden:R_D:Armstrong of 3-23-94
------------------------------------------------------------------
SEE FOLLOWING


--------------------- Forwarded Message Body ---------------------
To: MICROSCO:CENTRAL
cc: DRStadden:R_D:Armstrong
Subj: Image Archiving
------------------------------------------------------------------
I'm curious about whether anyone is routinely electronically archiving
images from SEM or LM, and/or sending them over a PC network. If so,
what sort of hardware is required; particularly, what is retrofittable
to a digital imaging SEM or a PLM, and what does it cost? I have one
quotation for an SEM-interfaceable unit that is around $20K.

Thanks for any leads,

Dave Stadden
Testing and Analysis Lab
Armstrong World Industries, Inc.




From: Romuald Wroblewski onk :      Romuald.Wroblewski-at-onk.ki.se
Date: Thu, 24 Mar 1994 16:16:22 +0200 (METDST)
Subject: CCD-camera

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When grabbing the image with CCD camera I a often getting problem with
the very high signal which when looking at preview
is almost white. I use f=22 but the signal is still to strong. The only
solution besides a pice of hardware is to deminish the light source but
it is a bad solution. Is there any software for Mac which can solve my
problem ?

Romuald.Wroblewski-at-onk.ki.se






From: COOK-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov (Russell E. Cook)
Date: Fri, 25 Mar 1994 09:41:13 -0600
Subject: Image archiving

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Michel Deschuyteneer suggested CD-ROM as a method for archiving images.
This is something we have been trying to do for the last few months. If
you plan to purchase a CD writer, you need to be aware that you may also
need to buy a high speed hard disk from which the images will be downloaded
to the CD. Look carefully at the input specifications of the CD writer
before you buy the high speed disk.


Russell E. Cook
Electron Microscopy Center for Materials Research
Materials Science Division
Argonne National Laboratory
Argonne, Illinois 60439
USA






From: Dean Miller :      dean_miller-at-qmgate.anl.gov
Date: 25 Mar 1994 10:23:57 U
Subject: FWD>Image archiving

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Message-Id: {9403251620.AA02822-at-anl.gov}




From: COOK-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov (Russell E. Cook)
Date: Fri, 25 Mar 1994 09:41:13 -0600
Subject: Image archiving

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--------------------------------------


Russell E. Cook
Electron Microscopy Center for Materials Research
Materials Science Division
Argonne National Laboratory
Argonne, Illinois 60439
USA



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From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Sat, 26 Mar 1994 11:29:09 -0600 (CST)
Subject: CCD-Camera Saturation

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Message-Id: {9403251954.AA10371-at-riker.ml.wpafb.af.mil}


Ron Wroblewski asked about software for the Mac to help his
intensity saturation problem....

The simple answer is you need a hardware fix not a software one.
If the CCD is saturating then there is no software solution. You
must decrease the signal. Some CCD camera's have autoIris lenses
which attempt to adjust the input to the CCD by closing down the
iris via a motorized mechanism.. Alternatively you could put
in some type of neutral density filter to reduce the signal
that is hitting your CCD.


Nestor Zaluzec
ANLEMCenter




From: Colin Veitch CSIRO DWT :      VEI011-at-GEEL.DWT.CSIRO.AU
Date: Fri, 25 Mar 1994 9:37:21 +1100 (EST)
Subject: Fargo Primera Color Printer:Responses

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X-NUPop-Charset: English

Yes, we have just (today!) purchased the above printer for producing
STEM/XRAY images primarily. For effectiveness/cost ratio it is nothing
short
of superb. But it does have some limitations: can be SLOW for continuous
tone
color, does not support Postscript (yet - they "tell me" that a 3rd. party
is working on this), fonts can be a problem but not if you store them as
image files when used as text on micrographs, line drawings can get
excessive
cases of the "jaggies" from the mechanical drive ( only shows up on images
if
you magnify } 5X or so. There is a very objective review of this printer in
the August 1993 edition of "Advanced Imaging" Vol 8 No 8 pp 37 - 39.
P.S. If you use a Mac you'll need to purchase a $199 interface.

Peter Ingram
ingram-at-rcc.rti.org
===============================
3)

Some time ago we had a demo of the Fargo Primera (wax transfer)
printer and compared it to the Tektronix Phaser IIID which we have on
site. The system demoed only had a three colour system so the blacks
were not great. A 3 colour + black system is available. The ouput
was not quite as good as the Tek. but when you consider that the
Fargo was around a quarter of the price (in Australia) it was pretty
good value. I have seen the dye sub. output but not had a chance to
do direct comparisions.

I think that Byte reviewd the printer not long ago (or it may have
been another computer journal).

I hope this is of some use.

Colin V.



John Fournelle
Electron Microprobe Lab Internet:johnf-at-geology.wisc.edu
Dept of Geology & Geophysics Telephone: (608) 262-7964
University of Wisconsin Fax: (608) 262-0693
1215 West Dayton Street Amateur radio: WA3BTA/9
Madison, WI 53706 (14.030, 21.030 mHz)






From: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
Date: Mon, 28 Mar 1994 14:30:46 +0100
Subject: Summaries for the April 1994 issue of the Journal of Microscopy

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Sender: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
74250.331-at-COMPUSERVE.COM, ROSS.MACKENZIE-at-OX.AC.UK,
MICROSCOPY-at-ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV
Message-ID: {0097C1CF.822E91AC.17429-at-vax.ox.ac.uk}

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 1, April 1994, pp. 1 - 14.

STANDARD PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR ANALYTICAL ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

by S. M. ZEMYAN & D. B. WILLIAMS , Department of Materials
Science & Engineering, Lehigh University, Whitaker Laboratory, .
5 E. Packer Ave., Bethlehem, PA 18015, U.S.A.

Summary
Users of analytical electron microscopy lack easy-to-use
standards for assessing the consistency and quality of analytical
performance. We propose using a Cr thin film of known thickness
to measure three important characteristics related to
performance: the Cr K alpha peak-to-background (P/B) ratio, the
X-ray spectrometer relative efficiency, and the spectrometer
energy resolution. We used a Cr specimen to determine the
instrumental factors which influence the P/B ratio, finding that
the highest P/B ratios are achieved in scanning transmission mode
at the highest available accelerating voltage. We present values
of the P/B ratio, and the detector relative efficiency and energy
resolution which can be used for comparison in other laboratories
using the standard film.

ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 1, April 1994, pp. 15 - 22.

ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY IN THE PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF CHALCONES

by G. KAUPP , Universitaet Oldenburg, FB 9 - Organische Chemie I,
Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany

Summary
The application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to
photodimerization of crystalline chalcones provides new insights
into the detailed mechanisms of solid-state reactions on the
molecular level. Well-directed long-range transport phenomena are
found which reach far beyond the crystal lattice distances.
Reactions occur in the surface region where the light is
absorbed. Characteristic features are built up that depend on
crystal structure and crystal face. This could not be foreseen by
previous theories based solely on a topochemical
postulate/principle. There is now a much more intimate
correlation of crystal structure with solid-state reactivity and
this is directly studied and proven experimentally by AFM. Even
solid-state reactions which are in opposition to topochemistry
can be studied and understood on a molecular basis. The
three-dimensional resolution of undisturbed insulating surfaces
which is obtained by AFM is not available by any other technique.

ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 1, April 1994, pp. 23 - 30.

REGRESSION METHODS FOR AUTOMATED COLOUR IMAGE CLASSIFICATION AND
THRESHOLDING

by E. J. BREEN , CSIRO, Division of Mathematics and Statistics,
Institute of Information Science and Engineering, Locked Bag 17,
North Ryde NSW 2113 Australia

Summary
Regression methods are used to perform automated image
thresholding and colour pixel classification. This is done by
considering threshold levels and pixel classification labels as
pattern attributes. A regression equation that performs a mapping
from the J dimensional feature-pattern space to the K dimensional
attribute space is derived. The approach is non-parametric and
deterministic, hence no assumptions about the statistical
properties of the input patterns or images need be made.
Initially a known set of input patterns with associated
attributes are used to constitute a training set. A mapping
function is then determined from the training patterns and used
for estimating attribute values from unknown input patterns, such
as images.

ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 1, April 1994, pp. 31 - 38.

LIP-MODEL-BASED THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION AND
VISUALIZATION OF HIV-INFECTED ENTIRE CELLS

by P. GREMILLET,* M. JOURLIN + & J.-C. PINOLI ++ , *Misis Image,
BP 711, 42950 Saint-Etienne Cedex 9, France. + Laboratoire
Lyonnais des Signaux et Systemes, Ecole Superieure de Chimie,
Physique et Electronique, 31 Place Bellecour, 69288 Lyon Cedex
02, France, and Laboratoire de Traitement du Signal, Universite
de Saint-Etienne, 23 Rue Paul Michelon, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex
02, France. ++Pechiney, Centre de Recherches, BP 27, 38340
Voreppe, France

Summary
This paper presents a global solution from acquisition to
visualization for the three-dimensional reconstruction of cell
sections. Original techniques are proposed for the correct
handling of the geometrical section distortions, and a new
interpretation based on the logarithmic image processing (LIP)
model is applied in order to create normalized grey-level
sections where these are missing. Finally, a new method for
generating a mesh of triangles to describe the envelope of the
reconstructed cell is proposed, as well as a visualization mixing
image synthesis and grey-level information. The product allows
the user to explore the reconstructed cellular block in any
desired direction, by showing user-defined grey-level sections
inside the block mixed to a synthetic view of the cell envelope.

ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 1, April 1994, pp. 39 - 46.

SURFACE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF OLFACTORY RECEPTOR SENSE HAIRS IN THE
SILKMOTH, ANTHERAEA PERNYI

by V. I. POPOV, A. A. NIKONOV, N. K. AGAFONOVA & E. E. FESENKO ,
Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Accademy of Sciences,
Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142292, Russia

Summary
The fine structure of silkmoth sense hair surfaces has been
investigated by freeze etching with Pt/C rotary shadowing. To do
this, the hydrophobic layer in the cuticle was removed using 20 -
25% methanol or ethanol. Freeze-etch patterns of sense hair
surfaces, as well as the pore structure and pore distribution,
are shown. The hair surface has a nonhelical `band' structure, in
which every `band' lies at an oblique angle with respect to the
axis of the hair. Each `band' is separated from its neighbour by
a 30-nm step. The average density of pores is 11.3 plus or minus
2.4 pores per square micrometre. Freeze-etch patterns of the
single and multiple pore tubules are shown. Evidence for direct
contact between the pore tubule and dendrite membrane of an
olfactory receptor neuron is presented.

ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 1, April 1994, pp. 47 - 50.

AGAR STANDARDS FOR QUANTITATIVE X-RAY MICROANALYSIS OF
RESIN-EMBEDDED PLANT TISSUES

by E. FRITZ & G. JENTSCHKE , Institute of Forest Botany,
University of Gottingen, Busgenweg 2, 37077 Gottingen, Germany

Summary
Calibration standards for quantitative X-ray microanalysis of
resin-embedded plant tissue were prepared by adding 6 - 600 mm
KC1 to 5% agar. Agar blocks with an edge length of 1 - 2 mm were
rapidly frozen, freeze-dried and embedded in
styrene-methacrylate. Dry sections 1 micrometre thick were
mounted on adhesive-coated grids. Apart from fine-scale
inhomogeneities caused by ice crystal formation, the KC1 is
evenly distributed in the agar blocks. The peak-to-continuum
values of K and Cl were highly linearly correlated to the K and
Cl contents over the whole concentration range.

ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 1, April 1994, pp. 51 - 54.

A SIMPLE METHOD FOR PROCESSING INDIVIDUAL OOCYTES AND EMBRYOS FOR
ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

by C. NOGUES, M. MARTI, M. BOADA & M. PONSA , Departament
Biologia Cel.lular i Fisiologia, Facultat Ciencies, Universitat
Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193-Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain

Summary
A simple method for handling individual specimens that must be
processed either for scanning or transmission electron microscopy
studies is described. For scanning microscope processing,
dehydration is carried out with samples enclosed in small cages
made from TAAB capsules in which top and bottom are substituted
by plankton nets, and for transmission electron microscopy,
samples are pre-embedded in agarose. This procedure significantly
reduces mouth pipetting, dissecting microscope observations, is
less labour intensive and, most importantly, reduces sample loss.

ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 1, April 1994, pp. 55 - 58.

ENHANCED RETENTION OF MAGNETIC PARTICLES (E.G. MICROTOMED
SECTIONS) IN A TEM

by W. A. FURDANOWICZ & K. E. DOWNEY , Homer Research Labs,
Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Bethlehem, PA 18016-7699, U.S.A.

Summary
An electron-transparent layer of adhesive is used to restrain
magnetic particles from being stripped off the support film by
the magnetic field of an objective lens in a TEM.

ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ
RAPID PUBLICATION
Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 1, April 1994, pp. RP1 - RP
2.

MONOMERIC COLLAGEN IMAGED BY CRYOGENIC FORCE MICROSCOPY

by M. B. SHATTUCK, M. G. L. GUSTAFSSON, K. A. FISHER, K. C.
YANAGIMOTO, A. VEIS, R. S. BHATNAGAR & J. CLARKE

ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ


IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN SUBMITTING A MANUSCRIPT TO THE JOURNAL
OF MICROSCOPY, OR HAVE ANY OTHER QUESTIONS ABOUT THE JOURNAL,
PLEASE CONTACT DR GILLIAN WILSON, JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY EDITORIAL
OFFICE, 37/38 ST CLEMENTS, OXFORD, OX4 1AJ, UNITED KINGDOM.
TELEPHONE +44 865 248768, FAX +44 865 791237, EMAIL
RMS-at-VAX.OX.AC.UK.


AA Happy EA H ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ




From: Jay Jerome :      jjerome-at-isnet.is.wfu.edu
Date: Mon, 28 Mar 1994 13:50:26 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Cat skin

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A belated reply to the person asking about cat skin. In felis domesticus
the skin has all of the same layers as found in human skin. However, the
skin is thinner because there are only a few layers of dermins (2-4
layers) as compared to the {10 layers found in most areas of human skin.

JAY JEROME
jjerome-at-isnet.is.wfu.edu





From: Glen Macdonald :      glenmac-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Mon, 28 Mar 1994 12:31:52 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: Image archiving

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We also have been considering CD-ROM for archival and image transfer.
I have been told that only recently some of the authoring drives allow
reading a partially filled platter, and then only on the authoring drive,
not on a standard reading-only drive. I was hoping to use CD-ROM as an
alternative to buying magneto-optical drives for portable data, as
oppposed to setting up a server.

What has anyone experienced or read about this?

Glen MacDonald
Hearing Development Laboratories RL-30
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195
(206)543-8360
glenmac-at-u.washington.edu



On Fri, 25 Mar 1994, Russell E. Cook wrote:

} Michel Deschuyteneer suggested CD-ROM as a method for archiving images.
} This is something we have been trying to do for the last few months. If
} you plan to purchase a CD writer, you need to be aware that you may also
} need to buy a high speed hard disk from which the images will be downloaded
} to the CD. Look carefully at the input specifications of the CD writer
} before you buy the high speed disk.
}
}
} Russell E. Cook
} Electron Microscopy Center for Materials Research
} Materials Science Division
} Argonne National Laboratory
} Argonne, Illinois 60439
} USA
}
}
}




From: ldm-at-apollo.numis.nwu.edu (L. D. Marks)
Date: Mon, 28 Mar 1994 16:47:56 -0600
Subject: Image archiving on CD-ROM

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If all people are talking about is archiving, then I
would strongly suggest that DAT tapes are considered. The
prices of the hardware for CD-ROM and DAT are comparable,
but the price of a single tape is $16 and it can hold
2-16 Gbytes of data. The only reason in my mind for using
CD-ROM is if you want additional disc space which is less
expensive than true hard disks; for archiving it may well
be a waste of money.

Laurie Marks, NU




From: Glen Macdonald :      glenmac-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Mon, 28 Mar 1994 16:16:22 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: Image archiving on CD-ROM

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As Robin Wright says, CDs are forever. Also, they allow random access
and it is extremely cheap to buy an internal CD-ROM player with new computers

Glen

On Mon, 28 Mar 1994, L. D. Marks wrote:

} If all people are talking about is archiving, then I
} would strongly suggest that DAT tapes are considered. The
} prices of the hardware for CD-ROM and DAT are comparable,
} but the price of a single tape is $16 and it can hold
} 2-16 Gbytes of data. The only reason in my mind for using
} CD-ROM is if you want additional disc space which is less
} expensive than true hard disks; for archiving it may well
} be a waste of money.
}
} Laurie Marks, NU
}




From: DOUG ARRELL :      ARRELL-at-jrc.nl
Date: Tue, 29 Mar 1994 08:24:00 GMT+0200
Subject: Even more archiving

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940329082400.480-at-FS-IAM-1.JRC.NL}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

I agree that DAT tape is not ideal for archiving due to eventual
degradation etc, but what about these new Phase-Change optical
drives? I don't know much about them, except that they are
re-writeable, cost about half that of CD-ROM writers (at least in
Europe) and can store approx. 1Gb. I think that they are sold by
Panasonic over here. Maybe somebody else knows more about them.
As far as I can see they appear to have significant advantages, and
are based on Sony's mini-disk technology, so the prices should drop
fairly soon if that is a success.

Doug Arrell
Mechanical Performance and Joining
Institute for Advanced Materials
1755 ZG Petten
Netherlands




From: Mike Schwartz :      Mike_Schwartz-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 29 Mar 1994 08:42:00 -0500
Subject: CD archiving

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Subject: Time:8:16 AM
OFFICE MEMO CD archiving Date:3/29/94
Just my two cents worth on archiving on optical discs, CDs or DAT. We have
been looking into CD archiving and feel that it has several advantages over the
other two formats. 1) CDs allow relatively fast and easy acess to the
images/files. So if you are planning to manipulate these images (of course you
will have to work on copys placed on your hard disk) or require frequent acess
to them this method is about equal to opticals, but superior to DAT, 2) Both
CDs & opticals will have a longer expected life then DAT before media
breakdown, and 3) the most important consideration for us is that CD readers
are cheap, going down in price and are incorporated into the hardware of an
increasing number of computer systems. This is important since every potential
user is already equipped or makes only a small investment ( {$300 for many
readers). The larger number of potential users will make the system more cost
effective and may partially offset the initially higher cost of a CD writer. A
further consideration is that both Mac and IBM clone users need acess. The
formatting for opticals is usually specific to one or the other of these
standards (unless you plan to go with Apple PowerPCs) and will thus be more
limited. Photo CDs can be read on drivers of either machine format with no
conversions or translations required. We think that for these reasons, CDs are
the way to go.

Mike
Mike_Schwartz-at-qm.yale.edu







From: Richard F. Kuklinski :      rfk2-at-Ra.MsState.Edu
Date: Tue, 29 Mar 1994 08:42:22 -0600
Subject: I-G-labeled sections falling off grids

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I have been requested to pass on the following message for discussion:


From: Bill Monroe
Electron Microscope Center
Mississippi State University

His Question: Occasionally our laboratory staff has experienced
problems with thin sections coming off the grid during immuno-gold
labeling steps. The tissue sections are from L.R. White embedded
material and are mounted on 200 mesh formvar-coated nickel grids.

The Question: Are there any suggestions to remedy this problem of
sections coming off the grid?


Richard Kuklinski, rfk2-at-ra.msstate.edu
Electron Microscope Center, Mississippi State University




From: Susan Smith - National Steel Corporation :      smiths-at-mlc.lib.mi.us
Date: Tue, 29 Mar 1994 10:19:39 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Intercept Count and intercept length measurements

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Hi! I'm posting this for a patron:

How do I persuade Image to measure the number of intercepts on a line or
to measure the length of individual intercepts? Both of these
measurements are useful in determining the grain size of metals, for
example, see ASTM standard E112 and E1181.

We originally posted this to the NIH-Image list but received no responses,
so if anyone can help, we'd appreciate it. Thanks.

You can reply to my e-mail address smiths-at-mlc.lib.mi.us OR directly to my
patron at the following address:

Sam Purdy
National Steel Corp.
Technical Research Center
1745 Fritz Drive
Trenton, MI 48183
313/676-2682 or FAX:313/676-2030






From: M. J. Kramer :      MJKRAMER-at-vaxld.ameslab.gov
Date: Tue, 29 Mar 1994 10:13:15 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Crystalbond

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I am looking for the name and address of the manufacture of
crystalbond. We had purchased in the past sticks about
3/4" in diameter at a very reasonable price (much below
Gatan's price) but can't locate the source now.

Any help would be much appreciated!

Matthew J. Kramer
Ames Lab, ISU

MJKRAMER-at-AMESLAB.GOV






From: Paul Webster :      Paul_Webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 29 Mar 1994 11:46:07 -0500
Subject: Serial Sections?

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Serial Sections?
An easy way to keep serial sections attached to one another is to coat the
block with a sticky substance. Previously, I used something called
"Takki-wax". Does anyone know of a supplier for this wonderful stuff, we just
ran out?






From: PEARSON-at-ANMSD3.MSD.ANL.GOV (JOHN E. PEARSON 708.252.7738, 9595(FAX))
Date: Tue, 29 Mar 1994 11:37:36 CST
Subject: Video capture

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We are interested in collecting RHEED and LEED images with a video camera.
Stuff like line profiles, spot intensity fluctuations.
I checked into this several years ago and found a system by Staib Instruments
It was a lot of money. I then thought of buying a system with a Sony XC-77
camera, Fuji CF50L lens, DT2851 Framegrabber, Halo 88, and Image Pro software.
This sytem would have cost about $7K.
Several years have past and now we have a Mac Quadra 840AV. Someone here
thinks he can do the same thing with the Mac AV inputs that these other
systems could do with dedicated boards.
Any comments from people running such systems would be helpful.




From: Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers :      GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Date: Tue, 29 Mar 1994 12:39:43 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Fw: Re: Serial Sections?

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}
} Serial Sections?
} An easy way to keep serial sections attached to one another is to coat the
} block with a sticky substance. Previously, I used something called
} "Takki-wax". Does anyone know of a supplier for this wonderful stuff, we just
} ran out?
}
================================================================

I have also heard of using diluted rubber cement for keeping serial sections
together.
**********************************************************
* Greg Erdos ** *
* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
**********************************************************





From: Glen Macdonald :      glenmac-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Tue, 29 Mar 1994 10:32:34 -0800 (PST)
Subject: BrdU antibodies

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We've been using the Becton-Dickinson mouse monoclonal antibody againsty
bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for a few years for a variety of samples and
fixatives. We'vew been using at 1/4000 successfully
for ABC-peroxidase and fluorescently labelled secondary antibodies.

The BD is very pricey, $245 per bottle. Has anyone tried other brands of
antibodies or fluorescently conjugated anti-BrdU antibodies? What
dilutions did you use, how sensitive did you find them (especially the
conjugated Ab)?


Glen MacDonald
Hearing Development Laboratories RL-30
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195
(206)543-8360
glenmac-at-u.washington.edu







From: {MJKRAMER-at-vaxld.ameslab.gov}:ddn:wpafb
Date: 3-29-94 12:12pm
Subject: Crystalbond

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Message-Id: {9403291926.AA22920-at-riker.ml.wpafb.af.mil}
To: WALCKSD:ml:wpafb, SCHELTFJ:ml:wpafb
Subj: Crystalbond
Orig-Author: {"M. J. Kramer" {MJKRAMER-at-vaxld.ameslab.gov} }:ddn:wpafb
-----------------------------------------------------------
I am looking for the name and address of the manufacture of
crystalbond. We had purchased in the past sticks about
3/4" in diameter at a very reasonable price (much below
Gatan's price) but can't locate the source now.

Any help would be much appreciated!

Matthew J. Kramer
Ames Lab, ISU

MJKRAMER-at-AMESLAB.GOV






From: Paul Webster :      Paul_Webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 29 Mar 1994 16:46:43 -0500
Subject: Re: I-G-labeled sections fal

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Re} I-G-labeled sections falling off
Are the sections falling off or is it the formvar that is comming away from the
grids? I've never had any problem with sections comming detached from
formvar-carbon films.






From: Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers :      GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Date: Tue, 29 Mar 1994 17:16:27 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Fw: Re: I-G-labeled sections falling off grids

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}
} I have been requested to pass on the following message for discussion:
}
}
} From: Bill Monroe
} Electron Microscope Center
} Mississippi State University
}
} His Question: Occasionally our laboratory staff has experienced
} problems with thin sections coming off the grid during immuno-gold
} labeling steps. The tissue sections are from L.R. White embedded
} material and are mounted on 200 mesh formvar-coated nickel grids.
}
} The Question: Are there any suggestions to remedy this problem of
} sections coming off the grid?
}
}
} Richard Kuklinski, rfk2-at-ra.msstate.edu
} Electron Microscope Center, Mississippi State University
==========================================================
REPLY

We have never experienced this problem. We do however pick up sections from
above rather than from below thereby eliminating the possibility of trapping
water between the section and the formvar film. I don't know if this would
make any difference.
**********************************************************
* Greg Erdos ** *
* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
**********************************************************





From: _ _ _ _ _ MARK W. LUND _ _ _ _ _ :      LUNDM-at-XRAY.BYU.EDU
Date: Tue, 29 Mar 1994 18:26 MST
Subject: Crystal Bond

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Crystal bond is supplied and made by Universal Photonics 1-800-645-7173.
Universal Photonics is a supplier of materials for lens grinding and
polishing (used to be Universal Optics) and developed Crystal bond for
holding prisms and crystals to the work tool as they are being lapped.
Their catalog has a lot of interesting stuff of potential use to
microscopists, but for years was out of print. I think you can
get one now, however.

Mark W. Lund
MOXTEK, Inc.
Orem UT





From: David Henriks :      73531.1344-at-CompuServe.COM
Date: 30 Mar 94 12:03:23 EST
Subject: Crystalbond/QuickStick 135 Mounting Wax

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South Bay Technology produces 4 standard mounting waxes designed for mounting
samples for precision lapping, polishing and cutting. SBT makes a wax which is
essentially identical to Crystalbond 509. The only difference is that
QuickStick 135 is very clear and does not have the amber color normally
associated with Crystalbond.

QuickStick 135 is acetone soluble and has a flow point of 135 degrees C.
QuickStick 135 is used extensively in TEM sample preparation operations and is
supplied with all South Bay Technology TEM sample preparation equipment. Quick
Stick 135 is packaged in a plastic tray consisting of 20 3" x .25" x .25"
unwrapped sticks (Approx. 360 grams) for $40. It can also be supplied in the 7"
long cardboard tubes as is Crystalbond or in a variety of other forms.

For information on our other mounting waxes, free wax samples or information on
any of our sample preparation products, please contact me as follows:

David Henriks
South Bay Technology, Inc.
1120 Via Callejon
San Clemente, CA 92673

TEL: 714-492-2600
Toll-free in USA: 800-728-2233
FAX: 714-492-1499

e-mail: via CompuServe at: David Henriks, 73531,1344





From: EMLAB-at-opus.mco.edu
Date: Thu, 31 Mar 1994 12:20:12 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: I-G-labeled sections falling off grids

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Bill Monroe asks about sections falling off of grids during immunostaining.
I use uncoated gold grids (no grid induced astigmatism) with LR White or
Spurr's resin. I section blocks, pick up sections and let dry at least
one day before immunostaining. Once in a while a few sections might fall
off but this is not a major problem. I also immerse the grids in all
solutions on parafilm. Hope this helps.

Ed Calomeni




From: Kathy Walters :      kwalters-at-emiris.iaf.uiowa.edu
Date: Thu, 31 Mar 1994 17:32:44 -0600 (CST)
Subject: High resolution measurement standards

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Hi

Anybody out there have suggestions for measurement of particles
from the TEM? The particles are thought to measure about 80 angstroms.
We are assuming using 80-200,000x magnification and need very precise
measurements. The commercial standards are only good up to 50,000x.

I appriciate any help!

Kathy Walters
Central Electron Microscopy Researh Facility
University of Iowa







From: M. J. Kramer :      MJKRAMER-at-vaxld.ameslab.gov
Date: Tue, 29 Mar 1994 10:13:15 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Crystalbond

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Any help would be much appreciated!

Matthew J. Kramer
Ames Lab, ISU

MJKRAMER-at-AMESLAB.GOV






From: Calvin Montgomery :      cal-at-marlin.ssnet.com
Date: Thu, 31 Mar 1994 19:19:25 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: High resolution measurement standards

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Kathy, How about using carbon graphite at 3.4 Angstrom lattice
spacing or there is a type of asbestos that gives 9 Angstrom lattice
spacing. These could be used at 100KX or above and the mag accuracy of
your TEM could then be calculated.
Cal




From: Dwight Beebe :      beebed-at-ERE.UMontreal.CA
Date: Fri, 1 Apr 1994 08:40:03 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: TEM - Epon stability over time

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Message-Id: {9404011318.AA00750-at-odin.morph.med.umich.edu}
Errors-To: {dennis%odin-at-odin.morph.med.umich.edu}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Cc: dennis-at-odin.morph.med.umich.edu

On Fri, 1 Apr 1994 dennis%odin-at-odin.morph.med.umich.edu wrote:
Snip
} My lab is looking for a citation in the literature about the stability of
} specimens over time in polymerized Epn blocks. I've checked the literature
} but have not had much luck. If anyone knows offhand where this can be find, I
} would appreciate the reference.

Hi, I've recently been reading a book called _Artifacts iin Biological
Electron Microscopy_ by R.F.E. Crang and K.L. Klomparens, Plenum Press,
1988, and have found much of the info to be very applicable to some of my
general problems. There is a section by H.H. Mollenhauer that discusses
dehydration and epoxy embedding that might have the info you're looking for.
Good luck.

Dwight U. Beebe beebed-at-ere.umontreal.ca
Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale Voice:514-872-4563
4101, rue Sherbrooke est FAX:514-872-9406
Montreal, PQ H1X 2B2 Canada








From: Calvin Montgomery :      cal-at-ssnet.com
Date: Thu, 31 Mar 1994 19:19:25 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: High resolution measurement standards

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Kathy Walters,

Picking up on Cal's idea, would it be possible for you to prepare your particles
right on top of the carbon graphite, on Formvar coated grids for support. That
way you could photograph them together in the same micrograph and get the
highest accuracy measurement of the particle sizes by direct comparison to the
carbon lattice image.

The question I have, is can one compare the particles directly to the image of
the crystal lattice spacings, or is there a calculation that must be done to
correctly use that spacing information? Anyone? Gib Ahlstrtand.

------------ Forwarded Message begins here ------------

Kathy, How about using carbon graphite at 3.4 Angstrom lattice
spacing or there is a type of asbestos that gives 9 Angstrom lattice
spacing. These could be used at 100KX or above and the mag accuracy of
your TEM could then be calculated.
Cal
---------- Forwarded Message ends here ------------

--
Gib Ahlstrand
Electron Optical Facility
University of Minnesota
Dept. Plant Pathology
495 Borlaug Hall
St. Paul, MN 55108 (612)625-8249
612-625-9728 FAX
giba-at-puccini.crl.umn.edu






From: EMLAB-at-opus.mco.edu
Date: Fri, 01 Apr 1994 14:26:23 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: High resolution measurement standards

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In reply to Kathy Walters query about resolution measurements, try using
a colloidal gold preperation, say a 5nm gold. The makers of the probes
send along info which contains a distribution curve of the size of the gold.
Hope this helps.

Ed Calomeni




From: ARGIL-at-delphi.com
Date: Sat, 02 Apr 1994 01:26:27 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Hi-res measurement

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Kathy Walters -

After finding a suitable calibration standard, you could use one of the
video measurement systems on the market to do the actual measurements.
The standard is used to
calibrate the measurement system only, and does not have to be
closely related to the size of your sample. This would still give very
accurate results, down to a fraction of the size of the standard.

My company makes such a device, called the XR-2000. It has a very large
array of measurements, like distance, area, angle, pathlength, etc,
and lots of other functions. It is very inexpensive and easy to use.

Your system must use standard video (like Y/C or RGB) for this to work.

If you would like to know more about the XR-2000, private Email to me.

Arthur Gilman
Princeton, NJ





From: Dwight Beebe :      beebed-at-ERE.UMontreal.CA
Date: Mon, 4 Apr 1994 14:00:20 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: TEM course - Suggestions for a text?

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Message-Id: {9404041513.AA02301-at-odin.morph.med.umich.edu}
Errors-To: {dennis%odin-at-odin.morph.med.umich.edu}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Cc: dennis-at-odin.morph.med.umich.edu

Greetings!
I will teach a comprehensive, semester-long TEM course next Fall
and am trying to find a good text. My choice at the moment is: Electron
Microscopy. Principles and Techniques for Biologists by J.J. Bozzola and
L.D. Russell. Does anyone have other favorite texts? The course will be
small (6 graduate students) and will include both theory and practical
sessions. Both plants (my specialty) and animals will be used as
material. I would also be very interested in hearing directly from people
who have taught such a course or one similar to it, for tips and "what
works, what doesn't" info. We will also use the RMS Handbook: The
Operation of Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes by D. Chescoe
and P.J. Goodhew, as we have a JEOL 100S for the course and this book has
a nice description of alignment procedures which match our instrument.
Thanks in advance, any help will be greatly appreciated.

Dwight U. Beebe beebed-at-ere.umontreal.ca
Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale Voice:514-872-4563
4101, rue Sherbrooke est FAX:514-872-9406
Montreal, PQ H1X 2B2 Canada







From: Scott Simmons :      SRS-at-zeus.ahabs.wisc.edu
Date: 4 Apr 94 12:50:32 CST
Subject: Re: High resolution measurement standards

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} In reply to Kathy Walters query about resolution measurements, try
} using
} a colloidal gold preperation, say a 5nm gold. The makers of the
} probes
} send along info which contains a distribution curve of the size of
} the gold. Hope this helps.

Colloidal gold is easy to see and measure, but is not all that
uniform. As Ed says, the manufacturers send along a size distribution
curve. The sizes - diameters and distribution - will vary from batch
to batch. One would also want to know how the manufacturer's size
distribution was determined. They presumably would also have to
measure the sizes microscopically, and the data would not need to be
really accurate to suit their purposes.




From: Shu-Chun Su :      su-at-marlin.ssnet.com
Date: Tue, 5 Apr 1994 09:51:02 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: LM- Need help in staining pectin

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Message-Id: {9404042040.AA10306-at-hoh.mbl.edu}

I'd like to receive suggestions for staining pectin for LM observation.




From: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
Date: Tue, 05 Apr 1994 16:56:12 +0100
Subject: Book reviewers required!

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Sender: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk

The Journal of Microscopy has another few new books for review. Interested
parties should contact Gillian Wilson at RMS-at-VAX.OX.AC.UK.

The books are:

1. Introduction to Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy. By C Julian Chen. OUP, 1994.
412 pages.

2. Polymerase Chain Reaction. By C R Newton & A Graham. BIOS in association
with the Biochemical Society, 1994. 161 pages.

3.Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology and Immunology. Edited by R C
Spencer, E P Wright & S W B Newsom. Intercept Ltd, France, 1994. 502 pages.






From: gkennedy-at-UCSD.EDU
Date: Tue, 5 Apr 1994 09:19:12 -0700
Subject: TEM/immuno: Need help immunostaining for seratonin

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Has anyone been successful with en grid staining of seratonin?
Grace Kennedy, UCSD





From: gkennedy-at-UCSD.EDU
Date: Tue, 5 Apr 1994 10:15:42 -0700
Subject: TEM/immuno: Need help immunostaining for seratonin

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Has anyone been successful with en grid staining of seratonin?
Grace Kennedy, UCSD







From: Wil Bigelow :      Wil_Bigelow-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 5 Apr 1994 14:05:15 U
Subject: Re-EM Text

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Subject: Time:2:05 PM
OFFICE MEMO Re:EM Text Date:4/5/94
Another good text to consider might be "The Principles & Practice of Electron
Microscopy" by Ian M. Watt, Cambridge Univ. Press. It is very well written and
covers a good range of subjects for a one-term course.






From: Wil Bigelow :      Wil_Bigelow-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 5 Apr 1994 14:07:37 U
Subject: Re- SEM Screen color

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Subject: Time:2:09 PM
OFFICE MEMO Re: SEM Screen color Date:4/5/94
I think one justification for using green phosphors is that the human eye has
maximum sensitivity in the green range of the visible spectrum.






From: Jay Jerome :      jjerome-at-isnet.is.wfu.edu
Date: Tue, 5 Apr 1994 14:22:46 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: RE: Sections falling off

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Additional note: to avoid to thick a formvar which can remain between
grid bars, use a quick blast of compressed air directed the grid to
vaporize formvar between the grid bars.

On Fri, 1 Apr 1994 wrightr-at-zoology.washington.edu wrote:

} My very first immunolabeling experiment ended when every section
} floated off the 25 grids that I was labeling at the time. Since
} then, I use a method shown to me by Bonnie Chojnacki. Specifically I
} use grids that have been dipped in a dilute formvar solution (about
} 0.1% in chloroform) and then dried on filter paper. The grids can
} either be dipped individually into the formvar and then placed on
} filter paper, or a whole canister can be dumped into the formvar and
} each grid retrieved individually onto filter paper.
}
}
} This procedure produces a sticky coat on the grid bars and sections
} (epoxy, LR-white, etc) really stay attached throughout all of the
} incubations.
}
}
}
}
} Robin Wright
}




From: Jay Jerome :      jjerome-at-isnet.is.wfu.edu
Date: Tue, 5 Apr 1994 14:32:57 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: TEM - Epon clarification

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The answerto
Your questionK about the same information after 30 year
depends on what information you want. I wouldnt trust immunocytochemistry
of material embedded that long, since we see a difference even after a
month (post embed stain of etched epon). However, the structures have not
changed and quantitation done will be the same.
Do you need a reference if the experience of a great many microscopists
says there is no difference?

On Mon, 4 Apr 1994 dennis%odin-at-odin.morph.med.umich.edu wrote:

} Thanks to everyone who responded the my question. However, most of the
} citations sent had to do with the stability of sections under beam current,
} heat, etc...
}
} The situation is that a drug company that has provided a grant to us would
} like to know for certain that the tissue that has been embedded in epon can be
} pulled out from storage thirty years and will still be good. Will the tissue
} be sectionable and will it still give the same data as before?
}
} As I said, most of the people here still have blocks that they did their
} undergraduate work in back in the 1960s, and they are still as sectionable as
} the day they were pulled out of the oven. In fact, I understand that the
} quality of epon actually improves over time because it will have longer to
} fully polymerize.
}
} So I am then simply looking for a citation on something that we already seem
} to know, but still have not been able to find it.
}
} Thanks again,
} Dennis Shubitowski
} dennis-at-odin.morph.med.umich.edu
}




From: _ _ _ _ _ MARK W. LUND _ _ _ _ _ :      LUNDM-at-XRAY.BYU.EDU
Date: Tue, 5 Apr 1994 19:10 MDT
Subject: SEM view screens

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Green phosphor has a greater luminous efficiency, and so can be made
much brighter than white phosphor with equivalent electron optics.
This makes a green TEM screen useful, but does not make a good
argument for a green monitor in a darkened lab. The SE
M manufacturer probably chooses a phosphor based on decay time.
The green P20 phosphor has a decay time similar to that of the
human eye, and so "integrates" the noisy signal optimally.

regards
Mark W. Lund, Director
MOXTEK, Inc.
Orem UT





From: Rick A. Harris :      szrick-at-othello.ucdavis.edu
Date: Tue, 5 Apr 1994 21:35:55 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: Reichert OM-U3 motor

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Anyone who can give me a line on a new or used motor for a Reichert OM U3
will have a friend for life!.

Rick A. Harris
Supervisor, Microscopy Facility
Molecular and Cellular Biology
Storer Hall, University of California
Davis, CA 95616
916 752 2914




From: ARGIL-at-delphi.com
Date: Wed, 06 Apr 1994 01:28:32 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: used microtome

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Miguel Avalos says:

} I'm looking for a good inexpensive seconhand ultramicrotome similar
} or identical to RMC MT-7000 ULTRA or REICHERT ULTRACUT S.

I don't have an Ultracut S., but I do have a Reichert Jung Histocut II
that has never been used, and we are now considering selling it. It
was purchased for a project that never materialized, and it has never
actually cut anything.

If you are interested, Email to me.

Yours,

Arthur Gillman
Princeton, NJ




From: Fermin, Cesar :      Fermin.Cesar-at-tmc.tulane.edu
Date: 06 Apr 1994 13:25:41 -0600
Subject: Subject in message header

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To all users:

As Nestor indicated several times before, and also in the introductory welcome
material sent to new subscribers, is important including in your message the
suject header. It allows determining nature of message without having to read
the content. Given the increased usage of the service, inclusion of the
subject header is a nice gesture toward other users. In fact, many more will
probably not unsubscribe.

Cesar D. Fermin, Ph.D
Tulane Medical School
Pathology/SL79
New Orleans, La 70112

Fax (504) 587-7389
Answering Machine (504) 584-2618
Secretary (504) 584-2436
Laboratory (504) 584 2521
Departmental office (504) 588-5224





From: Laurie Frederick :      frederick_laurie-at-vanlab.paprican.ca
Date: Wed, 6 Apr 1994 17:23:15 PDT
Subject: Re: Intercept Count and intercept length measurements

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Message-ID: {9404061649041F3.YJYM-at-USCN.USCN.UGA.EDU} (UMass-Mailer 4.04)

Hi,
I have not used Image, but have tried to use another image analyser
to measure the number of intercepts on a line and the intercept
lengths in the past. The general procedure was as follows:
1) Use grey level to differentiate your grains from the grain
boundaries and create a bit map of the grains.
2) Decrease your active measurement field until you have only a
single rastor line across the screen.
3) If only the "detected" portion of your image is overlayed with a
colored "bitmap", then you should have a colored broken line across
the screen at this point.
4) Count the objects detected to give you a measure the number of
intercepts.
5) Take the maximum dimension of the objects detected to give you a
measure of the intercept length.
6) By rotating the image and repeating the procedure, information
may be collected in relation to variation with orientation.

Hope this is of assistance.
______________________________________________________________________
Laurie Frederick, A.SC.T. PAPRICAN
Corrosion Control Group 3800 Wesbrook Mall
The Pulp and Paper Research Vancouver, B.C.
Institute of Canada Canada V6S 2L9

Email: frederick_laurie-at-vanlab.paprican.ca
Tel: 604-222-3200 Fax: 604-222-3207




From: Susan Smith - National Steel Corporation :      smiths-at-mlc.lib.mi.us
Date: Thu, 7 Apr 1994 10:16:39 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Searching for M.E.Welland's e-mail address

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I am trying to locate an e-mail address for Dr. Mark E. Welland -at- Cambridge
University, Engineering Dept., St. John's College. Last I knew, he was
working in Scanning, Tunneling Microscopy. If anyone knows of
his address (or, if you're on this list, Mark) please respond directly to my
e-mail address. Thanks very much!

Susan K. Smith
National Steel Corp.
smiths-at-mlc.lib.mi.us




From: Dwight Beebe :      beebed-at-ERE.UMontreal.CA
Date: Thu, 7 Apr 1994 10:11:51 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: TEM - Excellent source for parts

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Hi,
Sorry to broadcast this, but I deleted the message before I
realized I might have an answer. A request was made about a source for a
OM-3 motor. I checked with a company I buy equiment from and was told
they have several on hand. The company is Marivac, Ltd., 5821 Russell
St., Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3K 1X5 Canada. 800-565-5821, FAX 902-455-4007.
I have purchased equipment from these folks (Balzers MED 010) and have a
service contract with them for my Ultracut. The person I deal with is
Chris Cathcart; he operates out of Toronto (416-495-0389), but can be
reached via the 800 number. I've been pleased with the quality of the
service I get. I have no connection with this company other than as a
satisfied customer, standard disclaimers apply, blah, blah, blah.
Good luck!

Dwight U. Beebe beebed-at-ere.umontreal.ca
Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale Voice:514-872-4563
4101, rue Sherbrooke est FAX:514-872-9406
Montreal, PQ H1X 2B2 Canada







From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu
Date: Thu, 7 Apr 1994 11:35:48 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: fixative for polysaccahridases

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Anybody have a good fixative for cross-linking polysaccahridases? I'm
trying to do SEM on a "gliding" bacteria strain and find my bacteria being
lifted off the agar. I've tried vapor fixation using osmium and then
fixing overnight in 2% glut. One colony strain will lift off the agar
surface and the other will remain. Any Suggestions?

Thanx,
Phil




From: Laurie Frederick :      frederick_laurie-at-vanlab.paprican.ca
Date: Thu, 7 Apr 1994 10:09:57 PDT
Subject: Re: Small culture dishes

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I have used 50 X 9 mm culture dishes with friction fit lids
manufactured by Simport Plastics, Beloeil, Quebec, Canada (514) 464-
1723. The catalogue number was D210-14.

I would be interested in a source of smaller diameter dishes with a
larger internal clearance for storing my metallographic samples.

Hope this is of assistance.
______________________________________________________________________
Laurie Frederick, A.SC.T. PAPRICAN
Corrosion Control Group 3800 Wesbrook Mall
The Pulp and Paper Research Vancouver, B.C.
Institute of Canada Canada V6S 2L9

Email: frederick_laurie-at-vanlab.paprican.ca
Tel: 604-222-3200 Fax: 604-222-3207




From: Debbie Pinson Abrahamson Lab :      DPINSON-at-bmg.bhs.uab.edu
Date: 7 Apr 94 15:47:08 CST+6CDT
Subject: re:35x10 mm Permelux culture dishes

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Falcon 35x10mm dishes (available through Fischer) work for embedding
cultured cells.

Another possibilty is to grow the cells on culture inserts (available
from Millipore, Falcon, and other companies) which are placed into 24
well plates. After fixation (or post-fixation if you prefer), the
filter on the bottom of the insert can be removed with a razor blade,
and the filters dehydrated with ethanol and embedded. This uses even
less reagents that the 35x10mm dishes, and the 24 well plate is
easier to manipulate than several round dishes. I've used this
technique for culturing fetal kidneys and for endothelial cells.

D. Pinson
University of Alabama at Birmingham
















From: PHELPS-at-ENH.NIST.GOV
Date: Fri, 08 Apr 1994 17:56:37 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: ion mills

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Hello,
Our laboratory is in the process of investigating ion mills. It appears
that Baltec, Fischione and Gatan are the principle manufacturers of this
piece of equipment. Any comments, suggestions, experiences or thoughts about
ion mills would be appreciated.
Thanks,
John

John Phelps
NIST
Boulder, CO




80303
phelps-at-enh.nist.gov












303-407-7570




From: Jan Coetzee EM Univ Pretoria :      JANC-at-ccnet.up.ac.za
Date: Mon, 11 Apr 1994 12:33:53 GMT+2
Subject: Re: Fixative for polysaccharides

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In answer to Phil Rutledge's query about fixation of "polysaccahridases":
The closest thing I know to a fixative for polysaccharides is Alcian Blue.
This works reasonably well in most cases where bacterial capsules need to
be insolubilised. Try the following refs:
Tuffery - 1969, J gen Microbiol 57:41-50
Goldberg & Septier - 1986, Anat Record 216:181-190
Scott - 1972, Histochemie 32:191- (Primary reference)
Trachtenberg - 1986, J Ultrastruct Mol Res 97:80-102
Steedman - 1950, Quart. J Microsc Sci 91:477-479
Powell et al - 1992, J Fish Biol 41:813-824 (useful ref)
Dellorbo et al - 1992, J Electr Microsc 41:475-479.

Hope this is of some use.

Jan Coetzee
Unit for Electron Microscopy Tel:+27-12-420-2075
University of Pretoria Fax:+27-12-342-1738
Pretoria Internet:janc-at-ccnet.up.ac.za
0002 South Africa




From: {PHELPS-at-ENH.NIST.GOV}:ddn:wpafb
Date: 4-11-94 7:56am
Subject: re ion mill

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Message-Id: {9404111414.AA06580-at-riker.ml.wpafb.af.mil}
To: WALCKSD:ml:wpafb, SCHELTFJ:ml:wpafb
Subj: ion mills
Orig-Author: {PHELPS-at-ENH.NIST.GOV}:ddn:wpafb
-----------------------------------------------------------
Hello,
Our laboratory is in the process of investigating ion mills. It appears
that Baltec, Fischione and Gatan are the principle manufacturers of this
piece of equipment. Any comments, suggestions, experiences or thoughts about
ion mills would be appreciated.
Thanks,
John

John Phelps
NIST
Boulder, CO




80303
phelps-at-enh.nist.gov












303-407-75





From: Gib Ahlstrand :      giba-at-puccini.crl.umn.edu
Date: Mon, 11 Apr 1994 12:22:01 -0500
Subject: Re: fixative for polysaccahridases

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Phil Rutledge writes:
} Anybody have a good fixative for cross-linking polysaccahridases? I'm
} trying to do SEM on a "gliding" bacteria strain and find my bacteria being
} lifted off the agar. I've tried vapor fixation using osmium and then
} fixing overnight in 2% glut. One colony strain will lift off the agar
} surface and the other will remain. Any Suggestions?
}
Phil,

Here is a well worn ruthenium red staining method for mucopolysaccharides from
M.A. Hayat: "Positive Staining for Electron Microscopy", p. 169-170. Whether
this will fix polsaccahridASES, or prevent them from sliding off the agar, I
cannot say.

A few preliminary notes from Hayat:
1. Maximum contrast obtained when ruthenium red and osmium tetroxide applied
together(refering to TEM prep here).
2. Stain can be applied by adding it to fixative solution, water, or buffer
solution.
3. Phosphate buffers are not recommended for ruthenium red-osmium tetroxide
procedures. Chloride-free cacodylate buffer considered most ideal one to use.

For general purposes, the following method of fixation and staining for acid
mucopolysaccharides recommended:

Solutions: A. Aqueous glutaraldehyde (4%) 5 ml
0.2 M Cacodylate buffer (pH 7.3) 5 ml
Ruthenium red stock solution 5 ml
(1,500 ppm in water)


B. Aqueous osmium tetroxide (5%) 5 ml
0.2 M Cacodylate buffer (pH 7.3) 5 ml
Ruthenium red stock solution 5 ml
(1,500 ppm in water)

Mix solution B just prior to use. 1,500 ppm is 30 mg ruthenium red in 20 ml
water. Fix and stain samples in solution A for 1 hr. at room temperature. Rinse
briefly with buffer, then post-fix and stain with solution B for 3 hr at room
temperature. Rinse briefly with buffer, then dehydrate and embedd, or critical
point dry(in your case) according to standard procedures.

Ruthenium red stain is available from most EM or chemical suppliers.

The above is sort of the mother of all ruthenium staining techniques for EM.
Others have since modified its use and here are more recent references:

1. B. Giammara and J. Hanker, Ruthenium Red-osmium bridging with TCH: New
techniques to stain biological specimens for light and TEM and to coat them for
SEM, Proceedings of the 46th Annual Meeting of the Electron Microscopy Society
of America, 1988, pp20-21.

2. M. Jacques and L. Graham, Improved preservation of bacterial capsule for
electron microscopy, Journal of Electron Microscopoy Technique 11:167-169
(1989). This paper compares ruthenium-glutaraldehyde staining to
glutaraldehyde-amine, which they found to be superior.

The following papers are on non-ruthenium red methods, and involve TCH
(thiocarbohydrazide) and tannic acid procedures:

3. R.O. Kelley, R. Dekker and J. Bluemink, Ligand-mediated osmium binding: Its
application in coating biological specimens for SEM, J. Ultrastructural
Research, 45:254-258 (1973). (The classic reference in applying TCH for SEM)

4. J. Murphy, Non-coating techniques to render biological specimens
conductive/1980 update, Scanning Electron Microscopy/1980/I, pp209-220.


--
Gib Ahlstrand
Electron Optical Facility
University of Minnesota
Dept. Plant Pathology
495 Borlaug Hall
St. Paul, MN 55108 (612)625-8249
612-625-9728 FAX
giba-at-puccini.crl.umn.edu






From: Stuart McKernan :      stuartm-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu
Date: April 28-29, 1994
Subject: Specimen preparation workshop announcement

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Intended Audience

This Master Class is intended for novices, experienced specimen preparers and
scientists involved in the examination of transmission electron microscopy
specimens. The course will present the latest materials, tools, and methods for
preparing high-quality specimens.

Description

While most aspects of specimen preparation will be covered, emphasis will be
placed on preparing cross section specimens of complex composite samples, such
as those found in the semiconductor industry; mechanical polishing to
transparency; and ion milling.
The course will review a variety of modern physical science specimen preparation
methods, discussing the advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of each.
Experience has shown that a wide range of bulk specimen configurations may be
successfully prepared.
Discussion will include the preparation of metals, ceramics, thin films and
coatings, powders, wires, and difficult (small volume, radioactive, etc.)
specimens. Laboratory demonstrations are planned.

Instructors

Ron Anderson; Senior Physicist at the IBM East Fishkill Facility.
Vince Carlino; President of VCR Group.
George Lane; Materials Product Manager for Bal-Tec, Inc.
Jo Ellen Tyson; Applications Specialist for Mager Scientific.

Registration and Attendance

To register, call or email Kim Knudtson at 6126267594
(kimberly-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu).
Enrollment is limited; please respond early to guarantee a space. Disability
accommodations will be provided upon request. This publication and material is
available in alternative formats upon request.

Tuition

The fee will cover course materials, refreshments, and box lunches. For members
of the University community, the charge is $70; for all others, the fee will be
$250. University of Minnesota attendees should provide a CUFS number, others
should provide information so that they may be billed after the course.

Program Sponsor

The Center for Interfacial Engineering (CIE) is an NSF Engineering Research
Center supported by the NSF, the University of Minnesota, and the corporate
members of CIE. The CIE Characterization Facility and High-Resolution
Microscopy Center provide instrumentation and personnel to facilitate the
physical and chemical study of interfaces. These facilities are available to
all members of the University community as well as external users. Tours of the
labs will be available to interested attendees.

Accommodations

The University of Minnesota is located 10 miles from the Minneapolis-St. Paul
International Airport.
The Radisson Metrodome Hotel is conveniently located within two blocks of the
lecture and laboratory sessions. The telephone number is 612-379-8888.
A Days Inn is a 20-minute walk from the University; the telephone number there
is 6126233999.

Schedule

Day 1, April 28

Registration (8:00 am), 210 Amundson
Laboratories held in the High-Resolution Microscopy Center, Shepherd
Laboratories

Lectures: Ron Anderson
¥ Strategic plan
Initial processing from bulk samples
Sawing and grinding, dimpling
¥ Final processing the thin specimen
Ion milling/FIB methods
Mechanical microthinning

Vince Carlino
¥ Specimen Prep by Dimpling and Ion Milling

George Lane
¥ High Performance Ion Beam Thinning of Solid State Materials

Day 2, April 29

Lectures: Ron Anderson
¥ Other Methods: Microtomy, Cleavage, Replication
¥ Cross-sectional specimen preparation
The IBM East Fishkill Method

Demonstrations

¥ Ron Anderson:
Tripod polisher

¥ Vince Carlino:
VCR Dimpler
Ion Beam Sputterer Model IBS/TM200S
Ion Milling System

¥ George Lane:
RES 010 Rapid Etching System
MED 020 Modular High Vacuum Coating System

¥ Jo Ellen Tyson:
Reichert Ultracut S/FCS cryo-ultramicrotome Attendees may bring their own
samples.



Stuart McKernan stuartm-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science OR High Resolution Microscopy Center
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455





From: Michael Cammer :      cammer-at-aecom.yu.edu
Date: Mon, 11 Apr 1994 17:09:38 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: CY3

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If you have a Kr/Ar laser, you can triple label with FITC, Cy3, and Cy5.






From: Jay Jerome :      jjerome-at-isnet.is.wfu.edu
Date: Mon, 11 Apr 1994 17:38:31 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: charges for routine biological TEM

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we charge based on what it costs us:
embed.....$6
thick sections (glass slide)....$16
Thin sections........$60
TEM time.............$36/hr
TEM negative..........0.65
8X10 print............4.10
Publication quality print.....$5.50
Technician time if needed (microscope operation).......$25/hr

equipment costs included depreciation and service contract

hope this is helpful

On Mon, 11 Apr 1994, Tamara Howard wrote:

} A while back someone asked about the standard charges for a routine TEM
} workup on a biological sample...I don't recall ever seeing any answers to that,
} and now I am looking for similar information. What is considered to be a
} reasonable charge for say one sample, plain old fix, embed, a few grids, and
} maybe 2 hours max scope time plus prints? At an academic level, that is - I kno0w
} clinical charges can be astronomical.
} You can answer by e-mail to tah-at-med.pitt.edu if you do not want to
} go through the usegroup on this.
} I would really appreciate some help on this one!
} Tamara Howard
} U. Pittsburgh School of Medicine
} Pittsburgh, PA
}




From: Glen Macdonald :      glenmac-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Mon, 11 Apr 1994 19:05:14 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: Re: CY3

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I haven't had the chance to actually do it, but according to info. I
received at the Bio-Rad Confocal course last month, it should be
possible. The relative brightness of Cy3 may mean titrating its molar
ratio relative to Cy5 and/or careful selection of filter blocks and PMT
filters to prevent Cy3's long trailing slope from comming through the Cy5
signal. Take a look at Brelje et al, Chapter 4, Methods in Cell Biology,
vol. 38, edited by Brian Matsumoto.

On Mon, 11 Apr 1994, Michael Cammer wrote:

} If you have a Kr/Ar laser, you can triple label with FITC, Cy3, and Cy5.
}
}
}




From: Michael Cammer :      cammer-at-aecom.yu.edu
Date: Tue, 12 Apr 1994 09:21:50 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: CY3

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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MICROSCOPY-at-ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV
In-Reply-To: {Pine.3.89.9404111838.A2291-0100000-at-carson.u.washington.edu}
Message-Id: {Pine.3.07.9404120950.A19180-a100000-at-alsys1}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

} ratio relative to Cy5 and/or careful selection of filter blocks and PMT
} filters to prevent Cy3's long trailing slope from comming through the Cy5
} On Mon, 11 Apr 1994, Michael Cammer wrote:
} } If you have a Kr/Ar laser, you can triple label with FITC, Cy3, and Cy5.

We have not had a problem with Cy3 being imaged in the Cy5 channel
(we image Cy5 only while exciting with the red laser line). However, we have
had problems when imaging bright propidium iodide or Texas red with the
standard long pass rhodamine filter block; some Cy5 appears to be excited.






From: Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers :      GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Date: Tue, 12 Apr 1994 09:42:53 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Fw:

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Subj: Prices

In reply to Tamara Howard on EM service charges:

We have generous institutional support and I am told that our charges are quite low. We
do not have to recover any salary and about half our operational cost are from institutional
support.

THESE ARE OUR IN HOUSE RATES. For outside clients I, at least triple the rates

The following charges are in effect at the EM Core .

Standard TEM or SEM sample $65.

Additional similar samples sub-
mitted at the same time $55.

Immunolabeling or other cyto-
chemical reactions per sample $75.

Negative stain per sample $35.

Partial preparation is also available with price appropriate to our input for example:

Fix and embed only $20/sample

Thin section only $20/block


Use of the microscopes by qualified users is $20 per hour and $1 per photograph. If you
want Polaroid you must also supply the film.

**********************************************************
* Greg Erdos ** *
* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
**********************************************************
**********************************************************
* Greg Erdos ** *
* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
**********************************************************




From: Nestor J. Zaluzec (708)-252-5075, -4964 :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Tue, 12 Apr 1994 9:12:19 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: CY3?

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For the benefit of the curious Materials Scientist like
me, would someone please post a description (short)
of what CY3/CY5 is and what it is used for.

Thanks

Nestor Zaluzec
ANL EM Center




From: gkennedy-at-UCSD.EDU
Date: Tue, 12 Apr 1994 08:22:12 -0700
Subject: Quetol 651 resin

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From: gkennedy-at-UCSD.EDU
Date: Tue, 12 Apr 1994 08:22:17 -0700
Subject: Quetol 651 resin

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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I have been having problems with Quetol 651 resin for the past year, after using it successfully in my lab for 2 years. Has anyone else experienced difficulties? Of what sort? I'd like to correspond with someone with a background/knowledge of resin che
mistry to possibly diagnose the defect.





From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-umbc.edu
Date: Tue, 12 Apr 1994 11:49:31 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: fixatives for polysaccahridases

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Thanks to everyone who gave suggestions to the problem I am having with
the fixation of the bacteria and having the cells float off of the agar.
Now I'll have to sort through the suggestions and see what works best.
Again, thanx to all,
Phil Rutledge, Director
Center for EM
UMBC




From: hecub-at-ttacs.ttu.edu (Charles J. Butterick)
Date: Tue, 12 Apr 1994 10:15:28 -0600
Subject: Old osmium tetroxide

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Greetings,
We just received 176 grams (ampules) of osmium tetroxide. The
ampules, we are told, were bought some time back in the 1960's from Fisher,
Englehard (in individual wooden cases!), National Lead, and MCB. The
integrity of the ampules seems good as evidenced by the translucent
greenish color of the osmium. However, the osmium seems to have coalesced
into a single mass.
Does anyone have any comments, warnings or advice? Considering that
this gift is worth over $6K, I'd like to be able to use it.

*************************************************
* *
* *
* Charles J. Butterick *
* Electron Microscopy Center *
* Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy *
* Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center *
* Lubbock, Texas 79430 *
* USA *
* Phone 806 743-2706 voice *
* 806 743-2707 fax *
* Email hecub-at-ttacs.ttu.edu *
* *
* *
*************************************************






From: Gib Ahlstrand :      giba-at-puccini.crl.umn.edu
Date: Tue, 12 Apr 1994 12:40:47 -0500
Subject: Quetol

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SOMEONE WROTE:
In message {199404121522.IAA18262-at-ucsd.edu} writes:
} I have been having problems with Quetol 651 resin for the past year, after
} using it successfully in my lab for 2 years. Has anyone else experienced
} difficulties? Of what sort? I'd like to correspond with someone with a
} background/knowledge of resin che
} mistry to possibly diagnose the defect.
}
}
Hello,

We've used Quetol for years without trouble. You do not mention what problems
you are having so I have no idea what to tell you. Put out another message on
the MICROSCOPOY net describing what used to work well for you and what kind of
trouble you are having now. That way I think people with experience will be able
to zero in on what might work for you, and I will reply then. Thanks.


--
Gib Ahlstrand
Electron Optical Facility
University of Minnesota
Dept. Plant Pathology
495 Borlaug Hall
St. Paul, MN 55108 (612)625-8249
612-625-9728 FAX
giba-at-puccini.crl.umn.edu






From: hecub-at-ttacs.ttu.edu (Charles J. Butterick)
Date: Tue, 12 Apr 1994 16:22:58 -0600
Subject: old osmium tetroxide

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html


Greetings,
We just received 176 grams (ampules) of osmium tetroxide. The
ampules, we are told, were bought some time back in the 1960's from Fisher,
Englehard (in individual wooden cases!), National Lead, and MCB. The
integrity of the ampules seems good as evidenced by the translucent
greenish color of the osmium. However, the osmium seems to have coalesced
into a single mass in each of the ampules.
Does anyone have any comments, warnings or advice? Considering that
this gift is worth over $6K, I'd like to be able to use it.

*************************************************
* *
* *
* Charles J. Butterick *
* Electron Microscopy Center *
* Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy *
* Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center *
* Lubbock, Texas 79430 *
* USA *
* Phone 806 743-2706 voice *
* 806 743-2707 fax *
* Email hecub-at-ttacs.ttu.edu *
* *
* *
*************************************************






From: KJMcCarthy :      KJMCCARTHY-at-bmg.bhs.uab.edu
Date: 12 Apr 1994 17:50:56 CST+6CDT
Subject: LM-Digital Image Analysis

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Message-ID: {MAILQUEUE-101.940412174341.320-at-bmg.bhs.uab.edu}
To: Microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Does anyone know if there is a User's Group for the Macintosh-based image analysis
software IP-LabSpectrum from Signal Analytics Corp.? I would be interested in linking up
with users of that particular software platform to exchange ideas, information, scripts ect.

Thanks
Kevin McCarthy
Assistant Professor
Department of Cell Biology
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Birmingham, Alabama 35294
Phone 205-934-9923/9924
Fax 205-934-7029




From: PHMOULDK-at-usthk.ust.hk
Date: Wed, 13 Apr 1994 10:39:33 HKT
Subject: Cerius Software.

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Does anyone know where we can obtain the Cerius Software package for HRTEM,
crystallography etc. The American agents appear to have moved.


Thanks,

Keith Moulding.




From: Ian Harper :      IHARPER-at-eagle.mrc.ac.za
Date: Wed, 13 Apr 1994 08:16:47 GMT-0200
Subject: Xenon vs Mercury lamps for microfluorimetry ?

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Message-ID: {MAILQUEUE-101.940413081647.704-at-eagle.mrc.ac.za}


I notice from the literature that people setting up microscope-based
ion measurement systems to quantitfy Na, Ca or H by fluorescence
ratio microfluorimetry usually use a Xenon lamp for excitation of the
fluoprophores. We are putting together a system for measuring Ca
using Indo on an Olympus IMT-2 but lack a fluorescence
source. The mercury lamp is half the price of the xenon, and
certainly excites at the wavelengths we require (Indo exc. at 365 =B1
10nm), so we are thinking of going that way rather than the very
expensive Xe.

Is the main advatage of Xe then the more constant output
over the whole UV range so that dual excitation is more reliable
(both excitation intensities the same, whereas with mercury one may
fall over a peak and the other not) ? I'd appreciate comments
from anyone who has experience in this area.
Thanks,
Ian Harper
iharper-at-eagle.mrc.ac.za













From: Ian Harper :      IHARPER-at-eagle.mrc.ac.za
Date: Wed, 13 Apr 1994 11:29:25 GMT-0200
Subject: Xenon and Mercury lamps for ratio fluorimetry

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Message-ID: {MAILQUEUE-101.940413112925.672-at-eagle.mrc.ac.za}


I notice from the literature that people setting up microscope-based
ion measurement systems to quantitfy Na, Ca or H by fluorescence
ratio microfluorimetry usually use a Xenon lamp for excitation of the
fluoprophores. We are putting together a system for measuring Ca
using Indo on an Olympus IMT-2, but still lack a fluorescence
source. The mercury lamp (100W) is half the price of the xenon, and
certainly excites at the wavelengths we require (Indo exc. at 365+/-
10nm), so we are thinking of going that way rather than the very
expensive Xe lamp.

Is the main advatage of Xe then the more constant output
over the whole UV range so that dual excitation is more reliable
(both excitation intensities the same, whereas with mercury one may
exc wavelength may fall over/near one of the mercury peaks,
whereas the other may not) ? I'd appreciate comments from anyone
who has experience in this area. Thanks,
Ian Harper
iharper-at-eagle.mrc.ac.za








End of returned message





From: Phil Oshel :      POSHEL-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu
Date: 13 Apr 94 08:32:20 CST6CDT
Subject: Re: Fixative for polysaccharides

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940413083221.320-at-parmly1.parmly.luc.edu}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

} In answer to Phil Rutledge's query about fixation of
"polysaccahridases":
} The closest thing I know to a fixative for polysaccharides is Alcian Blue.
} Jan Coetzee
}
Ruthenium red is used to demonstrate polysaccarhide coats of
cyanobacteria. I don't have a reference to hand, but I believe a
receipe is in Dykstra's & Bozzola & Russell's books?
Phil Oshel






From: KRIDER-at-KRIDER.MCB.UCONN.EDU
Date: Wed, 13 Apr 1994 9:39:15 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Ian Harper's query

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Hi Ian
Mercury sources tend to be much less stable, and are not white enough
to provide both wavelengths at comparable intensities for many dual excitation
combinations. They can be used for some dual emmission work. We use the same
instrument you are considering, and have added the OSP-3 illuminator and
photmeter system for rapid spot measurements of ion [] and pH. The system
works well, exposes cells to minimal photo-oxidizing irradiation during the
measurements, and can be driven from pc-based software. Let me know if I can
help

Hal Krider
Biotechnology Image Analysis Facility
UCONN
354 Mansfield Rd
Storrs CT 06269-2131
Krider-at-Krider.mcb.uconn.edu





From: Bengt Stridh :      best-at-secrc.abb.se
Date: Tue, 12 Apr 1994 20:00:54 +0100
Subject: Corrosion of coated Zr-base mtrl

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Message-Id: {199404122000543157-at-qmgate.secrc.abb.se}
X-Mailer: InterCon Dispatcher/SMTP for QuickMail
X-Priority: 4

Looking for someone that has been working with oxidation, hydriding and wear
properties of surface coated or surface modified zirconium base alloys (like
Zircaloy 2 or 4). The environment is water or steam at ]300!C. I am interested
in all topics related to the subject; coating or surface modification methods (
how to get a coating without defects going through the coating?), corrosion
tests, investigation of tested samples (LOM, SEM, TEM, SAM, XRD,
electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

Bengt Stridh
ABB Corporate Research
S-721 78 Vasteras
Sweden
E-mail: best-at-secrc.abb.se
Fax: +46-21-13 41 00
Phone: +46-21-32 30 67






From: Mary Buckett :      mary_buckett-at-qmgate.anl.gov
Date: 13 Apr 1994 09:55:47 -0600
Subject: Cerius Software Vendor

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REGARDING Cerius Software Vendor
According to a brochure picked up at the latest MRS meeting, the Cerius
software is sold through: Molecular Simulations, 16 New England Executive
Park, Burlington, MA 01803 ph: (617)-229-9800.

Mary Buckett
Argonne National Laboratory







From: EMLAB-at-opus.mco.edu
Date: Wed, 13 Apr 1994 11:09:12 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: Old osmium tetroxide

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In reply to Charles Butterick's question about old osmium - try calling a
vendor of osmium to ask their "proffesional" advice, such as EMS, or
Stevens Metallurgical corp.

Ed Calomeni




From: ROSEANN CSENCSITS (708) 252-4977, -7902 :      CSENCSITS-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Wed, 13 Apr 1994 10:27:28 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: Software Sources

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} Does anyone maintain a list of software suppliers for TEM
} applications? I am interested in programs such as MacTempas,
} Crystalkit, Desktop Microscopist, etc. Addresses, phone numbers, ftp
} site information would all be very useful.

MacTempas and Crystalkit
Total Resolution
20 Florida Street
Berkeley, CA 94707
Attn: Roar Kilaas
510-527-9100
Fax 510-527-9151

Desktop microscopist
Virtual Laboratories
37 Highland Court
Ukiah, CA 95482
Attn: Eric Schlienger
707-462-8037

Crisp and ELD
Calidris
Manhemsvagen 4
S-191 45 Sollentuna
Sweden
Attn: Sven Hovmoller
46 8 625 00 41

Prism
Signal Analytics
440 Maple Ave East, Suite 201
Vienna, VA 22180
Attn: Brian Culhane
703-281-2509

DigitalMicrograph
Gatan Inc.
6678 Owens Drive
Pleasanton, CA 94588
Attn: Sheri Kurland
510-463-0200

NCEMSS and Interface Tool
Telnet from ORAC.LBL.GOV

TCBED from ASU

Image from MSA EMMPDL

That's my list of software sources.

Roseann Csencsits
Electron Microscopy Center
Argonne National Lab




From: Tobias I. Baskin :      baskin-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu
Date: Wed, 13 Apr 1994 13:27:18 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Re: Old osmium tetroxide

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} In reply to Charles Butterick's question about old osmium --
What exactly could go wrong with a sealed vial of the metal? If the
vial seal had been breached, wouldn't the osmium vaporize? I know em makes a
person really paranoid about materials, but is there any other reason not to
use the stuff?

Tobias Baskin * TEMPORARILY C/O Peter Hepler * Biology Department
University of Massachussetts * Amherst * Mass 01003
Tel: 413 - 545 - 2698 FAX 413 - 545 - 3243




From: Gib Ahlstrand :      giba-at-puccini.crl.umn.edu
Date: Wed, 13 Apr 1994 10:55:10 -0500
Subject: Old osmium tetroxide

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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In message Charles J. Butterick writes:
} Greetings,
} We just received 176 grams (ampules) of osmium tetroxide. The
} ampules, we are told, were bought some time back in the 1960's from Fisher,
} Englehard (in individual wooden cases!), National Lead, and MCB. The
} integrity of the ampules seems good as evidenced by the translucent
} greenish color of the osmium. However, the osmium seems to have coalesced
} into a single mass.
} Does anyone have any comments, warnings or advice? Considering that
} this gift is worth over $6K, I'd like to be able to use it.
}
Charles,

We have heard your plea for help and are delighted to be able to respond with
our assistance. In our lab, we have over 25 years experience of working with
osmium tetroxide and biological systems. Just send us about 25 ampoules(grams),
we will test the lot against biological systems we are currently working with,
and report the results back to you.

--
Gib Ahlstrand
Electron Optical Facility
University of Minnesota
Dept. Plant Pathology
495 Borlaug Hall
St. Paul, MN 55108 (612)625-8249
612-625-9728 FAX
giba-at-puccini.crl.umn.edu






From: David Hall :      hall-at-aecom.yu.edu
Date: Thu, 14 Apr 1994 07:03:45 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Old osmium

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Sounds like the osmium has melted at some time and then reformed. After
quizzing another EM veteran here, learned that such ampules should still
be fine as long as they show that bright green color. Avoid using any
vials showing black flecks in the coalesced osmium, as that's a sign of
degradation. Similarly, when put into solution, good vials will give a
bright yellow-green solution as usual; vials with black specks will
probably give solutions with no color or the off-gray color of an old
solution.

David Hall
Dept. Neuroscience
Albert Einstein Col. Med.
Bronx, NY






From: PHELPS-at-ENH.NIST.GOV
Date: Fri, 08 Apr 1994 17:56:37 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: ion mills

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John Phelps
NIST
Boulder, CO




80303
phelps-at-enh.nist.gov












303-407-7570




From: X.m. Burany :      burany-at-sfu.ca
Date: Thu, 14 Apr 1994 09:35:49 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: Sample cutter

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We consider to purchase sample cutters for bulk materials and 3mm
slices to prepare transverse TEM samples for HREM. I appreciate for
your advice. Welcome companies to send us the price.

Sandy Burany
Physics Department
Simon Fraser University
Burnaby, B.C. V5A 1S6
(604)291-4082
Fax (604) 291-3592
Email burany-at-sfu.ca




From: MARK-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca
Date: 14 Apr 94 09:59:46 PST+8PDT
Subject: LM-how maintain peroxidase activity

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940414095946.705-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

We are attempting to demonstrate peroxidase/myeloperoxidase activity
in neutrophils in cytospin preparations by using DAB. We find it
works well on fresh cytospins, but if cytospins are left for a few
days we get no reaction. Any suggestions as to how best to maintain
enzyme activity in stored cytospins?
Mark Elliott




From: Paul Webster :      Paul_Webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 14 Apr 1994 13:55:05 -0500
Subject: Re: Peroxidase & Cytospins

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Re} Peroxidase & Cytospins
Why not try fixing the cytospins with aldehyde to retain the peroxidase
activity?
Neither formaldehyde of gluteraldehyde will affect the enzyme activity but
may inhibit proteolysis. The aldehydes will work best on cells that have not
been allowed to dry out and will only continue to work if the cells remain
hydrated. Leave them in buffer or, if formaldehyde-fixed, in formaldehyde.
Glutaraldehyde fixation is only useful if you are using DAB. It will not be
useful for fluorescent studies unless the autofluorescence is quenched with
sodium borohydride.

Paul Webster
Yale School of Medicine






From: *Anatomo Pathologie :      anapat-at-reks.uia.ac.be
Date: Fri, 15 Apr 1994 16:17:35 +0200 (MET DST)
Subject: Collagen I AB

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Hi,

Does anyone have experience with a good commercially available Monoclonal
or polyclonal antibody against collagen I. Our experiments are performed with
rabbits so a polyclonal made in rabbit is useless, or should be conjugated to
something (biotin, dig.) Thanks in advance.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
JP Bogers MD
Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen (UIA)
Lab Pathology
2610 Wilrijk
BELGIUM

Tel: 32.3.820.25.34
Fax: 32.3.820.22.48
E-mail: anapat-at-uia.ac.be
-------------------------------------------------------------------





From: Nestor J. Zaluzec-ANL EMCenter :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Fri, 15 Apr 1994 10:54:25 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: General: Which Scope is Best?

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Talk about a loaded question. Which microscope is best?

To state the obvious which I'm sure will be repeated at least
twice or three times in the repies to this question.

***It depends on what your trying to do!***

CTEM, STEM, AEM, CBED, XEDS, EELS, AES.....
and the list continues, choose your poison.

At the ANL EMCenter we have:

JEOL (100cx & 4000EXII)
Philips (EM420T & CM30T)
AEI (EM-7)
VG (603Z)

with likely the addition of a Hitachi in the next year.
each is "Best" for us for what it does and the application
for which it is used for.

Let's see what everyone has to say on this one. It should
be interesting. I'll just sit back and "listen" for abit.

Remember try to be objective if you are going to respond.
This is intentionally not a moderated list and I want to keep
it that way.

I'm sure that the EM manufacturers who are also subscribers
to this list will be interested in the responses. In that
regard, I'll ask them (i.e. any manufacturers) not to respond
to this question. If I see something which is
not a fair discussion or an objective reply. I will cut
the discussion off. If any manufacturer wants to complain
please address all mail to me personnally and I will formulate
any appropriate notice(s) to the listserver....


Nestor J. Zaluzec
ANL EMCenter
zaluzec-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov






From: Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers :      GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Date: Fri, 15 Apr 1994 13:37:31 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Best Scope ?????

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For reliability I have been most happy with my Hitachi H-7000 and
S-4000. They serve about 99% of the needs we have in a multi-user facility,
for mostly biological EM. There are a few times when I wish I had something
else for very speialized work, but on the who;e these serve us well. My
suspicion is that one could say the same for most of the major
manufacturerers' products on the market today.

**********************************************************
* Greg Erdos ** *
* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
**********************************************************




From: Jay Jerome :      jjerome-at-isnet.is.wfu.edu
Date: Fri, 15 Apr 1994 14:21:07 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: Who makes the best TEM?

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Message-Id: {Chameleon.940415141918.tonygr-at-emlab.mit.edu}

I agree with Nestor, the best microscope is dependent upon what you wish
to do. Even in cameras, the Nikon is not ideal for all applications.
However, to join in the foray:
We love our Philips 400, 515, and CM-30s.


On Fri, 15 Apr 1994, Larry Hawkey wrote:

}
} I have tried to send this message twice but is keeps getting bounced back
} to me.
}
} Some one is asking me about my recommendations on which EM to
} buy. So my question to all of you is this:
}
} Is there in the EM community a sense that there is one
} Electron Microscope that is the best that money can buy?
}
} If some one was to ask about 35mm cameras for instance. I
} think that the general consensus is that Nikon is ahead of
} the pack. Minolta and Cannon are good and may be a good deal
} for the price but if money is not the first concern Nikon is
} the first pick.
}
} I use the JEOL 1200EX II. It is great. I have also used
} several of the 100 incarnations. I used the Ziess EM 10
} about ten years ago but I have really only used JEOL for the
} past ten years. In addition there seems to be a heavy
} concentration of JEOLS in the Duke University community so I
} feel that my impression that Ziess is nice but JEOL is best
} may only reflect my small world.
}
} Try to put your biases aside and send me your thoughts.
}
} Larry Hawkey
} Hawkey-at-neuro.duke.edu
}




From: llsutter-at-mtu.edu (Larry Sutter)
Date: Fri, 15 Apr 1994 14:41:56 -0400
Subject: Re: Who makes the best TEM?

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On 4-15-94, Larry Hawkey wrote:

Some one is asking me about my recommendations on which EM to
buy. So my question to all of you is this:

Is there in the EM community a sense that there is one
Electron Microscope that is the best that money can buy...

Larry Hawkey
Hawkey-at-neuro.duke.edu


I will start by saying I am not a TEM user and my answer will
support this. I am a microprobe operator and an SEM operator. However, I
have supervisory responsibility for support and operation of a lab that has
a JEOL 100CX STEM, a JEOL 4000FX 400kV STEM, a Philips EM301 TEM in
addition to 2 JEOL 35C SEM's, a JEOL 6400 SEM and a JEOL JXA-8600 EMPA so I
am not insensitive to the needs of a TEM user. When we bought our most
recent STEM, the 4000FX, we came down to a choice between Philips and JEOL.
When we bought our most recent SEM, the 6400, we chose between Philips,
CamScan, and JEOL. I would advise any one that in buying a piece of EM
equipment there are three considerations: Performance, Cost, and Service.
Of the three, cost is the lowest priority. Obviously, if you have limited
funds, cost is a consideration up front (i.e. you can't get something for
nothing). Once you purchase, what you paid is meaningless. The two
remaining criteria will be with you for the life of the instrument. I will
let the rest of the EM community steer you on the performance subject but I
want to stress that efficent, prompt, compitent service is in my opion as
important as performance. The best instrument, when inoperable, is not
very useful. Waiting weeks for service is not pleasant, especially when
deadlines come and go. Service personel that are not equipped or trained
can lead to frustration. Personally, I will sacrifice a liitle performance
if the competitor provides better service. Admitedly, I can do this
because I do little work that "pushes the envelope". Mosty of my work is
routine and not instrument limited. If you are beating back the frontiers
of the science, then weigh performance heavily. But always keep in mind
that the instrument must be well maintained if you expect to achieve
optimum performance on demand. This takes good service.


Larry Sutter
Michigan Technological University








From: Anthony Garratt-Reed
Date: 4/15/94 1:23 PM
Subject: Re: Who makes the best TEM?

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Message-Id: {9404151852.AA01866-at-odin.morph.med.umich.edu}
Errors-To: {dennis%odin-at-odin.morph.med.umich.edu}
To: Jay Jerome {jjerome-at-isnet.is.wfu.edu}
Cc: Larry Hawkey {hawkey-at-neuro.duke.edu} , Microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov,
dennis-at-med.umich.edu
{Pine.3.89.9404151432.A9297-0100000-at-isnet.is.wfu.edu}
"Larry Hawkey" {hawkey-at-neuro.duke.edu} , microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Reply to: RE} } Who makes the best TEM?
Just a note of clarification as to what the person who is looking for a TEM is
going to use it for;

The person I am talking to is only interested in Routine Biological TEM,
looking at ultra-structure (yes that is still done). Things like counting
synapses or looking to see if the Mitochondria are screwed up. Also by best I
am interested in compairing The preception that one company just carries a
slightly but consistantly better line of EMs.


--------------------------------------

The problem with your question "Who makes the best TEM" is that you haven't
specified what you wany to use it for. The best microscope for ultra-high
resolution
imaging is not necessarily the best for general teaching of students or the
best for
high performance microanalysis. You need also to factor in the service
available.
For example, how many engineers does a company have in your area, how many
microscopes like the one you are thinking of buying does each engineer have
responsibility for (put another way, how much experience does the engineer have
on your instrument - a person can be very good, but if yours is the only TEM in
his
area he will have only limited experience with it). What kind of microscopy do
you
need to do - fast turn-round screening of biological samples or extensive
analysis
of materials samples, and so forth. There are good and bad points about all
the
major manufacturers, and probably each instrument from each maker is the
best in its own niche. The analogy with the 35mm camera is a little over
simplified.

Tony Garratt-Reed









From: Rick A. Harris :      szrick-at-othello.ucdavis.edu
Date: Fri, 15 Apr 1994 14:08:22 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: Re: General: Which Scope is Best?

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On Fri, 15 Apr 1994, Nestor J. Zaluzec-ANL EMCenter wrote:

}
} Talk about a loaded question. Which microscope is best?
}
} To state the obvious which I'm sure will be repeated at least
} twice or three times in the repies to this question.
}
} ***It depends on what your trying to do!***
}
} CTEM, STEM, AEM, CBED, XEDS, EELS, AES.....
} and the list continues, choose your poison.
}
} At the ANL EMCenter we have:
}
} JEOL (100cx & 4000EXII)
} Philips (EM420T & CM30T)
} AEI (EM-7)
} VG (603Z)
}
} with likely the addition of a Hitachi in the next year.
} each is "Best" for us for what it does and the application
} for which it is used for.
}
} Let's see what everyone has to say on this one. It should
} be interesting. I'll just sit back and "listen" for abit.
}

Well, I'm close to retirement so I'll stick my neck out. For biological
applications I have used RCA, Siemens, Hitachi, Jeol, Zeiss, and
Philips. For ease of use, quality of construction, resolution, and
reliability I'll go with the Philips. My work has always been
conventional biological TEM.

Rick A. Harris






From: tivol-at-tethys.ph.albany.edu
Date: Fri, 15 Apr 1994 19:05:47 EDT
Subject: Serial sections of composites

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In response to Peter Joyce who wrote:

No, we have not tried cutting the fibers in to disks and perfroming a 3-D
reconstruction. I have not heard of this previously applied to composite
microstructures, have you? Can you tell me more about this methodology?
Can you point me to specific papers in the literature? Is this similar to
the type of 3-D reconstructions we read about being used in medical
imaging? If so don't I need some features in the image to key off of?

Thanks for your help,

P. Joyce


Dear Peter,

If you consider biological systems to be composite microstructures,
then, yes we have a lot of experience with this technique. As applied to your
carbon-fiber system, there are several things to consider: 1) Is there enough
contrast between the fibers and the matrix? 2) If not, is there a way to add
contrast, such as by infiltrating the matrix? 3) Is the thickness of each
slice limited by transmissivity or by overlap of features--in the HVEM a spec-
imen of several microns can be penetrated, but after about one micron, typical
biological specimens have so many features that these can no longer be untang-
led? Another possibility if there is low contrast is to find an element in the
matrix which is not found in the carbon, and to do element mapping--this is in-
herently much lower resolution than imaging--or energy-filtered imaging looking
at an edge or the low-loss region.
In any event, I presume you have settled on appropriate conditions and
obtained images which have then been scanned and converted into digital files.
If the sections were thin enough so that the carbon fiber position and orienta-
tion do not change appreciably from section to section, you can just stack the
images from successive sections and process the resulting file as if it arose
from a confocal microscope series or some such. There are many image proces-
sing packages which will allow you to view the image volume from various angles
with various features highlighted--you do have to tell the program how to iden-
tify the features, but at worst, you can do this pixel-by-pixel if necessary.
We use SEMPER on our confocal microscope to do this, and some in-house programs
in combination with, I believe, MOVIE.BYU to do this for electron micrographs.
If the sections can be thicker--e.g. if there are rather few carbon
fibers distributed in a non-carbon-containing matrix and if energy-filtered
imaging sees the carbon as dark while the matrix is transparent--you should
either take stereo pairs and use a pointer to outline the features of interest
within the section volume while viewing the stereo pairs, or take a large ser-
ies of images at various tilts and do tomographic reconstruction. This may be
more work than thin sections, but it has the advantage that features in the
middles of sections are not perturbed by the cutting process--which can be a
problem with thin sections.
For reconstruction using stereo pairs, we use an in-house program,
STERECON, and for tomagraphy, we use SPIDER, also an in-house program. SPIDER
does reconstructions very much like medical imaging using either Fourier tech-
niques, back-projection or projection onto convex sets. Fourier techniques are
an old tried-and-true (mostly) method which allows filtration to smooth out
noise, and which is well-understood, but which also gives artefacts due to the
inevitable missing wedge of information. Back-projection just models the three
dimensional object which would give rise to the observed projected views. Fin-
ally, projection onto convex sets is a recent method incorporating constraints
which, among other things, is used for de-blurring photographs. I don't under-
stand this method well enough to try to explain it.
Dr. Joachim Frank at our lab is in charge of the image processing end
of things, Drs. Bruce McEwen and Michael Radermacher have experience with both
programming and using SPIDER, Mr Mike Marko is our resident expert on STERECON
and Mr. Ardean Lieth knows about all the programs. A letter (or e-letter) to
any of these people should get you more information, and would be better than
reading the papers cited for using these programs. I'm sure there are very
good write-ups of serial-section techniques, but I am not familiar enough with
the literature to reccommend any in particular.
All of the programs developed here are available (I'm told the price is
reasonable). Dr. Frank is the correct person to tell you about this aspect. I
have probably told you more than you wanted to know, but I'd be happy to try to
answer any other questions I can. The address for any of the people mentioned
is Wadsworth Center for Labs. & Research
Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509
Albany NY 12201-0509
and the e-mail addresses are username-at-tethys.ph.albany.edu, however, I don't
know every one's usernames--try lastname, initial+lastname or initials as gues-
ses. Good luck.

Yours,

Bill Tivol




From: desclinj-at-ulb.ac.be (Desclin Jean)
Date: Mon, 18 Apr 1994 08:36:18 +0200 (DST)
Subject: Re: Old osmium tetroxide

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Your 'old' osmium should be ok!
Concerning the fact that it coalesced into a mass on the
bottom of the tube, this is not important: I remember a
recipe (by S.Palay) recommending heating the tube (in a
water bath) in order to collect all the osmium tetroxide
in a single mass at one end of the tube. It worked ok
(by the way, there is no point in doing so, if you carefully
wash the outside of the ampulla before breaking it ;-))
Cheers!
John


***********************************************************
* Jean C. Desclin (John), Associate Prof. of Histology *
* Laboratory of Histology - Faculty of Medicine *
* Brussels Free University (U.L.B.) *
* e-mail: desclinj-at-ulb.ac.be (internet) *
* snail mail: route de Lennik 808 *
* B - 1070 Brussels Belgium *
***********************************************************




From: John Mansfield :      John_Mansfield-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 18 Apr 1994 09:56:04 U
Subject: Re: General- Which Scope is

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Reply_ RE} } General: Which Scope is Best?
Reply
from:
John Mansfield
North Campus Electron Microbeam Analysis Laboratory
University of Michigan
2455 Hayward
Ann Arbor MI 48109-2143
Phone: (313)936-3352 FAX: (313)936-3352
jfmjfm-at-umich.edu or John_Mansfield-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
IMHO (In My Humble Opinion):

For quality of construction and reliability I would say Philips.
In addition they have always been the best scope for CBED.

The one major thing that I dont like about ALL of the newer microscopes is the
manufacturer's insistance in making the tilting and translation functions
motorized. With these instruments you have no "feel" for the specimen position
or tilt and when performing diffraction experiments I like to be able to
"tweak" the tilts and sample position manually.

John Mansfield.






From: PHELPS-at-ENH.NIST.GOV
Date: Mon, 18 Apr 1994 10:50:49 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: EM lab maintenance

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Our lab currently has 2 JEOLs, a 200cx and a 6100. Both instruments are
under service contracts with JEOL, and I cannot imagine life otherwise. The
contracts may seem expensive at first glance, but when a problem arises the
service technicians have always fixed them much more quickley than we could
have. The routine maintenance provided by the contracts also helps keep the
instruments in good working order even with multiple users. If you have the
option, life is much better witha service contract from the manufacturer.

John Phelps
NIST, Boulder
PHELPS-at-ENH.NIST.GOV

P.S. I promise that I wasn't paid by the service people for the response.




From: COOK-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Mon, 18 Apr 1994 9:57:53 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: TEM maintenance

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At Argonne National Laboratory, we have maintenance contracts on all of our
TEM's, including an old JEOL 100CXII. We simply don't have the time to devote
to repair work while the field service techs have the resources to take care of
most of the problems that arise. We do some of the repairs ourselves, if they
can be done quickly. For instance, we don't ask for help in changing filaments
or in fixing a camera if the film gets jammed. We know our limits. One recent
repair on our Philips EM420 took a week, and we could not have done it
ourselves. Since we have a large base of users, 4 TEMs, 1 STEM, and only 3
staff members, time is very valuable to us.

Russell E. Cook
Electron Microscopy Center for Materials Research
Materials Science Division
Argonne National Laboratory
Argonne, IL 60439, USA




From: EMLAB-at-opus.mco.edu
Date: Mon, 18 Apr 1994 11:44:30 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: Re:EM lab maintenance

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Message-Id: {24041809572590-at-vms2.macc.wisc.edu}

We have all scopes on service contracts. Two TEM's from manufacture and one
SEM from private service man. Expensive yes!, but worth it.

Ed Calomeni




From: MARK-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca
Date: 18 Apr 94 12:07:32 PST+8PDT
Subject: re: collagen I ab

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Dr. Bogers
I talked with our ECM expert for advice on ab's and he suggested
a company in Germany called HEYL
Goerzallee 253, D-1000, Berlin 37
phone 030-8-17-60 52
FAX 030 8 17 40 49

He also mentionned a company called Collagen Corporation in Palo
Alto, California USA, and one in Birmingham Alabama USA which also
deals specifically with collagen antibodies. There is also a
Developmental Biology Hybridoma Bank in the US which deals with ECM
antibodies. He said that any of these may be able to help you and
should be fairly good.

Mark Elliott, PhD




From: _ _ _ _ _ MARK W. LUND _ _ _ _ _ :      LUNDM-at-XRAY.BYU.EDU
Date: Mon, 18 Apr 1994 15:13 MDT
Subject: WHICH MICROSCOPE TO BUY

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IMHO I would not suggest buying a JEOL 100B. This is the microscope
that I never could qualify on at ASU, it took a lot of maintenance,
and is 20 years obsolete. :)

I would also like to point out that if you want to unsubscribe you
must send the message to the listserver, not the list:

listserver-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

We should all keep the information that was sent us when we first logged
onto this list so that we know how to log off without annoying 1200
listmembers .

regards
Mark W. Lund, PhD
Director
MOXTEK, Inc.
Orem UT





From: tivol-at-tethys.ph.albany.edu
Date: Mon, 18 Apr 1994 18:55:14 EDT
Subject: Maintenance

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I know we are a special case--we have a 1.2 MV HVEM from AEI--but we get along
very well without a service contract (} 80% uptime). Our secret is that no ser-
vice contracts being available on our beastie, we have had to learn to do it
all ourselves. The service people in-house are VERY good--a must. Since we do
a lot of development and improvement, we need a person who knows the machine
very well, and those people also can service the microscope. If you have a fac-ility which just uses the microscope--as opposed to redesigning it--it is prob-
ably just as well to have a service contract, but if you need a machine person
or two on hand anyway, you can get along without a contract.

Yours,

Bill Tivol




From: MARK-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca
Date: 18 Apr 94 16:04:15 PST+8PDT
Subject: collagen type I antibodies

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940418160415.32-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

I am sending this again because I am not sure if it was received
properly the first time.

Dr. Bogers:
I talked with our ECM expert for advice on ab's and he suggested
the following companies as good sources.
HEYL,
Goerzallee 253, D-1000, Berlin 37, Germany
Phone 030 8 17 60 52
FAX 030 8 17 40 49

also, a company called Collagen Corporation in Palo Alto California,
USA and one in Birmingham, Alabama USA which also deals specifically
with collagen antibodies. There is also a Developmental Biology
Hybridoma Bank in the US which deals with ECM antibodies . He said
that any of these may be able to help you and should be fairly good.

Mark Elliott PhD




From: murphy-at-ms.sjdccd.cc.ca.us (Murphy, Judy)
Date: Mon, 18 Apr 1994 10:10:55 PST
Subject: 17 microscopists available

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Message-Id: {1994Apr18.101055.761680489-at-ms.sjdccd.cc.ca.us}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov (microscopy list)

Dear fellow microscopists,
At San Joaquin Delta College, Dept. of Microscopy, Stockton, CA we have
an intensive 2 yr hands-on program to train microscopists. We issue
certificates in both biological and materials area. We will be graduating
17 students from the program May 28, 1994.
If you need an entry level person with 2 yrs intensive experience in
TEM, SEM, EDS, OLM, all preps, routine maintenance, report writing, etc.
etc. please contact Judy Murphy (murphy-at-ms.sjdccd.cc.ca.us, phone
209/474-5284; fax 209/474-5649)
If you want more info about the program or a copy of the Delta
Microscopy Newsletter, also contact as above. Our program has been in
existence for 24 yrs. and we have graduates all over the United States and
several abroad. Hope to hear from those interested.
Judy Murphy, San Joaquin Delta College, Dept. of Microscopy, 5151
Pacific Ave., Stockton, CA 95207






From: chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU (John Chandler)
Date: Mon, 18 Apr 1994 19:46:14 -0600
Subject: TEM for sale (USA)

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I just heard of a used TEM that's available.

JEOL 1200EX
Purchased 1989, S/N EM157085-528
Under service contract since purchase
Has Tracor Northern EDS (don't know model)
Available immediately, shipping negotiable

For more information, contact: melilly-at-aol.com directly, not this list.

John chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU Fort Collins, CO




From: Jay Jerome :      jjerome-at-isnet.is.wfu.edu
Date: Mon, 18 Apr 1994 15:43:59 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re:EM lab maintenance

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Interesting and topical question. In my opinion unless inhouse expertise
includes a trained microscope service engineer, you are playing russian
roulette without a service contract. sooner or later the chamber is going
to come up loaded. Over the long term it is not cost effective. However,
I have often thought that facilities with good general in house expertise
(we fix a lot of minor problems ourself) should be able to negotiate a
different kind of contract (with different cost) than a facility that
needs a service engineer for every minor problem. Perhaps we need a lobby
with the microscope companies.

Having said that, and persuant to Larry Harkey's queries about
microscopes,.o Our Philips service engineer in North Carolina is the best I
have ever encountered and Philips in general has always provided superior
service. However, with any company their are regional differences in the
quality of service.

On Mon, 18 Apr 1994, Griffin, Robin wrote:

}
} How are the majority of EM labs maintaining their electron microscopes? Are
} they using maintenance contracts, in-house repair or something else? I
} know how much maintenance contracts cost (EEK!). How well does it work
} without maintenance contracts? I would appreciate any opinions about this
} very expensive issue.
}




From: {rgriffin-at-eng.uab.edu}:ddn:wpafb
Date: 4-18-94 10:17am
Subject: Re:EM lab maintenance

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Message-Id: {9404181529.AA22814-at-riker.ml.wpafb.af.mil}
To: WALCKSD:ml:wpafb, SCHELTFJ:ml:wpafb
Subj: Re:EM lab maintenance
Orig-Author: {"Griffin, Robin" {rgriffin-at-eng.uab.edu} }:ddn:wpafb
-----------------------------------------------------------

How are the majority of EM labs maintaining their electron microscopes? Are
they using maintenance contracts, in-house repair or something else? I
know how much maintenance contracts cost (EEK!). How well does it work
without maintenance contracts? I would appreciate any opinions about this
very expensive issue.











From: {rgriffin-at-eng.uab.edu}:ddn:wpafb
Date: 4-18-94 10:17am
Subject: Re:EM lab maintenance

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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To: WALCKSD:ml:wpafb, SCHELTFJ:ml:wpafb
Subj: Re:EM lab maintenance
Orig-Author: {"Griffin, Robin" {rgriffin-at-eng.uab.edu} }:ddn:wpafb
-----------------------------------------------------------

How are the majority of EM labs maintaining their electron microscopes? Are
they using maintenance contracts, in-house repair or something else? I
know how much maintenance contracts cost (EEK!). How well does it work
without maintenance contracts? I would appreciate any opinions about this
very expensive issue.











From: Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers :      GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Date: Mon, 18 Apr 1994 17:02:33 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Job Opening

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POSITION AVAILABLE (Subject to approval)

Support person for the Electron Microscopy Core Laboratory of the
Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research at the University
of Florida.

DUTIES: Preparation and examination of biological specimens for
transmission and scanning electron microscopy in a facility that
serves the entire university community on a fee for service
basis. Collaborative research possible as part of the program.
Incumbent is expected to deal directly with the clients on
experimental design, execution of the project and preparation of
the data for publication, in consultation with the Scientific
Director of the laboratory.

QUALIFICATIONS: B.S. or M.S. in a biological science with proven
experience in most aspects of biological electron microscopy.
Good communication skills, both oral and written. Ability to
deal on a one to one basis with investigators from a wide variety
of disciplines and backgrounds.

STARTING DATE: July 1, 1994. (Possibly sooner)

APPLICATION DEADLINE: Open until position is filled.

RANK: Appropriate to qualifications (EM Tech., Sr. EM Tech,
EM Lab Manager)

SALARY: $17,873.-$22,633.

Inquiries by E-mail or full resumes to the address below

**********************************************************
* Greg Erdos ** *
* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
**********************************************************




From: Daniel L. Callahan :      dlc-at-owlnet.rice.edu
Date: Tue, 19 Apr 1994 10:22:01 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: CCD cameras

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We currently have a Kodak slow-scan CCD system mounted on a 2010; this is
a side-mount systems as opposed to the more common Gatan bottom-mount.
Does anyone have any comments comparing the technical capabilities of these
systems? How much does the placement affect usage, etc...?

Daniel L. Callahan
Department of Mechanical Engg. and Materials Science
Rice University
dlc-at-owlnet.rice.edu






From: NANNI-at-biol.dgbm.unina.it
Date: Tue, 19 Apr 1994 17:01:20 +0300 (CET-DST)
Subject: help on image analysis of EM DNA

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***************************************************************************

Hi netters.

I'm trying for the first time to make some preparation of DNA for TEM.
Grids and plates, with some initial problem, seem to be promising.
My problem, now, is the elaboration of these pictures.
I have seen that I can obtain good digital images with a scanner
from the positives, and save them as TIFF files in a PC.
I would like to find some PD program (possibly DOS, Windows or Amiga)
to elaborate these files: the program should recognize DNA in the
image and make some kind of elaboration: I don't know exactly what
kind: I think (I hope!) I should be able to do something with these
digitalised pictures.

Thank you for your help.


Nanni Iazzetti
Dept. Genetics, General and
Molecular Biology
University of Naples
Italy

NANNI-at-BIOL.DGBM.UNINA.IT

****************************************************************************




From: Paul Webster :      Paul_Webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 19 Apr 1994 16:42:35 -0500
Subject: Re: Best Microscopes

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Re} Best Microscopes
I didn't see much use in joining the debate about "best microscopes" until the
new data arrived. Buying a microscope for the US is a relatively easy choice
and the discussion has covered all points. However, I lived and worked in
Nairobi, Kenya for 7 years where we had a Zeiss EM 10A which worked well (and
is still working). I think that this was the best choice for an EM in Africa.
Although we only saw a service engineer once a year, the microscope was
constructed for ease of service and repair. The machine was only used by a few
people so a talented local electronics engineer and myself were able to keep
this microscope running continually with relatively little effort. The long
range support from Zeiss was exceptional and any serious problems were overcome
with a few phone calls and faxes. Currently, I work on a Phillips 410 and Jeol
100cx, neither of which I feel capable of fixing when they go wrong. I could
fix a Peugeot in Africa but have no idea on where to start with the
computerized, fuel-injected cars over here.

Paul Webster
Yale University School of Medicine
333 Cedar Street,
New Haven, CT 06510.






From: Jay Jerome :      jjerome-at-isnet.is.wfu.edu
Date: 16 Apr 1994 11:13:04 -0600
Subject: Re: Who makes the best TEM?

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X-Nupop-Charset: English

Even more important, is how much knowledge the use (s) has. For stardard
biological observations upt 50K even an old Zeiss S2 wil do the job. Of
course, electron coherence, astigmatic correction, and vacum cleanness could
drive you crazy, not to say much about frequent aligments. Thus, check your
packet book, test your technicians, and determine what you need answered, then
have all manufacturers to view and examine the same grid with the problem and
make decision.

Cesar D. Fermin, Ph.D
Tulane Medical School
Pathology/SL79
New Orleans, La 70112

Fax (504) 587-7389
Answering Machine (504) 584-2618
Secretary (504) 584-2436
Laboratory (504) 584 2521
Departmental office (504) 588-5224

_______________________________________________________________________________
Cc: Microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

I agree with Nestor, the best microscope is dependent upon what you wish
to do. Even in cameras, the Nikon is not ideal for all applications.
However, to join in the foray:
We love our Philips 400, 515, and CM-30s.


On Fri, 15 Apr 1994, Larry Hawkey wrote:

}
} I have tried to send this message twice but is keeps getting bounced back
} to me.
}
} Some one is asking me about my recommendations on which EM to
} buy. So my question to all of you is this:
}
} Is there in the EM community a sense that there is one
} Electron Microscope that is the best that money can buy?
}
} If some one was to ask about 35mm cameras for instance. I
} think that the general consensus is that Nikon is ahead of
} the pack. Minolta and Cannon are good and may be a good deal
} for the price but if money is not the first concern Nikon is
} the first pick.
}
} I use the JEOL 1200EX II. It is great. I have also used
} several of the 100 incarnations. I used the Ziess EM 10
} about ten years ago but I have really only used JEOL for the
} past ten years. In addition there seems to be a heavy
} concentration of JEOLS in the Duke University community so I
} feel that my impression that Ziess is nice but JEOL is best
} may only reflect my small world.
}
} Try to put your biases aside and send me your thoughts.
}
} Larry Hawkey
} Hawkey-at-neuro.duke.edu
}





From: nina allen :      allen-at-ac.wfunet.wfu.edu
Date: Tue, 19 Apr 1994 22:09:03 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: training on optical microscopy

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There are several short courses offered (1 week) through the Marine
Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
For information call 508-548-3705 .
The next one is in May. Regards, Nina Allen




From: tayloe-at-rorc.usbm.gov
Date: Tue, 19 Apr 1994 22:02:15 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: Re: training on optical microscopy

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On Tue, 19 Apr 1994 IDESOUSA-at-BRMVM1.VNET.IBM.COM wrote:

} Is anybody aware of a good short course on optical microscopy?
} It is such a vast subject (polarized , UV,IR, confocal,filters,
} image analysis, interferometry, ellipsometry etc.)

Might try the following:

1. McCrone Research Institute
2820 S. Michigan Ave.
Chicago, IL 60616-3292
(312) 842-7100 [phone]
842-1078 [fax]

*some of their offerings: photomicrography, polarized light microscopy,
hotstage microscopy, SEM, TEM, pharmaceutical, forensic, asbestos id,
hair and fiber id, wood and pollen id, anb many others, including custom
planned on-site courses. I've taken the Applied Polarized Light
Microscopy course there, and found it -very- good; although not enough
emphasis for materials type. Courses are spread out through the year.
Prices for 1994: $1050 (ouch!) for almost all, w/ TEM being higher.

2. Institute for Microstructural Analysis
c/o Buehler Ltd.
P.O. Box 1
Lake Bluff, IL 60044
(702) 295-4659 [phone]

*courses offered include: image analysis, petrographic prep., basic
metallography, advanced materials, ceramics, etc. Prices vary from $700
for 2-day to $1095 (again, ouch!) for 5-day, and higher prices at their
Irvine, CA locale. I myself have not been there, but have heard good
reports.

3. ASM International
Materials Park, OH 44073
(216) 338-5151 [phone]

*courses include: metallographic interpretation, met. techniques,
advanced tech. in optical (& electron) microscopy, failure analysis,
optical microscopy of ceramics, quantitative metallography, etc...
I've taken one course there, and have had several home-study classes.
Good all around training. They offer what's called Materials Engineering
Institute Extension diploma, and a three-tiered Center for Applied
Metallography levels. Prices are similar to Buehler's.

} Could someone suggest books or reference material which is neither
} trivial or too technically involved in the physics. (level of a good
} metallurgical technician)

Some of my favorites include:

Metallography: Principles and Practice...........Vander Voort, George
McGraw-Hill, 1984 (wish it would be updated tho)
Polarized Light Microscopy.......................McCrone & Delly
Ann Arbor Science Publishers, 1978 (likewise...)
-and- many of the Microstructural Science volumes from the proceedings of
the annual technical meetings of the International Metallographic Society.
-and- many of the ore microscopy books have very detailed and highly
useful information.

In addition, the other large met. supply houses besides Buehler, LECO
[(616) 983-5531; St. Joseph, MI] and Struers [(216) 871-0071, Westlake,
OH] offer tech. tips and misc. publications that are -very- handy and
helpful. LECO also offers some training.

} One particular item I would find very handy is a compilation of
} uv fluorescence wavelength of common substances.
}
} Thanks to all!

I'd be interested in such also...

Hope the above is helpful; glad to see another met online!
-Rob
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
| Rob Tayloe | MSM Spelunkers Club /-v-\ |
| Metallographic Lab. | Missouri Speleological Survey \-v-/ |
| Rolla Research Center | Bat Conservation International \-v-/ |
| U.S. Bureau of Mines | Missouri Cave & Karst Conservancy |
| tayloe-at-rorc.usbm.gov | National Speleological Society #32993 /-v-\ |
| (314) 364-3169 x247 | American Cave Conservation Association |
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''




From: tayloe-at-rorc.usbm.gov
Date: Tue, 19 Apr 1994 14:40:04 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: Re: training on optical microscopy

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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On Tue, 19 Apr 1994 IDESOUSA-at-BRMVM1.VNET.IBM.COM wrote:

} Is anybody aware of a good short course on optical microscopy?
} It is such a vast subject (polarized , UV,IR, confocal,filters,
} image analysis, interferometry, ellipsometry etc.)

Might try the following:

1. McCrone Research Institute
2820 S. Michigan Ave.
Chicago, IL 60616-3292
(312) 842-7100 [phone]
842-1078 [fax]

*some of their offerings: photomicrography, polarized light microscopy,
hotstage microscopy, SEM, TEM, pharmaceutical, forensic, asbestos id,
hair and fiber id, wood and pollen id, anb many others, including custom
planned on-site courses. I've taken the Applied Polarized Light
Microscopy course there, and found it -very- good; although not enough
emphasis for materials type. Courses are spread out through the year.
Prices for 1994: $1050 (ouch!) for almost all, w/ TEM being higher.

2. Institute for Microstructural Analysis
c/o Buehler Ltd.
P.O. Box 1
Lake Bluff, IL 60044
(702) 295-4659 [phone]

*courses offered include: image analysis, petrographic prep., basic
metallography, advanced materials, ceramics, etc. Prices vary from $700
for 2-day to $1095 (again, ouch!) for 5-day, and higher prices at their
Irvine, CA locale. I myself have not been there, but have heard good
reports.

3. ASM International
Materials Park, OH 44073
(216) 338-5151 [phone]

*courses include: metallographic interpretation, met. techniques,
advanced tech. in optical (& electron) microscopy, failure analysis,
optical microscopy of ceramics, quantitative metallography, etc...
I've taken one course there, and have had several home-study classes.
Good all around training. They offer what's called Materials Engineering
Institute Extension diploma, and a three-tiered Center for Applied
Metallography levels. Prices are similar to Buehler's.

} Could someone suggest books or reference material which is neither
} trivial or too technically involved in the physics. (level of a good
} metallurgical technician)

Some of my favorites include:

Metallography: Principles and Practice...........Vander Voort, George
McGraw-Hill, 1984 (wish it would be updated tho)
Polarized Light Microscopy.......................McCrone & Delly
Ann Arbor Science Publishers, 1978 (likewise...)
-and- many of the Microstructural Science volumes from the proceedings of
the annual technical meetings of the International Metallographic Society.
-and- many of the ore microscopy books have very detailed and highly
useful information.

In addition, the other large met. supply houses besides Buehler, LECO
[(616) 983-5531; St. Joseph, MI] and Struers [(216) 871-0071, Westlake,
OH] offer tech. tips and misc. publications that are -very- handy and
helpful. LECO also offers some training.

} One particular item I would find very handy is a compilation of
} uv fluorescence wavelength of common substances.
}
} Thanks to all!

I'd be interested in such also...

Hope the above is helpful; glad to see another met online!
-Rob
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
| Rob Tayloe | MSM Spelunkers Club /-v-\ |
| Metallographic Lab. | Missouri Speleological Survey \-v-/ |
| Rolla Research Center | Bat Conservation International \-v-/ |
| U.S. Bureau of Mines | Missouri Cave & Karst Conservancy |
| tayloe-at-rorc.usbm.gov | National Speleological Society #32993 /-v-\ |
| (314) 364-3169 x247 | American Cave Conservation Association |
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''




From: Marcelle A Gillott :      magem-at-csd4.csd.uwm.edu
Date: Wed, 20 Apr 1994 08:00:28 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: Re: training on optical microscopy

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the McCrone Institute in chicago has a number of short courses on various
aspects of light microscopy - including things that would probably be of
interest to you such as polarization, dispersion staining, etc

there are several good, simple books around that are probably at the
level you want - check out the Oxford series - I know thee is an
flouresence & think there may also be a polarization book - they present
the basic theory and are inexpensive - there is also a very
practical-oriented book with a yellow and white paper cover whose exact
and author escape me ( it is siiting on my bookshelf at home)

if you are not satisfied with your other responses send me a message & I
will try to get back to you

marcelle

magem-at-csd4.csd.uwm.edu





From: Nancy L. Desmond :      nld-at-avery.med.virginia.edu
Date: Wed, 20 Apr 1994 16:45:15 -0400
Subject: sapphire knives for Vibratome

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Message-Id: {9404201327.AA29349-at-ns.ge.com}

We are thinking of purchasing a sapphire knife for our Vibratome
so that we can cut high-quality sections. The knives are about
$700. Being somewhat poor, we were wondering if the knife is a
good investment. What has been people's experience with these
knives? Do they cut reliable high-quality sections? Any
problems with them? Thanks for any opinions.

--
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Nancy L Desmond, Ph.D.
Department of Neurosurgery
University of Virginia
Health Sciences Center, Box 420
Charlottesville, VA 22908

804.924.5607 (voice)
804.982.3829 (fax)
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^




From: Glen Macdonald :      glenmac-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Wed, 20 Apr 1994 15:48:45 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: Re: sapphire knives for Vibratome

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We (actually Ed Lachica) have found it an absolute requirement for
cutting unfixed chick embryos. Fixed post-hatch brains didn't seem to
cut any better. But sectioning unfixed brain, or lightly fixed embryonic
brain is helped tremendously.


Glen MacDonald
Hearing Development Laboratories RL-30
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195
(206)543-8360
glenmac-at-u.washington.edu


On Wed, 20 Apr 1994, Nancy L. Desmond wrote:

} We are thinking of purchasing a sapphire knife for our Vibratome
} so that we can cut high-quality sections. The knives are about
} $700. Being somewhat poor, we were wondering if the knife is a
} good investment. What has been people's experience with these
} knives? Do they cut reliable high-quality sections? Any
} problems with them? Thanks for any opinions.
}
} --
} ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
} Nancy L Desmond, Ph.D.
} Department of Neurosurgery
} University of Virginia
} Health Sciences Center, Box 420
} Charlottesville, VA 22908
}
} 804.924.5607 (voice)
} 804.982.3829 (fax)
} ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
}




From: S0F6296-at-SUMMA.TAMU.EDU
Date: Wed, 20 Apr 1994 20:34:48 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: TEM-Preparation of Aluminium alloys

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Message-ID: {940420132635996.HGVL-at-USCN.USCN.UGA.EDU} (UMass-Mailer 4.04)

I am studying Aluminium alloys samples with TEM and especially two kinds of
them:
Al 3003 (0.12%Cu-1.2%Mn)
AL 6061 (0.6%Si-0.27%Cu-1%Mg-0.2%Cr)
I will use a double jet electropolisher (Tenupol 2) and I would want to know,
if possible:
1-what are the best electropolishing solutions for these alloys (the books are
not enough specific ) ?
2-what are the value of current,voltage and what is the temperature used for the
solution ?
3-I suppose that we use the classical technique for cleaning but there must be
some problems to prevent samples from oxydation which is an important problem
for aluminium.Is there a special technique to avoid oxydation ?

NOTE:if no answer is possible, what are at least the best solution and
electropolishing conditions for PURE aluminium.

Thanks a lot in advance for any help.




From: Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers :      GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Date: Thu, 21 Apr 1994 08:48:07 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Can of Worms

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It took nearly three months for BioRad to replace our laser when it failed
after only 100 hours of use. So much for 24 hr. service.
**********************************************************
* Greg Erdos ** *
* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
**********************************************************




From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-umbc.edu
Date: Thu, 21 Apr 1994 16:20:14 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: LR- White/yeast

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Does anybody know of a good procedure on the infiltration of yeast cells
with LR-White? I dehydrate the pellet normally, starting with 35%ETOH
for 10 minutes, 50%ETOH 10 minutes, 75%ETOH 10 minutes, 2 x 100%ETOH 10
minutes, 1:1- 100%ETOH/LR-white 1hour, 1:2- 100%ETOH/LR-White 1hour, 1:3-
100%ETOH/LR-white 1hour, 2x pure LR-white 1hour, bake at 50C for 72 hours.
I am still ending up with holes around the cells and some cells aren't
being infiltrated with the resin. I have never had problems with
infiltration of any type of tissue, bacteria or anything else I've had to
embed. This is getting to be pretty frustrating (Jack Daniels-black,
here I come).
Thanks Phil




From: EMLAB-at-opus.mco.edu
Date: Fri, 22 Apr 1994 08:49:51 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: LR- White/yeast

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Phil, The only suggestion I have is to let the 100% LR White resin infiltrate
overnight, then polymerize as usual.

Ed Calomeni




From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-umbc.edu
Date: Fri, 22 Apr 1994 08:52:43 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Journal of Histochem. Cytochem.

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Does anybody know the name of the journal that replaced "The Journal of
Histochemistry and Cytochemistry" ? I was interested in getting a
subscription to it and when I called Elsevier I was told it was
discontinued 9 years ago. Someone said it was replaced by another outfit
and they weren't sure who the publisher was. Anybody know?
Thanks,
Phil Rutledge




From: MARK-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca
Date: 22 Apr 94 07:21:10 PST+8PDT
Subject: Journal histochem

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940422072110.367-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Phil Rutledge
Our library carries a journal by the title of Journal of
Histochemistry and Cytochemistry published by the Histochemical
Society. It is printed by Williams and Wilkens in Baltimore.
Probably is the same one you are looking for.
In addition, concerning LR white and yeast infiltration, it was
suggested by someone here that you might try using a mixture of
osmium and potassium permanganate to fix the tissue, or possibly
ruthenium red. You need to permeabilize the cell wall to let the LR
white in. Try also to increase infiltration times, or put it under
vacuum. Was also suggested you look up papers by C. Bracker on
fixation of fungi.
Hope this info helps.

Mark Elliott




From: X.m. Burany :      burany-at-sfu.ca
Date: Fri, 22 Apr 1994 08:32:01 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: Re: TEM-Preparation of Aluminium alloys

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I did the studies about Al3003 by TEM. You can find my paper "ATEM
study of precipitates in an Al-Mn-Si alloy" publisned on
METALLOGRAPHY 21:293-315 (1988).
I used 20 HClO4 + 20 HCl + 80 ethyl alcohol, around 25 mA and
temperature aroun -25 C. As you can see from my paper I have get
lattice image.
I am the first author of the paper XIANYING MENG-BURANY.
Sandy X. Burany




From: Mr A. Burrows :      ab0895-at-liverpool.ac.uk
Date: Fri, 22 Apr 1994 17:44:45 +0100 (BST)
Subject: HREM imaging theory

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Apologies to all concerned if this query is a bit dumb! After trawling
the literature on HREM imaging theory (particularly the application of
the wave-optical Abbe theory of image formation) I am confused as to whether
the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern is:

i)a Fourier transform of the object exit wavefunction (being a product of
the incident wave amplitude and a transmission function)

OR

ii)as some authors simply state, "the transmission function"

Any help will be greatly appreciated.

Andy Burrows
The University of Liverpool




From: Denis Baskin :      baskindg-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Fri, 22 Apr 1994 10:53:29 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: Re: Journal of Histochem. Cytochem.

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The J Histochem Cytochem is published by the Histochemical Society. The
address is: Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gusatave L. Levy Place, Box
1045, New York NY 10029 Ph: 212-362-1801. You should find this journal
in most university libraries. If your library does not get it, talk to your
acquisition librarian. It is still the leading histochemical journal.

Denis G. Baskin, Ph.D.
University of Washington

On Fri, 22 Apr 1994, rutledge phil wrote:

} Does anybody know the name of the journal that replaced "The Journal of
} Histochemistry and Cytochemistry" ? I was interested in getting a
} subscription to it and when I called Elsevier I was told it was
} discontinued 9 years ago. Someone said it was replaced by another outfit
} and they weren't sure who the publisher was. Anybody know?
} Thanks,
} Phil Rutledge
}




From: Gary J Laughlin :      LAUGGAR-at-minna.acc.iit.edu
Date: Fri, 22 Apr 1994 12:52:59 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: RE training on optical(light) microscopy,books,etc.

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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} One particular item I would find very handy is a compilation of
} uv fluorescence wavelength of common substances.

For ultraviolet(365nm) and blue-violet(400nm) fluorescence of over
600 materials see:

The Particle Atlas, Edition Two, Volume IV, McCrone and
Delly (1979). [Out of Print]

The entire six-volume, electronic edition of the Particle Atlas is
now available (PAE^2) on CD-ROM from McRI or:

Microdataware
2894 Tribune Ave
Hayward CA 94542
TEL 510.582.6624
FAX 510.582.8295

McCrone Research Institute is offering the PAE^2 Version 1.0 for Windows
with an educational discount of $550.00, which reduces the price to
students to $950.00 if purchased within 90 days of course completion.

For a basic library of microscopy:

"A Basic Microscopy Library", John G. Delly, The Microscope, vol.
34, pp. 11-25 (1986).

This article contains a list and description of books on microscopy for the
fields including biomedicine, mineralogy, petrology, petrography,
metallography, chemical microscopy, and, of course, general works.

End of Message.

Yours very truly,

Gary J Laughlin




From: Robin L. Wright :      wrightr-at-zoology.washington.edu
Date: Fri, 22 Apr 1994 14:54:38 -0700
Subject: RE: LRwhite/yeast

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} } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } }
Does anybody know of a good procedure on the infiltration of yeast
cells

with LR-White? I dehydrate the pellet normally, starting with
35%ETOH

for 10 minutes, 50%ETOH 10 minutes, 75%ETOH 10 minutes, 2 x 100%ETOH
10

minutes, 1:1- 100%ETOH/LR-white 1hour, 1:2- 100%ETOH/LR-White 1hour,
1:3-

100%ETOH/LR-white 1hour, 2x pure LR-white 1hour, bake at 50C for 72
hours.
I am still ending up with holes around the cells and some cells
aren't

being infiltrated with the resin. I have never had problems with

infiltration of any type of tissue, bacteria or anything else I've
had to

embed. This is getting to be pretty frustrating (Jack Daniels-black,

here I come).
Thanks Phil

} } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } }

We routinely use LR White for preparing EM sections of yeast in
immunolocalization experiments. The critical factor for getting good
infiltration is a brief treatment of the fixed, washed cells with 1%
sodium metaperiodate. This treatment alters the cell wall so that
the resin infiltrates perfectly. After treatment with metaperiodate,
a relatively standard dehydration/infiltration schedule can be
followed. We also use a temp block (like the ones normally used for
restriction digests) to precisely control temperature during
polymerization. It seemed to be important to keep the temperature
low during polymerization to minimize shrinkage (we used 45-50C for
24 hr).

For details of the procedure see:

Wright and Rine, Methods in Cell Biology 31:473-512.

van Tuinen and Riezman, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 35:327.




From: Louisa.Howard-at-Dartmouth.EDU (Louisa Howard)
Date: 22 Apr 94 09:39:36 EDT
Subject: LR- White/yeast

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Message-id: {9754043-at-blitzen.Dartmouth.EDU}

Phil wrote:
""Does anybody know of a good procedure on the infiltration of yeast cells
with LR-White? I dehydrate the pellet normally, starting with 35%ETOH
for 10 minutes, 50%ETOH 10 minutes, 75%ETOH 10 minutes, 2 x 100%ETOH 10
minutes, 1:1- 100%ETOH/LR-white 1hour, 1:2- 100%ETOH/LR-White 1hour, 1:3-
100%ETOH/LR-white 1hour, 2x pure LR-white 1hour, bake at 50C for 72 hours.
I am still ending up with holes around the cells and some cells aren't
being infiltrated with the resin.""

If you want to try and look at some of your poorly infiltrated yeats. If you
have a 200KV instrument, you can cut 1/4 micron sections(maybe the yeast will
stay in the plastic and not fall out!); stain with aqueous UA for 45'-1 hr.
at 45 degrees, LC 30' and use the 200kv. We do this alot when people send us
blocks that are bad.

This is what we do in our facility, with success on yeast:
we use LR white, both medium and hard grades; for regular
ultrastructure(medium grade)- if we have problems with infiltration: we
increase the changes in LR white and make sure each change is accompanied by
time on the rotator( -at- 4 RPM)(called rotamix in protocol below) we leave the
sample in LR white overnight, on a rotator at 4 degrees. If we have trouble
with air bubbles, we reduce stirring to a minimum and only use the rotator
for mixing; we polymerize at 55 degrees for only 24 hours.
For IEM, we use hard grade -if we have problems with infiltration: we
increase the changes in LR white first and accept some yeast cells will not
be infiltrated well, in some samples; we always have plenty in each section
that are fine, even if we leave the cell wall intact. Note that there are two
procedures; if your label is O.K. with procedure b, you'll get better
infiltration; but either way gives use plenty of well-infiltrated yeasts
cells in each section. If we have trouble with air bubbles, we reduce
stirring to a minimum; we polymerize Hard grade at 50 degrees for only 24
hours.

Phil: here's the last half of our protocols; please call or send me e-mail
anytime. It should work.
Regular ultrastructure
6. Dehydrate : 30% - 5 mins
50% - 5mins
70% - 5mins
100% - three 5min. washes.

7. LR White:100% ETOH 1:1 - 30-mins RT on a gentle Rotamix*** .

8. LR White:100% ETOH 3:1 - 30-mins RT on a gentle Rotamix*** .

9. LR White - 2-3 changes 30-mins each, RT on a gentle Rotamix***

10. Overnight in fridge (-at-4oC), on a gentle Rotamix.

11. LR white - 1 change 1 hr (Warm LR White to RT before change)

12. Place tissue in gelatin capsules, add fresh LR White; seal capsules;
allow to settle for 1 hour;

NOTE: if you need to centrifuge material and you have a small sample size,
place cells in trimmed beam capsule, seal and centrifuge inside a 12-15ml
cenrifuge tube{with a cotton bottom pad}, using a clinical centrifuge; then
carefully seal beam capsule inside two 000 gelatin bottoms, that have been
filled with LR White. Make sure you seal well with LR White. Use regular mold
holders to hold capsules. OR if you need to centrifuge material and you have
a large sample size, leave cells in original 00 gelatin
capsule(i.e.complete step 12. Then place 00 capsule inside a BEEM capsule
that has been cut to accomodate 00 gelatin capsule(i.e. top half is removed);
centrifuge inside a 12-15ml cenrifuge tube{with a cotton bottom pad}, using a
clinical centrifuge, until sample is spun down.

13. Polymerize at 55-60oC for 24 hours.

*** Use glass vials ; keep out of direct light; Use a rotomix, asLR White
needs to be GENTLY stirred. KEEP Oxygen out of LR White; avoid excess air
bubbles in resin. The dehydration and embedding are fairly
straightforward.
USE LR White Medium GRADE
Open gelatin capsules to stop all polymerization.

For section stain, start with 2%UA aqueous for 20-45 mins. and LC 2-5 mins.
try UA-45'/LC 2' first

FOR IEM
Dehydrate : 50% - 30 mins
70% - 2 changes, 30 mins. each

LR White:70%ETOH - 2:1 2 changes 30 mins each ***

a. LR White - 3 changes 30-60 mins each, on a gentle Rotamix.
b. LR White - 4-6 changes over three hours, on a gentle Rotamix.

a.Overnight in fridge (-at-4oC), on a gentle Rotamix.
b. Place tissue in gelatin capsules, add fresh LR White; seal
capsules; allow to settle. SEE NOTE step 8. Polymerize at 50oC for 24 hours.

a.LR white - 1 change 1 hour (Warm LR White to RT before change)

a.Place tissue in gelatin capsules, add fresh LR White; seal
capsules; allow to settle for 1 hour;

NOTE: if you need to centrifuge material and you have a small sample
size, place cells in trimmed beam capsule, seal and centrifuge inside a
12-15ml cenrifuge tube{with a cotton bottom pad}, using a clinical
centrifuge; then carefully seal beam capsule inside two 000 gelatin
bottoms, that have been filled with LR White. Make sure you seal well
with LR White. Use regular mold holders to hold capsules. OR if you
need to centrifuge material and you have a large sample size, leave cells in
original 00 gelatin capsule(i.e. complete step 8). Then place 00 capsule
inside a BEEM capsule that has been cut to accomodate 00 gelatin
capsule(i.e. top half is removed); centrifuge inside a 12-15ml
cenrifuge tube{with a cotton bottom pad}, using a clinical centrifuge,
until sample is spun down.

9. a.Polymerize at 50oC for 24 hours.

TEST one block for sectioning quality. Polymerize another hour, if
necessary.

*** Use glass vials to mix; mix solns. at RT; keep out of direct light; Use a
rotomix, as solution is not very miscible & needs to be GENTLY stirred.
KEEP Oxygen out of LR White; avoid excess air bubbles in resin. The
dehydration and embedding are fairly straightforward.

LrWhite blocks should be stored at -20oC to preserve antigenicity
indefinitely. Remove the gelatin and expose block to air in order to stop
polymerization.

For section stain, start with 2%UA aqueous for 20-45 mins. and LC 2-5 mins.
try UA-20' with no LC first, so you can locate the gold particles
easily; adjust stain, as needed for ultrasruture.





From: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
Date: Fri, 22 Apr 1994 16:24:38 +0100
Subject: Journal of Microscopy - Summaries for the May issue

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Sender: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
74250.331-at-COMPUSERVE.COM, ROSS.MACKENZIE-at-OX.AC.UK,
MICROSCOPY-at-ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV
Message-ID: {0097D584.8EA966D2.752-at-vax.ox.ac.uk}

JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY - MAY 1994 ISSUE - VOLUME 174 PART 2

PUBLICATION DATE - 20 MAY 1994

Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 2, May 1994, pp. 61-68

ACCURATE ALIGNMENT OF SETS OF IMAGES

By W. O. SAXTON
Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Pembroke
Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, U.K.

Summary
Two modifications are described to the conventional procedure
of cross-correlation, widely used for establishing the
relative alignment of the members of a set of images from
which a higher resolution or more interpretable restoration is
sought. Both achieve a high and sharp peak in circumstances
where the conventional peak is too ill defined to be
recognisable; neither involves significant additional
computational time. The more general method requires a rough
knowledge of the imaging conditions, but a variant applicable
to images with axial resolution has no such requirement. In
addition, a least-squares procedure is presented for achieving
an optimum compromise between many pair-wise displacement
measurements, preventing the accumulation of alignment errors
across a set of images.



Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 2, May 1994, pp. 69-73

RESOLUTION IN NONLINEAR LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

By J. DEITCHE, M. KEMPE & W. RUDOLPH
The University of New Mexico, Department of Physics and
Astronomy, Albuquerque, NM 87131, U.S.A.

Summary
The lateral and depth resolution of nonlinear microscopy was
studied systematically. Nonlinear microscopy can be classified
into several categories depending on the coherence properties
of the process that generates the imaging signal from the
illuminating light, on whether a single- or a two-beam
geometry is used and whether the optical setup is Type I or
Type II. An evaluation of the imaging equations shows that (i)
lateral and depth resolution improve with increasing
nonlinearity, (ii) the differences between coherent and
incoherent imaging diminish, and (iii) nonlinear imaging
allows depth discrimination in Type I microscopy.



Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 2, May 1994, pp. 75-84

CRYO AUTOMATED ELECTRON TOMOGRAPHY: TOWARDS HIGH-RESOLUTION
RECONSTRUCTION OF PLASTIC-EMBEDDED STRUCTURES

By M. B. BRAUNFELD, A. J. KOSTER, J. W. SEDAT & D. A. AGARD
The Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Department of
Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California at San
Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143-0448, U.S.A.

Summary
The use of fully automated data collection methods for
electron beam tomography allows a substantial reduction in
beam dose. The goal has been to develop new protocols for data
collection defining optimal approaches for maintaining data
self-consistency and maximizing the useful resolution of the
reconstruction. The effects of irradiation and post-cure
microwaving were examined for a variety of embedding media
(Epon, Epox, Lowicryl) in order to quantify beam damage with
the goal of identifying the most beam stable embedding medium.
Surprisingly, the substantial dose reduction made possible by
automated data collection did not result in a significant
decrease in specimen shrinkage even for samples stabilized by
pre-irradiation. The accelerated shrinkage is a direct
consequence of the stroboscopic illumination patterns inherent
to automated data collection. Furthermore neither the choice
of embedding resin nor microwave post-curing greatly affected
shrinkage. Finally, cryogenic data collection was investigated
as a means to minimize the effects of secondary radiation
damage. Minimal pre-irradiation coupled with low-temperature
automated data collection greatly reduces shrinkage and should
result in high-quality data for three-dimensional
reconstructions.


Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 2, May 1994, pp. 85-92

A NOVEL METHOD FOR MEAN CELL VOLUME ESTIMATION

By P. WEBSTER* & G. GRIFFITHS+
*Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Cell
Biology, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06510, U.S.A.
+European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Postfach 10.22.09,
69012 Heidelberg, Germany

Summary
A novel method is described for the estimation of the mean
cell volume of cell populations grown in suspension. The cells
are filtered on to a nitrocellulose filter to form a
cylindrical pellet which is embedded in epoxy resin. Using
estimates of pellet height and radius, the number of cells in
the pellet and the volume density of cells in the pellet, it
is possible to produce an unbiased estimate of the mean cell
volume. This method is compared, using cell suspensions of the
blood parasite Trypanosoma brucei, with other published
methods for mean cell volume estimation. A Coulter channelizer
was also used to compare the mean cell volume of living
trypanosomes with that of aldehyde-fixed populations, and the
values obtained were compared with those obtained with the new
method. The estimated mean cell volume of a T. brucei clone
was used to derive values from volume densities obtained by
point and intersection counts for the absolute volumes of the
flagellar pocket, the nucleus and the endocytic organelles
containing internalized horseradish peroxidase and
transferrin-gold after 30-min incubations at 310K. Estimated
values for the cell were also obtained. From known data on the
total amount of variant surface glycoprotein molecules per
cell and the known packing density of membrane proteins, it is
estimated that approximately 80% of the molecules must reside
in intracellular compartments. It was estimated that the
equivalent of 5% of the surface membrane may be internalized
per minute, an amount which is almost the size of the entire
flagellar pocket membrane.



Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 2, May 1994, pp. 93-100

THE INFLUENCE OF TISSUE PROCESSING ON QUANTITATIVE
HISTOPATHOLOGY IN BREAST CANCER

By M. LADEKARL
Stereological Research Laboratory, University Institute of
Pathology and Second University Clinic of Internal Medicine,
Institute of Clinical Experimental Research, University of
Aarhus, Denmark.

Summary
Objective grading of breast cancer by morphometry has been
suggested for improving the precision of the prognostic
prediction. However, the tissue components evaluated might be
influenced by variations in the processing, reducing the
clinical value. In the present study, the impact of the period
of fixation, of the acidity of the fixative and of the
embedding medium was investigated by allocating tissue samples
from 27 surgical breast cancer specimens systematically
randomly to different modes of processing. The volume-weighted
mean volume of cancer call nuclei was estimated using the
method of point-sampled intercepts on vertical sections. In
addition, estimates of the mean nuclear profile area, the
nuclear volume fraction, the nuclear profile density and the
mitotic profile frequency were obtained.
The quantitative histopathological estimates were stable
with respect to the investigated variables of the tissue
processing. No significant differences were found when
comparing the estimates obtained in samples from five tumours
fixed in formalin at pH 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 7.4 and 8.0
respectively. Similarly, no significant correlations between
estimates and the period of formalin fixation (24h, 3 days and
3 months) were found in samples from five other tumours.
However, the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume of cancer
cell nuclei was 13% larger (2p=0.004) and the mean nuclear
profile density was 17% smaller (2p=0.04) in hydroxyethyl-
methacrylate-embedded samples from 17 tumours as compared to
paraffin-embedded samples. Thus, the shrinkage observed in
paraffin seems to affect nuclei less than tissue.


Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 2, May 1994, pp. 101-110

METHOD FOR THE STUDY OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL ORIENTATION OF
THE NUCLEI OF MYOCARDIAL CELLS IN FETAL HUMAN HEART BY MEANS
IF CONFOCAL SCANNING LASER MICROSCOPY

By Y. USSON,* F. PARAZZA, * P.-S. JOUK + & G. MICHALOWICZ+
*Dynamique de l'organisation du genome, Universite Joseph
Fourier, BP53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9, France
+Medecine Neonatale, Centre Hospitalier Regional
Universitaire, Grenoble, France

A series of three-dimensional image analysis tools are used to
measure the three-dimensional orientation of nuclei of
myocardial cells. Confocal scanning laser microscopy makes it
possible to acquire series of sections up to 100 micrometre
inside thick tissue sections. A mean orientation vector of
unit length is calculated for each segmented nucleus. The
global orientation statistics are obtained by calculating the
vectorial sum of the nuclear unit vectors. The final
orientation statistics are obtained by calculating the
vectorial sum of the nuclear unit vectors. The final
orientation is expressed by a mean azimuth angle, an elevation
angle and a measure of the angular homogeneity. The method is
illustrated for two different regions of the myocardium
(interventricular septum and papillary muscle) of a normal
human fetal heart. This quantitative method will be used to
assess and calibrate the information provided by polarized
light microscopy.


Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 2, May 1994, pp. 111-119

A NOVEL APPLICATION OF MICROSPHERE PERFUSION AND SCANNING
ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF PULMONARY
ARTERIOLES IN GUINEA PIG AND RABBIT LUNGS

By D. C. WALKER, S. HOSFORD & A. MACKENZIE
Christmas Seals Electron Microscopy Laboratory of the
Pulmonary Research Laboratory, U.B.C. Pathology, St Paul's
Hospital, Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6Z 1Y6

Summary
In arterioles of the lung the intravascular blood pressures
are lower than in comparable vessels in the systemic
circulation and the arteriole walls are thinner. Therefore, it
is very difficult to distinguish between arterioles and
venules of the same size using scanning electron microscopy.
This study describes a novel application of latex microsphere
perfusion and scanning electron microscopy which distinguishes
between pulmonary arterioles and venules on the basis of
endothelial cell morphology. Microspheres, 90 and 45
micrometres in diameter, were perfused into the arterial side
of the pulmonary circulation of guinea-pig and rabbit lungs.
Scanning electron microscopy of the arterioles on both sides
of the lodged microspheres indicated that the endothelial
cells are spindle shaped. In contrast, the endothelial cells
of equal diameter venules are polygonal. Furthermore, the
nuclei of the arteriolar endothelial cells were significantly
(P=0.019) narrower than those of endothelial cells in venules
of equal diameter. Finally, it was observed that the
differences between arteriole and venule endothelial cells
persisted distally to the capillaries.


Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 2, May 1994, pp. 121-123

ASTIGMATISM OF A THICK CYLINDRICAL OBJECT IN REFLECTIVE MODE
CSLM

By CHANG-GUI WANG, H. RAIKKONEN & M. LUUKKALA
Department of Physics, PO Box 9, 00014 University of Helsinki,
Finland

Summary
The axial response of a basic confocal microscope is
determined when the sample is a thick cylindrical or tubular
structure. The response from the back wall of the cylindrical
sample is split into two separate signals due to basic
aberration or astigmatism effects.



Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 2, May 1994, pp. 125-127

Short Technical Note
SEVERE SHRINKAGE OF MICROFIL DURING TISSUE CLEARING WITH THE
SPALTEHOLZ TECHNIQUE

By J. MOLLER, K. ROBERTSEN & E. S. HANSEN
Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, Department of
Orthopaedics, University of Aarhus, Randersvej 1, DK 8200
Aarhus N, Denmark

Summary
The effect of two commonly used tissue clearing methods on the
morphology of vascular casts by Microfil, a silicone rubber
injection compound, was investigated. Microfil undergoes
extreme shrinkage when the casted tissue is cleared by the
alcohol-methyl salicylate clearing technique. No shrinkage is
observed when the alternative glycerine clearing method is
used. The alcohol-methyl salicylate clearing technique should
be avoided in studies employing Microfil.


PLEASE SEND YOUR QUERIES CONCERNING THE JOURNAL TO RMS-at-VAX.OX.AC.UK. WE ARE
ALSO PLEASED TO ACCEPT LETTERS TO THE EDITORS BY EMAIL.

/SIG





From: Sverker Enestr|m :      sveen%pai.liu.se-at-hulio.liu.se
Date: Mon, 25 Apr 1994 17:20:25 +0200
Subject: Information about SJ Singer, USA

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Does anybody know where I could find SJ Singer, the man who introduced
EM immunocytochemistry by a paper in Nature (London) 1959. I would like
to present him by his portrait at a meeting. All advices are welcome.
Thanks,
Sverker Enestr|m





From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-umbc.edu
Date: Mon, 25 Apr 1994 11:49:46 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Marine cytophage

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Has anyone worked with a type of species in the bacteria field known as a
marine cytophage type? I'm trying to fix the cells on agar and the cells
keep floating up off the surface of the agar. I would like them to stay
put. (maybe I need to put them in a training school for bacteria!). I've
tried several methods suggested by members of the microscopy board but no
success. Hopefully this problem can be taken care of.
It's driving me nuts!
Thanks,
Phil




From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-umbc.edu
Date: Mon, 25 Apr 1994 14:14:15 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: marine cytophage

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Message-Id: {9404251801.AA02278-at-odin.morph.med.umich.edu}
Errors-To: {dennis%odin-at-odin.morph.med.umich.edu}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Cc: dennis-at-odin.morph.med.umich.edu

Like a dumbbell I forgot to mention I need to do SEM on these little
suckers. Fixing them and processing for TEM is no problem. That's easy.
Trying to keep the little creatures attached to the agar surface and
fixing them without them floating off is a #!$#%$$^&(^*& of a problem. I
need to see the surface of the bacteria and how they are oriented in
their growth on the agar without losing ANY of the cells.
I should have become a mechanic or plumber 27 years ago, EM can be a real
-at-$%^%& !
Thanx,
Phil




From: Jay Jerome :      jjerome-at-isnet.is.wfu.edu
Date: Mon, 25 Apr 1994 15:19:37 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: marine cytophage

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Have you tried attaching them to a millipore filter by passing them from
a syringe onto the filter (using millipore syringe fittings) and then
fixing them onto the millipore surface by squirting fixative through the
filter? This works for suspension culture cells and many small critters.
The millipore filters can then be CPD and attached to a stub.

On Mon, 25 Apr 1994, rutledge phil wrote:

} Like a dumbbell I forgot to mention I need to do SEM on these little
} suckers. Fixing them and processing for TEM is no problem. That's easy.
} Trying to keep the little creatures attached to the agar surface and
} fixing them without them floating off is a #!$#%$$^&(^*& of a problem. I
} need to see the surface of the bacteria and how they are oriented in
} their growth on the agar without losing ANY of the cells.
} I should have become a mechanic or plumber 27 years ago, EM can be a real
} -at-$%^%& !
} Thanx,
} Phil
}




From: Marcelle A Gillott :      magem-at-csd4.csd.uwm.edu
Date: Mon, 25 Apr 1994 14:06:27 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: cytophage

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Oh you need to SEM the critters!!!!

Try this sandwich method - it works great for suspensions:

use the thinest layer of agar that you can remove with the colonies intact

- take a 13- 15 mm dameter nylon washer (you can use brass if you are not
going to use OsO4) - I suppose you can use a larger diameter washer &
filter so long as it will fit in your cpd unit
- place an appropriate pore size filter on the washer
- place a "spacer" on the filter (for cell suspensions I punch a hole in
the blue spacer papres packed with the filters - you might want to try an
o-ring)
- cover with a second filter
- top off the sandwich with another washer

clip the whole thing together with a paper clip (yours may be a triffle
thick for that, so you may have to be inventive

we have used relatively short fix/wash/dehydrate times for suspensions
with good results

the only catch is taht some of your cell may stick to the top filter
(ours do) so you might need to make sure that "chamber" height exceeds
the height of your sample and try to keep it right side up during processing


(an easy way to remove small sections of colonies from plates is with a
cork borer or a glass pipette)

good luck & please excuse the typos

feel free to contact me if this is unclear

Marcelle A Gillott
Univ Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Department of Biological Sciences
414-229-4186







From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-umbc.edu
Date: Mon, 25 Apr 1994 17:44:57 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: marine cytophage species

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First: Thanks to all for their suggestions.
Now: Let me go into this problem a little deeper.
We have unknown bacteria of marine cytophage species that autofluoresce
red and green. We want to look at the surface by SEM to see:
1: surface structures, if any
2: orientation of the bacteria as it grows (there is a definite
orientation as seen after some of the cells have floated off)
Need: a way to fix the cells without ANY cells floating off the surface
Tried: 1: suspensions
2: growing on nucleopore filters
3: growing on coverslips
Result: no autofluorescence, no definite orientation
Fix: 1: direct addition of glutaraldehyde
2: cutting out pathways in the agar and fixing by letting the
agar absorb the fix and fixing the cells from underneath the agar.
3: osmium vapor fixation then glut.
Result: Some of the bacteria still float up when washing and dehydrating.
Question: Is there a way to crosslink the cells by some fixation technique
so they will remain in place on the agar surface?

Thanx,
Phil




From: Marcelle A Gillott :      magem-at-csd4.csd.uwm.edu
Date: Tue, 26 Apr 1994 08:27:19 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: test

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sorry to bother everyone with this but my mail to this service keeps gett
returned undeliverable - just checking to see if I have worked out the bugs







From: John Mansfield :      John_Mansfield-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 26 Apr 1994 10:03:05 U
Subject: Digital Instrument AFM Images

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"Microscopy Mailing List" {microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov} ,
"Sci.techniques.microscopy" {sci.techniques.microscopy-at-decwrl.dec.com}

John Mansfield
North Campus Electron Microbeam Analysis Lab
University of Michigan
2455 Hayward
Ann Arbor MI 48109-2143
Phone: (313)936-3352 FAX (313)936-3352
jfmjfm-at-engin.umich.edu or John.F.Mansfield-at-umich.edu Time: 08:59

Date:4/26/94
NC EMAL

Macro 'Read AFM File';
{reads header in and searches for the number of Samps/line, uses this value}
{as the width and heigth for the image import (therefore supports 128,256 and}
{512 squared images}
var
size, width, height, offset, slices, first, second, third, fourth: integer;
icount: integer;
temp, one, two, three, four: string;
done: boolean;
begin;
done:= 'false';
width:=8192;
height:=1;
Offset:=0;
slices:=1;
SetImport('8-bit');
SetCustom(width, height, offset,slices);
Import('');
icount:=1;
repeat
temp:=chr(getpixel(icount, 0));
if ((temp='S') and (one {} 'S')) then one:=temp;
if ( (temp='a') and (one='S') and (two {} 'a')) then two:=temp;
if( (temp='m') and (one='S') and (two='a')) then three:=temp;
if( (temp='p') and (one='S') and (two='a') and (three='m')) then four:=temp;
if (four='p') then done:='true';
icount:=icount+1;
until done='true';
first:=(getpixel((icount+8), 0))-48;
second:=(getpixel((icount+9), 0))-48;
third:=(getpixel((icount+10), 0))-48;
fourth:=(getpixel((icount+11), 0))-48;
if (first {} 1) then size:=(first*100)+(second*10)+third;
if (first=1) then size:=(first*1000)+(second*100)+(third*100)+fourth;
Dispose;
width:=size;
height:=size;
offset:=8192;
SetImport('16-bit signed,swap bytes');
SetCustom(width, height, Offset);
Import('');
end;







From: EMLAB-at-opus.mco.edu
Date: Tue, 26 Apr 1994 08:18:02 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: Marine cytophage

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Phil, Can you overlay the agar/bacteria with another thin layer of agar then
fix as usual. When osmium is added the bugs should turn black (if in colonies)
making them visible after emebedding.

Ed Calomeni




From: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
Date: Tue, 26 Apr 1994 11:59:40 +0100
Subject: International Botanical Microscopy Meeting

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Sender: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
74250.331-at-COMPUSERVE.COM, ROSS.MACKENZIE-at-OX.AC.UK,
MICROSCOPY-at-ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV
Message-ID: {0097D884.3419ACD2.340-at-vax.ox.ac.uk}

5th International Botanical Microscopy Meeting

PLANT CELL BIOLOGY

Royal Microscopical Society
&
Oxford Brookes University

26 - 31 March 1995

Location
Oxford Brookes University - Oxford's new University, situated 1
mile from the centre of historic Oxford.
Full board accommodation will be available at Morrell Hall, 5
minutes walk from the campus.

Cost
Registration and full board accommodation will cost no more than
œ440.0 pounds sterling. Receptions, the Conference Dinner and a copy of the
special edition of the Journal of Microscopy are included in the
cost. There are a very limited number of double rooms available.

Delegates
To preserve the informal nature of the Botanical Microscopy
Meeting, the number of delegates will be restricted to 150.
Places at the conference will be allocated on a first come, first
served basis with a preference given to those offering to present
a poster. (Please note that places will only be guaranteed after
payment has been received.)

Booking forms and abstract instructions will be available from
June 1994.

Organizing Committee
Nick Harris - Durham
Chris Hawes - Oxford
Nick Read - Edinburgh
Peter Shaw - John Innes Institute


Format of Meeting
Following the success of Botanical Microscopy 1991 in Durham, the
same team are organizing the meeting to be held in Oxford. The
scientific programme will be based around presentations from
keynote speakers.

A call for abstracts will be made late 1994 and the organizing
committee will select suitable papers from these and invite the
authors to present them orally. However, posters on any aspect
of plant cell biology involving microscopy may be presented.

Social
A reception is planned for the opening evening of the meeting and
an informal Conference Dinner will be held on the Thursday
evening. A number of short tours around Oxford and its environs
will be offered on the Wednesday afternoon of the Conference.


Publications
Keynote and selected papers will be published as a special
edition of the Journal of Microscopy which will be distributed
to all delegates upon publication. All manuscripts will be
subject to peer review.

Travel
Air: Oxford Brookes University is a 60 minute bus ride from
Heathrow airport and 130 minute ride from Gatwick airport.

Road: Coaches run from Victoria Bus Station in London every 20-30
minutes. Journey time is approximately 60 minutes.

Rail: There is a good train service from Paddington Station,
London to Oxford.


Queries
If you would like any further information, please contact Miss Karen
Hale at the Royal Microscopical Society, 37/38 St Clements,
Oxford, OX4 1AJ. Tel: +44-865-248768. Fax: +44-865-791237.
Email: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk.

Programme to Include:
þMicrotubule and cytoskeletal dynamics

þMicroscopy of living cells - ion imaging, cell-cell signalling

þPlant cell organization - cell walls, meiosis, low temperature
techniques

þMolecular mechanisms of plant development - cell cycle, floral
development

þPlant microbe-interactions


Keynote Speakers
B Gunning - Canberra
H Shibaoka - Osaka
J Hush - Sydney
S Giroy - Penn State
K Oparka - Invergowrie
K Roberts - Norwich
M Parthasarathy - Cornell
Z Cande - Berkeley
J Doonan - Norwich
R Howard - Wilmington

Please complete this coupon indicating your requirements, and
return to the Royal Microscopical Society, 37/38 St Clements,
Oxford, OX4 1AJ, UK.

I would be interested in attending the 5th International

Botanical Microscopy Meeting....................................

I would be interested in submitting an abstract (deadline 30

November 1994) .................................................

Please complete using block capitals

Name:
Prof/Dr/Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms).......................................

.............................................................

Address:......................................................

..............................................................

..............................................................

..............................................................

..............................................................

Postcode:.....................................................




From: Sverker Enestr|m :      sveen%pai.liu.se-at-hulio.liu.se
Date: Tue, 26 Apr 1994 09:26:07 +0200
Subject: Information about SJ Singer, USA

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Does anybody know where I could find SJ Singer, the man who introduced
EM immunocytochemistry by a paper in Nature (London) 1959. I would like
to present him by his portrait at a meeting. All advices are welcome.
Thanks,
Sverker Enestr|m

=======================================================================
I send this mail again because of local configuration error: "Service
unavailable"
=======================================================================






From: Laurie Frederick :      frederick_laurie-at-vanlab.paprican.ca
Date: Tue, 26 Apr 1994 11:09:25 PDT
Subject: SEM / EDX Mailing list

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Hi,
We are considering the purchase of an Energy Dispersive X-ray
Analysis (EDX) system for attachment to our SEM within the next year.
Our applications are in two areas; paper making and corrosion of
materials.

I would like to know if anyone is aware of mailing lists etc., accessable
on the Internet, which are specifically interested in EDX. I would like to
follow discussions on relative merrits of detector and window
types , vacuum requirements for windowless detectors, pulse
processor requirements, software options and in particular, read any
horror stories associated with a given manufacturer.

If anyone has opinions on what is currently available from recent
purchase deliberations or would like to recommend a review paper on
current technology or a periodical which they go to for this sort of
information it would be greatly appreciated.

My first priority is always dependable service, but having said that, I
will be looking for a high quality detector capable of light element
analysis, high pulse throughput, good quantitation with ease of use ,
beam control and image acquisition and replay capabilities.

Thanks for your help.

______________________________________________________________________
Laurie Frederick, A.SC.T. PAPRICAN
Corrosion Control Group 3800 Wesbrook Mall
The Pulp and Paper Research Vancouver, B.C.
Institute of Canada Canada V6S 2L9

Email: frederick_laurie-at-vanlab.paprican.ca
Tel: 604-222-3200 Fax: 604-222-3207




From: Gib Ahlstrand :      giba-at-puccini.crl.umn.edu
Date: Tue, 26 Apr 1994 16:15:49 -0500
Subject: Molecular probe sizes

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I am looking for some help regarding pore sizes in the secondary cell wall of
wood. The wood has been partially degraded by fungi, and I want to see how the
porosity of the lignin-cellulose substrate has changed. I plan on infiltrating
wood with proteins of different molecular weights (my probes), then locating
them with immunolabling. I have already decided on a 40000 M.W. (ovalbumin, and
MN dependant peroxidase), and a 20000 M.W. (myoglobin) probe. I am still
looking for an adequate probe for M.W. 5000, 10000, and 15000. By adequate
probe I mean a protein that does not denature easily, and also I can purchase
antibodies against. Any help would be appreciated.

Eugene Krueger, Dept of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota.


--
Eugene Krueger
Electron Optical Facility
University of Minnesota
Dept. Plant Pathology
495 Borlaug Hall
St. Paul, MN 55108 (612)625-8249
612-625-9728 FAX
giba-at-puccini.crl.umn.edu






From: DRStadden:R_D:Armstrong
Date: 4-26-94 4:32pm
Subject: Spencer Stereoscope

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To: MICROSCO:CENTRAL
cc: DRStadden:R_D:Armstrong
Subj: Spencer Stereoscope
------------------------------------------------------------------

Is anyone acquainted with a good repair service for AO Spencer
stereomicroscopes? We have the "gray standard issue", step
magnification, ubiquitous model, probably vintage 1959 or so. One of the
prisms has come loose, and we've spent too much time already trying to
get it EXACTLY back into position. Maybe there's a trick or tool we're
missing. Thanks in advance for any help.

DRStadde+aCENTRAL%ARMSTRONG-at-MCIMAIL.COM




From: Gib Ahlstrand :      giba-at-puccini.crl.umn.edu
Date: Tue, 26 Apr 1994 16:32:54 -0500
Subject: Re: Molecular probe sizes

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html



I am looking for some help regarding pore sizes in the secondary cell wall of
wood. The wood has been partially degraded by fungi, and I want to see how
the porosity of the lignin-cellulose substrate has changed. I plan on
infiltrating wood with proteins of different molecular weights (my probes),
then locating them with immunolabling. I have already decided on a 40000
M.W. (ovalbumin, and MN dependant peroxidase), and a 20000 M.W. (myoglobin)
probe. I am still looking for an adequate probe for M.W. 5000, 10000, and
15000. By adequate probe I mean a protein that does not denature easily, and
also I can purchase antibodies against. Any help would be appreciated.

Eugene Krueger, Dept of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota.


--
Gib Ahlstrand
Electron Optical Facility
University of Minnesota
Dept. Plant Pathology
495 Borlaug Hall
St. Paul, MN 55108 (612)625-8249
612-625-9728 FAX
giba-at-puccini.crl.umn.edu






From: Chris Krenn :      crkrenn-at-ux5.lbl.gov
Date: Tue, 26 Apr 1994 21:44:58 -0700
Subject: Q:Intensified CCD systems for EBSP (Electron Backscatter Diffraction)

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Newsgroups: sci.techniques.xtallography,sci.techniques.microscopy

A question:
To detect dim backscattered electron diffraction patterns, one
generally uses a SIT (Silicon Intesified Tube) camera behind a
phosphor screen. Hamamatsu's model of SIT has a quoted sensitivity
limit of 10^-4 lux. Hamamatsu also sells (for a modest premium) an
"intensified" CCD which is sensitive down to 10^-5 lux.

We know a SIT camera will work, but imagine the CCD system will work a
little better.

Has anyone used an intensified CCD (Either Hamamatsu's or others')?
Are there any drawbacks besides the price? Are there better SIT
systems available that would rival the intensified CCD?

Thank you,
Chris Krenn
Graduate Student
UC Berkeley Dept. of Materials Science




From: EMLAB-at-opus.mco.edu
Date: Wed, 27 Apr 1994 09:31:03 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: TEM - Protein A Gold Labelling

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Monica,

Are you working with tissue or purified amyloid? If tissue you need to
permeablize the tissue with a detergent (such as Triton-X 100). It seems
accesability is your problem. Try various concentrations of detergent,
0.1 to 1.0% for various times. Detergents are used after fixation and in all
blocking, Ab's, and probe solutions. Hope this helps.

Ed Calomeni




From: Sverker Enestr|m :      sveen%pai.liu.se-at-hulio.liu.se
Date: Wed, 27 Apr 1994 15:33:11 +0200
Subject: RE: polymerizing Unicryl

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Wayne England has asked:
***********************************************************************
I am having a problem getting Unicryl to polymerize properly
and am left with a very brittle block or no polymerization at all. I
have tried all of the manufacturer's methods (heat and UV covering all
the variables) but am not satisfied with the results. Do you find
this resin to be normally brittle or am I missing something? Also,
does anyone know how this resin is at infiltrating plant material?
It's properties sound too good to be true!!
***********************************************************************
We have some experience using this polar resin, which has some ad-
vantages over Lowicryl K4M but shares the general disadvantages inherent
in hydrophilic resins. The labeling intensity is high but more varying than
for Epon. I polymerize at -10C by direct UV in the low temperature chamber
of Balzers FSU 010 freeze substitution unit for at least 2 days and using
the low temperature UV polymerization insert, filled with 10 ml ethanol.
The blocks become hard rubber-like and are more easily sectioned than Lowicryl.
The ultrathin sections are more resistant to the electron beam than Lowicryl
but not as good as Epon. The tecnicians are anxious about hypersensitivity
reactions after exposure for some time. What are yours opinion?
Sverker Enestr|m
Dep of pathology
Link|ping, Sweden







From: Jay Jerome :      jjerome-at-isnet.is.wfu.edu
Date: Wed, 27 Apr 1994 11:02:54 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: TEM - Protein A Gold Labelling

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Brij 58 is another detergent that works well for immunocytochemistry. It
is not as harsh as Triton and preserves a little more ultrastructure.
Downside is that it often doesnt permeabilize all cells in a single
preparation.

On Wed, 27 Apr 1994 EMLAB-at-opus.mco.edu wrote:

} Monica,
}
} Are you working with tissue or purified amyloid? If tissue you need to
} permeablize the tissue with a detergent (such as Triton-X 100). It seems
} accesability is your problem. Try various concentrations of detergent,
} 0.1 to 1.0% for various times. Detergents are used after fixation and in all
} blocking, Ab's, and probe solutions. Hope this helps.
}
} Ed Calomeni
}




From: Susan Smith - National Steel Corporation :      smiths-at-mlc.lib.mi.us
Date: Wed, 27 Apr 1994 12:56:41 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Bacterial Metal Corrosion

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Message-Id: {9404271519.AA00742-at-odin.morph.med.umich.edu}
Errors-To: {dennis%odin-at-odin.morph.med.umich.edu}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Cc: dennis-at-odin.morph.med.umich.edu

One of my library patrons is studying corrosion of metal by bacteria.
She needs techniques for preparing samples of bacteria on metal for SEM
microscopy. She is also looking for methods of staining or
gold-labelling to improve SEM sensitivity. The methods need to be
applicable to a wide variety of bacteria species. Any information on
best SEM conditions - voltage, angle, windows, etc. would also be helpful.

Thanks for your help.

Replies can be made directly to me at smiths-at-mlc.lib.mi.us or you can
contact my patron, Cathy Stewart at 313/676-5292.

Susan Smith
R&D Tech. Information Center
National Steel Corp.
Trenton, MI 48183




From: MARK-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca
Date: 27 Apr 94 10:09:51 PST+8PDT
Subject:

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940427100951.630-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

We inherited a microscope slide awhile back which we would like to
replace, but do not know of a source. The slide had a grid of
letters on it (black background with white letters) and it was used
for finding particular locations of structures on other slides; ie a
certain cell on your slide was at position Xy on the reference slide.
Ours is getting so beat up that it is going to fall apart any day.
I am not sure if it was commercially available, or made by someone.
Any help would be appreciated.

Mark Elliott
UBC-Pulmonary Research Lab
St Pauls Hospital
Vancouver




From: ldm-at-apollo.numis.nwu.edu (L. D. Marks)
Date: Wed, 27 Apr 1994 12:21:47 -0500
Subject: Film for HREM

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We currently use Agfa Scientia film for (300kV) HREM.
It is a little slower (maybe) than Kodak SO163, faster than
4489. It has a slightly finer grain than Kodak SO163, which
helps.
Two questions:
1) What are people using for faster film. The Agfa film
is quite old (i.e. it has been around for at least ten years),
and is there anything better at a reasonable price?
2) We have noticed some scratches at times which seem to
be a quality control issue in the film. Is this common?

Thanks

Laurie Marks
Northwestern University




From: Susan Smith - National Steel Corporation :      smiths-at-mlc.lib.mi.us
Date: Wed, 27 Apr 1994 13:49:18 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: SEM / EDX Mailing list

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Scanning: the journal of scanning microscopy is one journal that you may
want to check. It is published by FAMS Inc., Box 832, Mahwah, NJ 07430-0832
Phone 201/818-1010 FAX: 210/818-0086
Hope this is helpful.

Susan Smith
National Steel Corp.
Trenton, MI 48183

On Tue, 26 Apr 1994, Laurie Frederick wrote:

} Hi,
} We are considering the purchase of an Energy Dispersive X-ray
} Analysis (EDX) system for attachment to our SEM within the next year.
} Our applications are in two areas; paper making and corrosion of
} materials.
}
} I would like to know if anyone is aware of mailing lists etc., accessable
} on the Internet, which are specifically interested in EDX. I would like to
} follow discussions on relative merrits of detector and window
} types , vacuum requirements for windowless detectors, pulse
} processor requirements, software options and in particular, read any
} horror stories associated with a given manufacturer.
}
} If anyone has opinions on what is currently available from recent
} purchase deliberations or would like to recommend a review paper on
} current technology or a periodical which they go to for this sort of
} information it would be greatly appreciated.
}
} My first priority is always dependable service, but having said that, I
} will be looking for a high quality detector capable of light element
} analysis, high pulse throughput, good quantitation with ease of use ,
} beam control and image acquisition and replay capabilities.
}
} Thanks for your help.
}
} ______________________________________________________________________
} Laurie Frederick, A.SC.T. PAPRICAN
} Corrosion Control Group 3800 Wesbrook Mall
} The Pulp and Paper Research Vancouver, B.C.
} Institute of Canada Canada V6S 2L9
}
} Email: frederick_laurie-at-vanlab.paprican.ca
} Tel: 604-222-3200 Fax: 604-222-3207
}




From: Manny Olds :      oldsma-at-mary.iia.org
Date: Wed, 27 Apr 1994 16:28:26 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: your mail

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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On 27 Apr 1994 MARK-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca wrote of his need for a slide
with a special grid on it.

My 1992 McCrone Accessories catalog has a similar slide called an
"England Finder" (p/n 313). I would call them and see what they have
for you. Their phone nos. are 708-887-7100 and 800-mac-8122.

Manny Olds
oldsma-at-iia.org





From: Michael Rock :      merock-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Wed, 27 Apr 1994 13:39:51 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: PNEMS meeting announcement

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1994
PACIFIC NORTHWEST EM SOCIETY
SPRING MEETING
on
"Evolution in Microscopy: Interfacing with Computers"
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center - (South Lake Union)
Pelton Auditorium, Building B
1100 Fairview Ave. N.
Seattle, WA 98109
Friday, May 13th

12:55 p.m. Welcoming Remarks
Charles Meshul, President, PNEMS
VA Medical Center, Portland, OR


1:00 p.m. "The Merging Roles of EM, Microanalysis, & Computers for
Characterization of Materials."
Nestor Zaluzec, Materials Science Division, Argonne
National Lab


1:45 p.m. "The Evolving Role of Hardware in Image Processing: What
are the Requirements?"
Leonard Pagliaro, Bioengineering, Univ. of Washington


2:15 p.m. Tour of New Fred Hutchinson Facility and Coffee Break


3:15 p.m. "Analysis and Handling of Cosmic Dust."
Don Brownlee, Astronomy, Univ. of Washington


4:00 p.m. "Biological Applications of Microscopic Image Analysis."
Grace Bartoo, Bioengineering, Univ. of Washington


4:30 p.m. "SEM Photography: Analog/Digital; B&W/Color."
David Scharf, Los Angeles, CA

5:15 p.m. Adjourn

5:30 p.m. Social -at- Benjamin's on Lake Union
Sponsored by: PNEMS & Corporate Members (EMS/Diatome US,
Gatan Inc., JEOL USA Inc., Link Analytical/Oxford Instruments
Inc., Palmborg Associates, Philips Electron Optics)


1994
PACIFIC NORTHWEST EM SOCIETY
SPRING MEETING
on
"Evolution in Microscopy: Interfacing with Computers"
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center - (South Lake Union )
Rooms B1072 and B1074, Building B
1100 Fairview Ave. N.
Seattle, WA 98109
Saturday, May 14th

8:30 a.m. Coffee, Juice, Rolls

9:00 a.m. Computer Software Exchange *
Nestor Zaluzec, Materials Science Division, Argonne National Lab

10:00 a.m. NIH Image Software Demonstration
Nestor Zaluzec, Materials Science Division, Argonne
National Lab

11:00 a.m. Adobe Photoshop Software Demonstration
David Scharf , Los Angeles, CA 90039

12:00 p.m. Lunch

1:00 p.m. PNEMS Business Meeting

1:30 p.m. Video Microscopy Demonstration
Gary Crawford, Mideo Systems, Huntington Beach, CA

2:30 p.m. Particle Atlas Electronic Edition CD-ROM Demonstration
Steve Shaffer, MicroDataWare, Hayward, CA

3:30 p.m. Real Time Imaging and Electron Diffraction Demonstration
Dave Joswiak, Astronomy, Univ. of Washington

4:30 p.m. Adjourn

* This software exchange will consist of the MSA, MAS and EMC Public
Domain Library having an excess of 100 megabytes of software (Mac and
PC). If you are interested, bring formatted disks to make copies of the
available software.

Contact : Mike Rock -at- (206) 685-7073 or Barbara Reine -at- (206) 543-1955
for Information.


PNEMS Spring Meeting Registration Form

This meeting, (May 13 & 14) covering the topic of computers interfacing
with microscopes, promises to be exciting and educational. Our speakers
representing a wide range of disciplines and interests, all share an
expertise in using computers in their microscopic investigation. Please
note the correction of the address for the meeting (the NEW Fred
Hutchinson Cancer Research Center on South Lake Union, 1100 Fairview Ave. N.)
Please fill out, and return, the following form to help us plan for your
attending the meeting.

Registration in advance: Students...FREE Others...$ 15.00
Registration on site: Students $ 5.00 Others $ 20.00

Name:_____________________________________

Employer: Company __________________________________________

Mailing address: ____________________________________________

____________________________________________

phone:_________________ Mail check ( payable to PNEMS ) to:

fax:________________ Joe Gray
PNEMS Treasurer
e-mail:_________________ P.O. Box 200
Mercer Island, WA 98040


For more information contact:
Mike Rock (206)685-7073...merock-at-u.washington.edu
Barbara Reine (206)543-1955...reine-at-u.washington.edu





From: tivol-at-tethys.ph.albany.edu
Date: Wed, 27 Apr 1994 18:01:15 EDT
Subject: Intensified CCDs

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Chris Krenn asked about experiences with intensified CCD cameras. We
have a Pulnix on our high-voltage electron microscope, albeit for a different
application. We use it primarily for scanning grids and low dose focussing for
beam-sensitive specimens. Under conditions where the illumination is barely
visible on our high-brightness screen, but no details are visible, we can
clearly see all we need with the video system. We can focus to the nearest
setting on the objective fine control (.99 microns per step) in a few seconds,
and can focus on the vernier control (1.6 microns full scale) in a few more
seconds. This system is great for our applications. There is a trade-off be-
tween sensitivity and resolution--especially for the inherently low-contrast
images seen at high voltage. We opted for high sensitivity, and, within that
constraint, maximized the resolution.
We do NOT use the system for collecting ED data, since the intense cen-
tral spot would damage the intensifier, even at low-dose conditions. Further-
more, it is not at all clear that the CCD gives as good quantitation and sensi-
tivity as LoDose x-ray film. The first point may not be a consideration for
Chris's application, but the second might.
Does anyone know a system with the sensitivity to quantitate small num-
bers (1 or 2) of electrons, with the ability to produce a signal proportional
to electron number for the more intense reflections (i.e. no saturation)?
Since each electron hitting a film grain exposes that grain, it's hard to beat
that quantum efficiency. Positional accuracy is less important for us than
accurate quantitation, including background subtraction.

Yours,

Bill Tivol




From: Gib Ahlstrand :      giba-at-puccini.crl.umn.edu
Date: Wed, 27 Apr 1994 17:17:44 -0500
Subject: MMS Spring Symposium

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SPRING SYMPOSIUM, Minnesota Microscopy Society

"The preparation of samples for [electron] microscopy was still a delicate task
requiring skilled human hands; the preparation of a good sample was as demanding
a craft as that ever practiced by an artisan --
and took almost as long to learn." Michael Crichton The Andromeda Strain


When this quote first surfaced during lunch a few weeks ago, microscopists were
asking:

"Why is specimen preparation for microscopy, whether electron or light, not
simple?

"Do I have to be an artisan? After all, I've got microwaves and high tech
equipment - and hey, who's got the time?

"Is electron microscopy really only science fiction?

If these and similar questions have troubled you way past midnight, then this
year's Spring Symposium may be for you. The application of microwaves is
revolutionizing the preparation of biological specimens and, as a bonus, is
drastically reducing the time involved. New techniques for minimizing damage in
the preparation of materials such as ceramics, polymers, composites and
biomaterials are here. Our speakers will be telling us all about these methods.

SPECIMEN PREPARATION

SHERATON INN, MIDWAY
I-94 at HAMLINE AVENUE
ST. PAUL, MN
THURSDAY - MAY 26, 1994

SCHEDULE OF EVENTS

8:00 - 8:30 AM
Coffee and Late Registration

8:30 - 8:35 AM
Welcoming and Opening Remarks.
Dr. Mark Cavaleri, Research Specialist, 3M Analytical & Properties Research
Labs, 3M Company, St. Paul, MN.

8:35 - 9:25 AM
Preparation of Advanced Materials (ceramics, composits, biomaterials)
for the Microscope
Dr. Don Zipperian, Manager, Long Range Planning and Development, Buehler, LTD.,
Lake Bluff, IL.

9:25 - 10:15 AM
Specimen Preparation of Polymers
for TEM Analysis
and Special Applications
Ms. Jacqueline Aguilera, Senior Physicist, 3M Company, Corporate Research
Analytical, St. Paul,MN.

10:15 - 10:35 AM
\ Coffee Break \


0:35 - 11:25 A.M.
Quantitative Imaging
in the Cereal Industry:
Minimizing Specimen Preparation
Dr. Gary Fulcher, Professor of Food Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul,
MN

11:25 AM - 1:00 PM
5 LUNCH 6
Box lunches will be provided to participants by MMS and catered by the Sheraton
Inn.

1:00 - 1:10 PM
Short Business Meeting
Ratification of Bylaws, Election of Officers
(read Bylaws below)

1:10 - 2:00 PM
Rapid Microwave Fixation of Biological Specimens for Light & Electron Microscopy
Dr. Gary Login, (Part One), Departments of Pathology at the Harvard School of
Dental Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and the Beth Israel Hospital, and the
Charles A. Dana Research Institute, Boston,MA.

2:00 - 2:50 PM
Impervious Biological Specimens:
Techniques and Tricks
Ms. Virginia Lindley, Dept. of Agronomy, University of Arizona; Consultant for
Industrial and Federal Agencies; President of Arizona EM Society.

2:50 - 3:10 P.M.
\ Coffee Break \

3:10 - 4:00 P.M.
A Toolkit for Calibrating and Standardizing Microwave Fixation and Staining
Dr. Gary Login, (Part Two).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Please make your reservation in advance, POSTMARKED NO LATER THAN MONDAY, MAY
23, if you plan to attend the Symposium.
Symposium Fee: $20.00 current regular MEMS/MSOM members 93/94, $30
non-member(confers regular membership), $10.00 student members 93/94, $15.00
non-member students(confers student membership). Fill out the form near the end
of this newsletter and send it in as directed(prefered) or pay at the door.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
REGISTRATION FOR MEMS/MSOM SPRING SYMPOSIUM, MAY 26, 1994, MIDWAY SHERATON (if
your registration includes a new membership, fill out and include MMS Membership
Form, below).
Please postmark your reservation no later that Monday, May 23.

Name__________________________Phone____________Affiliation______________________
__
# Individual Members -at- $20.00 each =
$_______.
# Student Members -at- $10.00 each =
$________.
Total Amount Enclosed = $________.
Above cost for current 93/94 MEMS/MSOM members only. Non-members and renewals
please include membership dues and form(see above).

Make out your check to MMS and mail it together with this form to: Dwight
Erickson, MMS Treasuresr, 3M
Center, Bldg. 251-1A-03, Saint Paul, MN 55144. Late reservations may pay at
the door.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MMS(MEMS/MSOM) Membership Form: 1993-94
All microscopists are urged to support their Society at one of the membership
levels offered below. The
more dues-paying members we have, the more likely we are to attract sustaining
corporate member-
ships which form the financial backbone of our Society. Often, supervisors will
support MMS member-
ships out of their project budget because they recognize that it is a very
inexpensive way to maintain and
increase the skills of their microscopists. If you have been a member over the
years and recognize the
of MMS to the community of microscopists it serves, consider upgrading your
membership this year to
the patron or sustaining level. Thank you.
Name_______________________________ Dr____ Mr____ Ms____ Phone (
)__________
Affiliation_________________________________________Position____________________
_
Address_____________________________________________________ ZIP__________
Describe your areas of interest; state manufacturer and model of instrumentation
below:
Bioscience___________________________________________________________________
Materials Science ______________________________________________________________
SEM____________________ TEM______________________ X-ray_____________________
Are you an MSA Member?_______ MAS Member?_______ Other Professional
groups?___________
Basic $10___ Patron $25___ Sustaining $100___ Student $5___ Due by Dec 31,
'93.
Make checks payable to MMS and mail to our treasurer: Dwight Erickson, MMS
Treasurer, 3M Center,
Bldg. 251-1A-03, Saint Paul, MN 55144.



--
Gib Ahlstrand
Electron Optical Facility
University of Minnesota
Dept. Plant Pathology
495 Borlaug Hall
St. Paul, MN 55108 (612)625-8249
612-625-9728 FAX
giba-at-puccini.crl.umn.edu






From: qiwang-at-vaxa.weeg.uiowa.edu
Date: Wed, 27 Apr 1994 21:57:53 CST
Subject: MMS Spring Symposium

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help




From: qiwang-at-vaxa.weeg.uiowa.edu
Date: Wed, 27 Apr 1994 21:56:31 CST
Subject: MMS Spring Symposium

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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subscribe microscopy




From: pabuffat-at-i2msg1.epfl.ch (Philippe Buffat)
Date: Thu, 28 Apr 1994 07:55:37 +0000
Subject: RE: Intensified CCDs / Image plates

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Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
To: Microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Bill Tivol open the discusion about CCD cameras to the possible
alternatives to phtographic film recording.

Did you consider the electron images plates (Fuji / Kodak / JEOL)? As far
as I know (from the litterature), the DQE is about the same or better than
for photographic films. The linearity is better, the dynamic range larger
and they are suitable for electron diffraction. If somebody is interested I
can look in my files to find more details and some references to papers
(Ultramicroscopy ... a couple of years ago). Of course the complete system
is a quite expensive investment(although compared to a microscope....) and
seems to be available only for JEOL microscopes.

It would be nice to hear how they perform in practice from people who use
them daily.


__________________________________________________________________
Philippe Buffat Ecole Polytechnique Federale de
Lausanne (EPFL)
Institut
Interd=E9partemental de Microscopie Electronique
Address: EPFL-I2M, Batiment MX-C, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Phone: +41(21)693 29 83 (Central European Time) Fax: +41(21)693 44 01
______________________ Eudora 2.0.2 __________________________________






From: Rodney L Kuehn :      kuehn002-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu
Date: Thu, 28 Apr 1994 08:51:58 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: Re: Film for HREM

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hong-at-apollo.numis.nwu.edu
In-Reply-To: {199404271721.AA12312-at-apollo.numis.nwu.edu}
Message-ID: {Pine.3.05.9404280856.A29935-a100000-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu}
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII


I also had regular problems with scratches on Dupont Cronar film. I
have seen no scratches on 4489.

On Wed, 27 Apr 1994, L. D. Marks wrote:

} We currently use Agfa Scientia film for (300kV) HREM.
} It is a little slower (maybe) than Kodak SO163, faster than
} 4489. It has a slightly finer grain than Kodak SO163, which
} helps.
} Two questions:
} 1) What are people using for faster film. The Agfa film
} is quite old (i.e. it has been around for at least ten years),
} and is there anything better at a reasonable price?
} 2) We have noticed some scratches at times which seem to
} be a quality control issue in the film. Is this common?
}
} Thanks
}
} Laurie Marks
} Northwestern University







From: TOWER::GWERDOS Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers
Date: Thu, 28 Apr 1994 09:03:20 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Fw: Re: Cryostat help!

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} From: IN%"pataky-at-bcu.ubc.ca"
} Subj: Cryostat help!
}
} Return-path: {BIOSCI-REQUEST-at-net.bio.net}
} Received: from net.bio.net by gnv.ifas.ufl.edu (PMDF V4.2-11 #3240) id
} {01HBOOXBZ5DS8X4B47-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu} ; Wed, 27 Apr 1994 22:18:06 EST
} Received: (from daemon-at-localhost) by net.bio.net (8.6.8.1/8.6.6) id TAA23358
} for cytonet-list; Wed, 27 Apr 1994 19:04:06 -0700
} Received: (from news-at-localhost) by net.bio.net (8.6.8.1/8.6.6) id TAA23346 for
} cytonet-arpanet; Wed, 27 Apr 1994 19:04:05 -0700
} Date: Wed, 27 Apr 1994 23:50:46 +0000 (GMT)
} From: pataky-at-bcu.ubc.ca (Dave Pataky)
} Subject: Cryostat help!
} To: cytonet-at-net.bio.net
} Message-id: {pataky-270494154951-at-steevlab.generes.ca}
} Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT
} Followup-To: bionet.cellbiol.cytonet
} NNTP-Posting-Host: steevlab.generes.ca
}
} Anybody out there know why Tissue-Tek, presumably designed for embedding
} samples for cryostat cutting, is so $##-at-***%* annoying to work with? The
} problem: I'm cutting chick embryonic brain tissue, anywhere from 10-40
} microns, at -20 and no matter what I try the sections won't stop curling
} up, rolling into tubes as soon as I lift the antiroll plate. I've tried
} adjusting the blade angle, the "anti-roll" (that's a joke) plate, the
} temperature, speed of cutting, new blade (disposable), nothing works.
} Ideally I'd like to see nice flat sections that stay that way, preferably
} "ribboning" off the blade so I can mount several at once. Know any tricks
} or alternatives to Tissue Tek which may work better? Any ideas how to deal
} with static electricity? (sometimes the sections stick to the "anti-roll"
} plate). Feels like I'm battling the antichrist (and losing!),
}
}
} --
} Dave Pataky
} Dept of Zoology, UBC
} pataky-at-bdc.ubc.ca
}
Brain can be particularly difficult. I suggest cryoprotecting in 20% sucrose
with 3% PEG MW 400. Cut at -25. Don't expect to get a ribbon. We are usually
satisfied with one section at a time. Rarely do we get two. I have a nice
handout on cryosectioning that I picked up at a meeting. Give me your FAX #
or mailing address and I will send a copy.

**********************************************************
* Greg Erdos ** *
* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
**********************************************************
**********************************************************
* Greg Erdos ** *
* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
**********************************************************




From: Jay Jerome :      jjerome-at-isnet.is.wfu.edu
Date: Thu, 28 Apr 1994 10:36:34 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: Film for HREM

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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hong-at-apollo.numis.nwu.edu
In-Reply-To: {Pine.3.05.9404280856.A29935-a100000-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu}
Message-Id: {Pine.3.89.9404281018.A13707-0100000-at-isnet.is.wfu.edu}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

We were using SO163 but switched back to 4489. The SO163 seemed to have
emulsion problems (much grosser defects than mere scratches, we had big
chunks of emulsion fall out). We could never identify anything we were
doing wrong and it seemed to be specific to certain Kodak lot numbers. We
have not had problems since switching back to 4489 but sometimes need the
faster film. Anyone else having problems with SO163 or should we try it
again? We can't find a supplier of the Agfa film.

On Thu, 28 Apr 1994, Rodney L Kuehn wrote:

}
} I also had regular problems with scratches on Dupont Cronar film. I
} have seen no scratches on 4489.
}
} On Wed, 27 Apr 1994, L. D. Marks wrote:
}
} } We currently use Agfa Scientia film for (300kV) HREM.
} } It is a little slower (maybe) than Kodak SO163, faster than
} } 4489. It has a slightly finer grain than Kodak SO163, which
} } helps.
} } Two questions:
} } 1) What are people using for faster film. The Agfa film
} } is quite old (i.e. it has been around for at least ten years),
} } and is there anything better at a reasonable price?
} } 2) We have noticed some scratches at times which seem to
} } be a quality control issue in the film. Is this common?
} }
} } Thanks
} }
} } Laurie Marks
} } Northwestern University
}
}
}
}




From: pabuffat-at-i2msg1.epfl.ch (Philippe Buffat)
Date: Thu, 28 Apr 1994 14:58:55 +0000
Subject: Camera CCD / image plates

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Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Bill Tivol open the discusion about CCD cameras and the possible
alternatives to phtographic film recording.

Did you consider the electron images plates (Fuji / Kodak / JEOL)? As far
as I know (from the litterature), the DQE is about the same or higher than
for photographic films. The linearity is better, the dynamic range larger
and they are suitable for electron diffraction. If somebody is interested,
I can look in my files to find the references of some (old) papers
(Ultramicroscopy ... a couple of years ago).
Of course the complete system is a quite expensive investment(although
compared to a microscope....) and seems to be available only for JEOL
microscopes.

It would be nice to hear how they perform in practice from people who use
them daily.
Yours

__________________________________________________________________
Philippe Buffat Ecole Polytechnique Federale de
Lausanne (EPFL)
Institut
Interd=E9partemental de Microscopie Electronique
Address: EPFL-I2M, Batiment MX-C, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Phone: +41(21)693 29 83 (Central European Time) Fax: +41(21)693 44 01
______________________ Eudora 2.0.2 __________________________________






From: COOK-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Thu, 28 Apr 1994 10:20:08 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: HREM film and Kodak SO163

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We have been using Kodak SO163 without difficulty for years and we now use it
in our JEOL JEM-4000EXII. We started using it because it is faster than 4489
and it can be pushed. The slightly larger grain does not seem to be a problem
for our HREM users, but most do want increased film speed.

Russell Cook
Electron Microscopy Center for Materials Research
Argonne National Laboratory
Argonne, IL 60439




From: NANCY SMITH :      NSMITH-at-darwin.sci.csuhayward.edu
Date: Thu, 28 Apr 1994 13:30:56 PSD8PDT
Subject: photographing bacteria

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Dear Microbe Hunters:

Can someone offer suggestions for photographing Bacillus subtilis at
the optical microscope level? These bacteria are small, motile and
contain refractile bodies. In a fluid media there is a lot of
Brownian motion and the refractile bodies create diffraction rings.
We were thinking of using methyl cellulose. Can anyone suggest the
proper viscosity to use? Does anyone know of a book or book chapter
describing photographing bacteria?

Thanks in advance for any help.

N. Smith
nsmith-at-csuhayward.edu




From: tivol-at-tethys.ph.albany.edu
Date: Thu, 28 Apr 1994 16:52:36 EDT
Subject: Films for HREM

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Dear HREMers,

I am just getting started trying to do low-dose HREM at high (1 MV)
voltage. I have been told that SO163 developed in undiluted D-19 for 12 min
is the best way to go, and I plan to try it as soon as the film arrives. Mean-
while, I have been working at high mag (200kx-400kx) with Dupont LoDose. It is
at least an order of magnitude more sensitive than SO163, but the grain size is
also an order of magnitude larger (makes sense, equal sensitivity per grain and
all that). Other drawbacks are the blue backing for LoDose and the tendency to
fog and to show arrowhead-like marks from static electric discharges when very
dry films are separated. Working in total darkness is also required with Lo-
Dose.
Murray King, at our lab, did a systematic study of the developing and
fixing conditions for 4489 and LoDose to produce the best combination of sens-
itivity and low fog. As a result we use 4 min in D-19 (4489) or GBX (LoDose)
and 5 min fix. I'd be interested in anyone else's results with SO163.
Although tedious, I believe such systematic studies are very valuable. If this
particular wheel has not already been invented, I'll probably undertake the
study in my copious free time (to quote from T. Lehrer).

Yours,

Bill Tivol




From: ARGIL-at-delphi.com
Date: Thu, 28 Apr 1994 01:13:39 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Intensified CCD systems for EBSP

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Chris Krenn asks about using SIT cameras for detecting backscattered electron
diffraction patterns.

As I understand this problem, you may not need the full sensitivity of the
SIT (10^-4). A good CCD camera with exposure control may do the trick.
A sensitive camera would have about .5 lux sensitivity, or less,
with a nod given to the noise floor, at 1/60 sec exposure.
Integrating on the chip for under a second would give around 10^-2 lux,
with more available at longer times. This may be enough.

This camera would cost, maybe, $1400, or around 8% of your SIT.

My company makes a device called the OMNEX which can control these cameras,
as well as do real time averaging, memory functions, measurements,
digital contrast control, psuedocolor, zoom, frame storage, and lots of
other things. We have a lot of people using it for applications where
a little longer exposure time is all that's needed. (We also have people
using it with SIT cameras for all of its other functions.)

Good luck. Send me a note if you would like any more info.

Arthur Gillman
Princeton, NJ





From: PANM-at-CSSS.LA.ASU.EDU
Date: Thu, 28 Apr 1994 15:35:03 -0700 (MST)
Subject: Re:Films for HREM/CCD camera for low-dose HREM

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Bill Tivol posted a message regarding films for low-dose HREM. Perhaps I can
suggest to use CCD camera (if one can afford it) to do a much better job. I have
been doing low-dose HREM for several years now, and after taking the pains and
frustrations with films, we started using slow-scan CCd camera 3 years ago. We
are very pleased with the performence of the camera, and able to record low-dose
HREM images with much confidence. I think CCD cameras offers the following
advantages over conventional films: (1) Digital recording, i.e. on-line
evaluation of image quality and fine tuning microscope operating conditions; (2)
Very high sensitivity (low-dose). I am going to give a talk on low-dose HREm in
the upcoming MSA meeting. If anyone is interested, please send me an email.

Ming Pan
CSSS, Arizona State University
panm-at-csss.la.asu.edu





From: _ _ _ _ _ MARK W. LUND _ _ _ _ _ :      LUNDM-at-XRAY.BYU.EDU
Date: Thu, 28 Apr 1994 17:11 MDT
Subject: Sem/EDX

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Laurie asked for help on EDX selection, in this case windows:

Disclaimer: MOXTEK makes beryllium windows and ultra-thin windows
for Si(Li) detectors, and supplies about half of the Si(Li) windows
used world wide. I honestly tried to be objective in the
following, but needed to warn you! I would be very interested in
any comments, anecdotes, etc. from the microscope community on this
subject.

I just wrote a chapter on thin windows for light element analysis
for the book that Dave Williams and Dale Newbury are editing for
the MAS. The book is entitled "X-ray spectrometry in electron beam
instruments." It should be out this fall. A few items from my
paper may be helpful:

If you are interested in light element analysis you should buy the
spectrometer as a whole instrument for light element analysis.
There is a lot more to light element sensitivity than the window
(detector, FET preamp, processing electronics, software). It is
possible to buy the best window, but still not get the best
detection limits.

Windowless detectors have generally not lived up to their potential
because of icing problems. A layer of ice can absorb as much as a
thin window. If your microscope is very clean and scrupulously
maintained vacuum-wise, however, this may be a good option. (This
subject needs more text to treat fairly: manufacturers have done a
good job to provide de-icing cycles, etc. to solve these problems.)

It is essential to maintain a steady regimen of standards testing
to know the condition of the detector with all Si(Li) detectors.
Two major things that can go wrong are detector icing and loss of
vacuum (which will warm the detector, causing an increase of
noise.)

Sometimes, to obtain better sensitivity at Be and B, a thin window
is used that does not have an aluminum light blocking layer.
Consider whether you need to block light from the instrument, room,
or sample before selecting one of these. Even with aluminum
coatings ultra-thin windows leak more light than beryllium windows
do.

Since you are putting the spectrometer on an existing SEM it is a
good idea to discuss your selection with both the electron
microscope company and the spectrometer company. The biggest
failure mechanism of thin windows is impact of particles on the
window during venting. Some microscope models never have a
problem, and some have a big problem. There are 'fixes' for the
venting systems of problem microscopes.

Regards

Mark W. Lund, PhD
Director
MOXTEK, Inc.
Orem UT




From: rsjolund-at-vaxa.weeg.uiowa.edu
Date: Fri, 29 Apr 1994 05:39:10 CST
Subject: subscribe

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I wish to subscribe to the microscopy newsgroup.




From: ldm-at-apollo.numis.nwu.edu (L. D. Marks)
Date: Fri, 29 Apr 1994 15:33:51 -0500
Subject: Re: Backfill gases for vacuum systems.

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Alex:

The traditional reason for using something like dry nitrogen
is degassing from the walls of a vacuum system, which is the major
vacuum limitation (plus to some extent) of an unbaked system. If
one uses dry nitrogen, then the initial chemisorbed layers tend to
be quite nitrogen rich; nitrogen desorbs easily. If instead one
uses air, then water and hydrocarbons (car exhaust fumes, people's
breath etc) chemisorb on the walls and only very slowly leave.
I must admit that with a modern microscope there is probably
not that much of an effect since pumps have come a long way in pumping
speed/$. However, if you are really concerned with UHV systems or
are fighting contamination problems nitrogen (with very low hydrocarbon
content) is probably going to help. I am not sure that the water
level will be very relevant for most people.

Laurie Marks




From: ldm-at-apollo.numis.nwu.edu (L. D. Marks)
Date: Fri, 29 Apr 1994 15:35:20 -0500
Subject: Re: Backfill gases for vacuum systems.

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Addendum:
My mailer ate part of my last message. Leaks are also
important, but one should worry more about backstreaming from
roughing pumps in my experience.




From: Wil Bigelow :      Wil_Bigelow-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 29 Apr 1994 16:48:40 U
Subject: Re- Backfill gases

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Subject: Time:4:10 PM
OFFICE MEMO Re: Backfill gases Date:4/29/94
This is a topic that I have discussed in some detail in a book
on "Vacuum Methods in Electron Microscopy" that will be pub-
lished early in May as the latest volume in Audrey Glauert's series PRACTICAL
METHODS IN ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. Briefly, the
purpose of backfilling with a dry gas is to reduce the amount
of water vapor that is adsorbed onto the surfaces inside the
vacuum system when the system is let up to atmospheric
pressure. In even a moderately humid environment, or under
conditions of prolonged exposure to the atmosphere, a surface
can become covered with up to a hundred molecular layers of
adsorbed water. Because water molecules are highly polar
they adsorb to most surfaces quite tenaciously, and then desorb
only very slowly when the system is pumped down again. This
greatly prolongs the time required to pump down to an operating
vacuum. Furthermore, unless a system can be baked out at
temperatures above 200#161#C, the desorption of water also makes
it very difficult to reach pressures much below the upper end
of the 10-7 Torr range.
You are correct, however, in concluding that there is little
benefit to admitting a dry gas into the photographic chamber
of an electron microscope, simply because the water evolved
by the film will quickly coat the surfaces with water anyway.
The same applies to bell jars, the specimen chambers of SEMs,
electron guns, and other systems which are left standing open
to the atmosphere for long periods of time. However, in
situations where only a small hole will be opened in a vacuum
system, such as when an aperture manipulator is being
serviced, it is beneficial to use the dry gas, and to plug
the opening loosely with aluminum foil and to maintain a
slow flow of dry gas through the system while it is at
atmospheric pressure.
The primary concern in selecting the gas to use is that
it be free of both water vapor and oil vapor. Gas pumped
with an oil-sealed compressor will quickly lead to a very
high rate of hydrocarbon contamination on the specimen.
Other than that, nearly any dry gas will work, even dry air.
Dry nitrogen is so commonly used because it is so readily
available. As described in my book, it is even possible to
capture the nitrogen that boils off from a Dewar flask in
a plastic balloon and to use it for this purpose.






From: tivol-at-tethys.ph.albany.edu
Date: Fri, 29 Apr 1994 22:55:51 EDT
Subject: Image plates and CCDs

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Comments: Converted from PROFS to RFC822 format by PUMP V2.2X

Thanx for the info about the image plate and CCD talks at MSA 94. I'll be at
both. In both cases, the delay in readout, etc. is nothing compared to the
time it takes to scan a negative with 10*10 micron pixels and to prepare the
file to be small enough so that our computer doesn't choke on it. For HREM,
digitization via CCD is really the way to go, and we intend to go that way if
the next renewal of our grant allows us to purchase the equipment. For quan-
titation of ED patterns, I don't know whether the CCD might not be overloaded
at the center spot--our intensified CCD can be damaged by trying this. From
the viewpoint of "making every electron count", can either method sense a
single electron--actually, if each electron produces n photons, where n} } 1,
this sensitivity is not as tough as it might first appear. There might be an
interesting idea in trying a thicker phosphor or YAG for ED and a thinner (thus
better resolution) one for HREM. Has anyone investigated this yet? In parti-
cular, for our 1.2 MV electrons this makes a lot of sense to me.

Yours,

Bill Tivol




From: tivol-at-tethys.ph.albany.edu
Date: Fri, 29 Apr 1994 22:56:25 EDT
Subject: H2O-cooled detectors

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Re the discussion of water-cooled xma detectors, does anyone make or use a de-
tector cooled by a Peltier device? I used such a detector many years ago for
proton detection. There, the detector was a silicon junction detector and was
cooled in order to reduce noise; whereas, the LN cooling of Si(Li) detectors is
essential to preserve the drift profile.

Yours,

Bill Tivol




From: tivol-at-tethys.ph.albany.edu
Date: Fri, 29 Apr 1994 22:56:50 EDT
Subject: Airing with N2

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Alex King asked about the reasons for the use of a dry gas for airing the vac-
uum in a microscope. Others have answered the why. The grade we use is the
"HP nitrogen"; the UHP seems to be no better and much more $.

Yours,

Bill Tivol




From: _ _ _ _ _ MARK W. LUND _ _ _ _ _ :      LUNDM-at-XRAY.BYU.EDU
Date: Sat, 30 Apr 1994 00:03 MDT
Subject: Re: No-LN EDS Detectors

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The detector in an EDX system is cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures
to lower the noise due to thermally generated carriers. A second
reason the detector is cooled is to keep the lithium from drifting
around, but modern systems can be warmed if the detector is biased.

The systems that seem to be water cooled are actually cooled with
thermoelectric coolers to cryogenic temperatures. The water is used
to carry away the heat from the TE coolers, which is considerable.
The TE coolers cannot get the detector to 77K, which is why these
systems are noisier than the LN cooled systems.

regards
Mark W. Lund, PhD
Director
MOXTEK, Inc.
Orem UT





From: Manny Olds :      oldsma-at-mary.iia.org
Date: Sat, 30 Apr 1994 16:51:41 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Special grid slide

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On 27 Apr 1994 MARK-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca wrote of his need for a slide
with a special grid on it. I was unable to reach him with e-mail.

My 1992 McCrone Accessories catalog has a similar slide called an "England
Finder" (p/n 313). I would call them and see what they have for you.
Their phone nos. are 708-887-7100 and 800-mac-8122.

Manny Olds
oldsma-at-iia.org





From: Colin Veitch CSIRO DWT :      VEI011-at-GEEL.DWT.CSIRO.AU
Date: Mon, 2 May 1994 8:39:57 +1000 (EST)
Subject: Nitrogen Backfilling

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Alex,

We use another method to provide dry nitrogen for venting, valves
etc.. Rather than use bottled gas, we take the gas from our liquid
nitrogen vessel. It is dried and as yet (touch wood) we have had no
problems. This is after approximately 18 months operation.

The vessel is large, 2000 litre capacity but the gas is used for a
TEM, SEM, quadrupole mass. spec. and a few other instruments. It is
also used to vent ALL vacuum systems in the E.M. lab.

It sure beats having to change gas bottles!!


#####################################################################
**********************
* Between the idea *
0------* And the reality *
} ---|--- { * Between the motion *
| * And the act *
/ \ * Falls the Shadow *
_/ \_ * T.S. Eliot *
**********************
Colin Veitch Tel + 61 (0)52 47 2611
CSIRO Division of Wool Technology Tel + 61 (0)52 47 2891 (dir.)
P.O. Box 21 Fax + 61 (0)52 47 2657
BELMONT Vic 3216
Australia

#####################################################################






From: dmerritt-at-metz.une.edu.au (David Merritt)
Date: Mon, 2 May 1994 10:52:09 -0500
Subject: "PAP" pens

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Message-Id: {199405020052.AA07929-at-metz.une.edu.au}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

To biological light microscopists,
I want to make hydrophobic rings on glass microscope slides so that
tissue-processing and immunocytochemistry can be carried out on tissue on
the slide. To date, I have been smearing a thin ring of silicone (auto and
caravan sealant!) and allowing it do dry. The difficulty with this is that
the silicone has to be shaved off with a razor blade before the tissue is
cover-slipped. I have heard of a product called a PAP pen which does the
same thing, with the advantage that the hydrophobic layer is very thin. I
found one such product made by "Agar" Essex, UK, distributed by "Alltech"
(Australia) but the asking price seems outrageous, approx $Aus120 per pen
(approx $US80).
1. Is there a similar product available from other companies (addresses,
fax. nos appreciated)?
2. Is there a "home-brew" alternative, perhaps using liquid silicone?

Thanks for any advice,
Dave Merritt
Zoology
University of New England
Armidale NSW
Australia
dmerritt-at-metz.une.edu.au







From: xin yang li :      g9177248-at-uow.edu.au
Date: Mon, 2 May 1994 14:34:29 +1000 (EST)
Subject: help wanted

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Does anyone know the orientation relationship between the austenite and alfa
double prime (Fe16N2) phase?

Thanks

X. Li

Dept. of Materials Engi.
University of Wollongong




From: Lesley S. Smith :      lesleys-at-pobox.upenn.edu
Date: Mon, 2 May 1994 08:55:22 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Sorval MT2-B repairs

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Message-Id: {m0pxtOa-0004YBC-at-apus.cus.cam.ac.uk}

I used to use a Sorval MT2-B. The company that serviced it for me was
"RMC" in Arizona. Their phone number is 602-889-7900. They have service
people all over the US. You may want to try them.




From: sje-at-po.CWRU.Edu (Steven J. Eppell)
Date: Mon, 2 May 1994 09:22:35 -0400
Subject: LVHRSEM/AFM sample coaters

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I've been charged with purchasing a high resolution coating system
to use with both scanning probe and electron microscopes. My lab is
primarily a scanning force microscope lab where we look at proteins and
polysaccharides on polymers and cell membranes. We are interested in
starting a substantial correlative microscopy effort using field emission
SEM's on the same samples that we've previously probed with AFM or
STM. The only coating systems currently available to us are mechanically
pumped DC sputtering units. I have ~$25k to spend and have spent some
time looking at the options. It looks like a turbo pumped sputtering system
with a rotary tilt stage would best suit our needs. However, I'm in the dark
concerning what parameters to assess in determining an optimal system. I
know that grain size varies with the sputtered material. Does it also vary
between different sputtering systems? Is a thermal evaporation source
something to consider? Is it important to spend the money on an oiless
backing pump for the turbo? What questions am I not asking that I should
be asking?

Any comments you have will be much appreciated.

Steve Eppell
sje-at-po.cwru.edu





From: Jan Coetzee EM Univ Pretoria :      JANC-at-ccnet.up.ac.za
Date: Mon, 2 May 1994 15:44:25 GMT+2
Subject: re: PAP pens

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To make hydrophobic rings on glass microscope slides an old homebrew method
is to dilute a resin mountant such as DePex or Permount or Canada Balsam in
the appropriate solvent and to use this as ringing agent. Try diluting the
mountant 10 to 50 times with the recommended solvent (usually xylene or
toluene) and apply with the sharpened end of an applicator stick. The
advantage is that you do not have to remove the stuff before mounting under
a coverslip.
It is also a useful method to keep serial monitor sections in the correct
order, each on its own separate little water droplet inside its own
hydrophobic ring.


Jan Coetzee
Unit for Electron Microscopy Tel:+27-12-420-2075
University of Pretoria Fax:+27-12-342-1738
Pretoria Internet:janc-at-ccnet.up.ac.za
0002 South Africa




From: James Drummond :      drummond_james-at-vanlab.paprican.ca
Date: Mon, 2 May 1994 09:34:37 PDT
Subject: Permanent fluorescent dye for cellulose?

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We are using fluorescent dyes on bleached wood pulp fibres (ie
cellulose) for confocal microscopy. We are having problems with
"bleeding" or leaching of dye. Are there any fluorescent dyes which
are reactive with cellulose or can be fixed similar to textile dyes (RIT,
etc.) so that they will not leach out in aqeous environments? Thanks
in advance.

James Drummond
Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada
Vancouver, B.C. Canada




From: James Drummond :      drummond_james-at-vanlab.paprican.ca
Date: Mon, 2 May 1994 11:12:57 PDT
Subject: Permanent fluorescent dye for cellulose?

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We are using fluorescent dyes on bleached wood pulp fibres (ie
cellulose) for confocal microscopy. We are having problems with
"bleeding" or leaching of dye. Are there any fluorescent dyes that
bind to cellulose or can be fixed similar to textile dyes (RIT, etc.) so
that they will not leach out in aqueous environments? Thanks in
advance.

James Drummond
Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada
Vancouver, B.C. Canada




From: Chris Krenn :      crkrenn-at-ux5.lbl.gov
Date: Mon, 2 May 1994 13:43:08 -0700
Subject: nitrogen backfill

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} There is a potential alternative for bottled N2. There are driers for
} compressed air that dry it to a lower dew point than lab grade N2. In
} theory bleeding some of this into the tank instead of N2 from a
} cylinder should work.

I haven't tried this, but you still would probably have the problem of
all the hydrocarbons from a standard air compressor... How do these
driers work? If they use some kind of cold trap, you might be okay.
Liquid nitrogen will freeze both water and hydrocarbons out of an
atmosphere.

Chris Krenn
Graduate Student
UC Berkeley Dept. of Materials Science




From: MORILAK%SHIRE-at-uthscsa.edu
Date: Mon, 02 May 1994 20:46:01 -0600 (CST)
Subject: re:PAP pens

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In reply to dmerritt-at-metz.une.edu.au

David:

At the risk of swimming upstream (and against the apparent popular opinion),
I have used PAP pens for slide mounted tissue processing, and if that is
your method of choice, I think the PAP pen works just fine. I say if that is
your choice only because i much prefer processing immunocytochemical material
as free-floating sections rather than slide-mounted - better penetration, more
uniform staining, and (extremely important) better rinsing (at least in my
experience). The PAP pen, as best as I can smell, is a mixture of bees wax
dissolved in xylene (or some similar concoction). It goes on easily if you
have a dry area around your tissue, and it comes clean in a xylene rinse
before mounting. It requires a little practice to get the right pressure
so you don't get too much liquid out of the pen, but it is not brain surgery!

The PAP pen is available for about $30 US from RPI:

Research Products International
410 North Business Center Drive
Mount Prospect, IL 60056

Ph: 1-800-323-9814

Let me know if you have any further questions.
Cheers,

David Morilak
Dept Pharmacology
Univ Texas Health Science Center
San Antonio, TX 78284

morilak-at-uthscsa.edu




From: Glen Macdonald :      glenmac-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Mon, 2 May 1994 19:15:50 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: Re: Fw: Re: Cryostat help!

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Some of the problems can be due to using a disposable blade. We cut
routinely serial cryosections of young chick brains cyroprotected in 30%
sucrose and snap frozen in dry-ice or nitrogen chilled heptane and mounted
on the chuck with OCT. Fixation is with just about every imaginable fix
possible. Crank the temperature down, I like -25 to -35, use a real blade
and keep it clean, especially the back of the blade. Sometimes I swing
the anti-roll plate out of the way and use a #2 paintbrush (keep it inside
the cryostat) to prevent curl - touch it to the base of the section as it
gbegins to come off the blade and coordinate your arm so that you can move
the brush in rythmn with the section as it moves with the cutting stroke.
I've tried disposable blades for paraffin, to cut serial paraffin
sections, without success. But the standard blades will allow me to cut
ribbons as long as my arm can stretch holding the free end of the ribbon.

On Thu, 28 Apr 1994, Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers wrote:

} From: TOWER::GWERDOS "Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers"
} To: IN%"pataky-at-bcu.ubc.ca"
} CC: GWERDOS
} Subj: Re: Cryostat help!
}
} } From: IN%"pataky-at-bcu.ubc.ca"
} } Subj: Cryostat help!
} }
} } Return-path: {BIOSCI-REQUEST-at-net.bio.net}
} } Received: from net.bio.net by gnv.ifas.ufl.edu (PMDF V4.2-11 #3240) id
} } {01HBOOXBZ5DS8X4B47-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu} ; Wed, 27 Apr 1994 22:18:06 EST
} } Received: (from daemon-at-localhost) by net.bio.net (8.6.8.1/8.6.6) id TAA23358
} } for cytonet-list; Wed, 27 Apr 1994 19:04:06 -0700
} } Received: (from news-at-localhost) by net.bio.net (8.6.8.1/8.6.6) id TAA23346 for
} } cytonet-arpanet; Wed, 27 Apr 1994 19:04:05 -0700
} } Date: Wed, 27 Apr 1994 23:50:46 +0000 (GMT)
} } From: pataky-at-bcu.ubc.ca (Dave Pataky)
} } Subject: Cryostat help!
} } To: cytonet-at-net.bio.net
} } Message-id: {pataky-270494154951-at-steevlab.generes.ca}
} } Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT
} } Followup-To: bionet.cellbiol.cytonet
} } NNTP-Posting-Host: steevlab.generes.ca
} }
} } Anybody out there know why Tissue-Tek, presumably designed for embedding
} } samples for cryostat cutting, is so $##-at-***%* annoying to work with? The
} } problem: I'm cutting chick embryonic brain tissue, anywhere from 10-40
} } microns, at -20 and no matter what I try the sections won't stop curling
} } up, rolling into tubes as soon as I lift the antiroll plate. I've tried
} } adjusting the blade angle, the "anti-roll" (that's a joke) plate, the
} } temperature, speed of cutting, new blade (disposable), nothing works.
} } Ideally I'd like to see nice flat sections that stay that way, preferably
} } "ribboning" off the blade so I can mount several at once. Know any tricks
} } or alternatives to Tissue Tek which may work better? Any ideas how to deal
} } with static electricity? (sometimes the sections stick to the "anti-roll"
} } plate). Feels like I'm battling the antichrist (and losing!),
} }
} }
} } --
} } Dave Pataky
} } Dept of Zoology, UBC
} } pataky-at-bdc.ubc.ca
} }
} Brain can be particularly difficult. I suggest cryoprotecting in 20% sucrose
} with 3% PEG MW 400. Cut at -25. Don't expect to get a ribbon. We are usually
} satisfied with one section at a time. Rarely do we get two. I have a nice
} handout on cryosectioning that I picked up at a meeting. Give me your FAX #
} or mailing address and I will send a copy.
}
} **********************************************************
} * Greg Erdos ** *
} * Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
} * 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
} * University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
} * Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
} **********************************************************
} **********************************************************
} * Greg Erdos ** *
} * Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
} * 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
} * University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
} * Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
} **********************************************************
}





From: lcs-at-rlmtc.DNET.hcc.com
Date: Tue, 3 May 1994 08:10:41 -0400
Subject: NOMENCLATURE: HREM, HRSEM, LVSEM, LVHRSEM, ETC.

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FOR THOSE OF YOU INVOLVED IN EDITING JOURNALS, WRITING BOOKS, ETC.
IN THE FIELD, AND ANYONE ELSE WITH AN OPINION, WHAT DO YOU THINK ARE
THE MOST ACCEPTABLE ACRONYMS TODAY FOR:
HIGH RESOLUTION (TRANSMISSION) ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
" " (SCANNING) " "
LOW VOLTAGE, FIELD EMISSION, SEM
HIGH PRESSURE OR ENVIRONMENTAL SEM

WOULD APPRECIATE SHORT RESPONSES WITH SUGGESTED ACRONYMS, TKS, LINDA SAWYER




From: Stanley L Flegler :      flegler-at-pilot.msu.edu
Date: Tue, 3 May 1994 09:02:44 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: SEM For Sale

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We have a JEOL JSM-35C SEM in outstanding condition for sale. It was purchased
in 1980 and was on service contract until April 21, 1994. It comes with a
Tracor Northern (Noran) EDS detector and TN-2000 analyzer. Asking $8,000.00.
Contact Dr. Stanley L. Flegler
Center for Electron Optics
Michigan State University
Flegler-at-pilot.msu.edu




From: waheeschen-at-dow.com (Bill Heeschen (517)636-4005 PMRC/ASL)
Date: Tue, 3 May 1994 09:14:34 -0400
Subject: ftp volume at ncsu

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John:

FYI, using FETCH, I reached your ftp volume at pub/ncsu/jruss, not pub/jruss as
indicated in your note to the NIH Image list. Would this be a better place to
exchange things rather than mailing?

Bill
==========================
Bill Heeschen/Analyt. Sci.- Mat. Char. -----
1897-F Building / The Dow Chemical Co. --- ---
Midland, MI 48667 U.S.A. --- D O W ---
phone: (517)636-4005 fax: (517)636-5453 --- ---
Email: waheeschen-at-dow.com -----
========================== R




From: waheeschen-at-dow.com (Bill Heeschen (517)636-4005 PMRC/ASL)
Date: Tue, 3 May 1994 09:17:02 -0400
Subject: Sorry about last mailing

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Microscopy list: My apologies for that last note. It was intended for John
Russ in response to one of his helpful explanations on the NIH Image mail list.

Again, my apologies.

Bill
==========================
Bill Heeschen/Analyt. Sci.- Mat. Char. -----
1897-F Building / The Dow Chemical Co. --- ---
Midland, MI 48667 U.S.A. --- D O W ---
phone: (517)636-4005 fax: (517)636-5453 --- ---
Email: waheeschen-at-dow.com -----
========================== R




From: KRIDER-at-KRIDER.MCB.UCONN.EDU
Date: Tue, 3 May 1994 9:24:43 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Dyes for paper

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If there are any groups in the preperation of pulp that bind feulgen, the
material will give a brilliant red signal appropriate for most confocal
instruments. It is very "fast" if it binds.




From: Chris Krenn :      crkrenn-at-ux5.lbl.gov
Date: Tue, 3 May 1994 08:03:09 -0700
Subject: Intensified CCDs

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Bill Tivol asked:
Does anyone know a system with the sensitivity to quantitate small num-
bers (1 or 2) of electrons, with the ability to produce a signal proportional
to electron number for the more intense reflections (i.e. no saturation)?
Since each electron hitting a film grain exposes that grain, it's hard to beat
that quantum efficiency. Positional accuracy is less important for us than
accurate quantitation, including background subtraction.

I don't have any inherent bias towards Hammamatsu; it is merely the
only vendor whose literature I've gotten so far, and whose name I was
familiar with because of their image processing boxes. They have a
series of CCD based photon counters which also have a wide dynamic
range (10^6)

Chris Krenn
Graduate Student
UC Berkeley Dept. of Materials Science





From: Chris Krenn :      crkrenn-at-ux5.lbl.gov
Date: Tue, 3 May 1994 08:23:57 -0700
Subject: Q:Intensified CCD systems for EBSP (Electron Backscatter Dif

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Thanks for your reply. Word of your good results came through the
grapevine, and was one of the reasons we are looking at CCD instead of
SIT. Hopefully we will have a somewhat functional system by the end of
the year.

Chris




From: tivol-at-tethys.ph.albany.edu
Date: Tue, 03 May 1994 16:13:10 EDT
Subject: Air drier vs N2

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Received: from MAILQUEUE by MICROBIO1 (Mercury 1.11); Tue, 3 May
94 11:36:44 EST
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Dear Alfred,

We have a Pall air dryer, not to air the HVEM, but to pump dry air
through our high-voltage tanks in the event that they have been opened. We
find that using the dried air makes a big difference in residual water in the
tanks after the air is pumped out and replaced by the SF6 insulating gas which
is the normal fill gas for the tanks. These tanks are 2-3 meters in diameter
and about 4 meters tall with a connecting piece about 1 meter**3. The air
dryer has a pre-filter to remove oil, the dessicant, an oil vapor filter, and a
particle afterfilter. The specified dewpoint reached is -60o F or below. It's
also noisy enough that I'd hate to have to turn it on each time I wanted to air
the microscope, but it could be mounted in a sound-absorbant cabinet.

Yours,

Bill Tivol




From: Bengt Stridh :      best-at-secrc.abb.se
Date: Wed, 4 May 1994 08:07:01 +0100
Subject: Corrosion of coated Zr-base mtrl

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Message-Id: {199405040807010548-at-qmgate.secrc.abb.se}
X-Mailer: InterCon Dispatcher/SMTP for QuickMail
X-Priority: 4

Looking for someone that has been working with oxidation, hydriding and wear
properties of surface coated or surface modified zirconium base alloys (like
Zircaloy 2 or 4). The environment is water or steam at ]300!C. I am interested
in all topics related to the subject; coating or surface modification methods (
how to get a coating without defects going through the coating?), corrosion
tests, investigation of tested samples (LOM, SEM, TEM, SAM, XRD,
electrochemical impedance spectroscopy etc.).

Bengt Stridh
ABB Corporate Research
S-721 78 Vasteras
Sweden
E-mail: best-at-secrc.abb.se
Fax: +46-21-13 41 00
Phone: +46-21-32 30 67






From: Nestor J. Zaluzec-ANL EMCenter :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Wed, 4 May 1994 13:47:13 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: HELP

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================================================
An Update Message from the Microscopy Listserver
================================================

G'day All Microscopy Listserver subscribers....

In sorting out a mailserver problem, today, I just noticed that
about 2 weeks ago we received our 1000th subscription
request. As in previous milestones, I hearby offer
to by a beer (or any other appropriate concoction) for

MIKEY {MJL1173-at-ritvax.isc.rit.edu}

at the next microscopy meeting that we both attend.
I'll definitely be at the MSA New Orleans meeting so
Mikey whoever you are, make sure you look me up if your
there. I hear tell there may be a pub/bar or two in town.
Hmm.. at this rate (1000+ in 6 months of operation),
I may be buying more than 1 or 2 beers in New Orleans,
hope I don't exceed my limit being the quiet, unassuming
person that I am. ;-)

We now have subscribers on every continent except Antarctica
anyone know a frozen microscopist/microanalyst down there
that's on Email??

As promised earlier in the year a new computer system
has arrived, and I'm slowing getting around to shifting
software to that machine. I'm having some trouble
linking the MSA BBS into the new machine so things are taking
longer than expected (as usual). The transition should be
seemless at your end as there will be no changes in addresses
or functionality just new hardware.

Cheers ... Nestor Zaluzec: ANL EMCenter & Microscopy Listserver Host

=======================================================================

P.S. Another reminder: if you want to unsubscribe from the listserver
you MUST supply the original username-at-host address , which
you originally subscribed to the listserver using. If you used an
alias then you must unsubscribe using that alias name. I still get
frustrated messages from individuals who try to unsubscribe, but
do so using an unregistered address which the software just simply
ignores, and hence they are not unsubscribed and continue to receive
Email.

Please remember the system software only recognizes unsubscription
requests at the address you originally subscribed from, it cannot
interpolate changed host names, aliases, forwarding addresses and/or
changed usernames! Also if your computer changes it's internet address
you should also unsubscribe and then resubscribe using the new
address. This will minimize "Undeliverable Mail" messages on the
network, and save me and some other SysOps the hassel of figuring out
the problem mail messages which result.

Since we've reached this level of users, it is probably appropriate
to resend a portion of the help file, just in case you've misplaced things.

===========================================================================
General Ground Rules
on using the ANLEMC
Microscopy Listserver/Mailreflector

Before continuing you should understand your responsibilities as a
Microscopy Listserver/Mailreflector System user.

Specifically they are:

1.) Actively encourage and promote the free exchange and discussion of
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2.) Use your REAL NAME and fully disclose any personal, financial, or
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3.) Do not use this system for delivery of personal mail, messages
or items of a similiar nature (such as posting of resume's etc....)
If you are not sure then it probably does not belong here!
If you would like an opinion then Email the message to me and I will
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4.) Adhere to these rules and notify the Listserver-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
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As a courtesy to the readers of this list please indicate in the
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if you are interested in optical microscopy and have a question about
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or if you are interested in TEM analysis of dislocations then


and so forth.


===========================================================
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Help can be obtained by sending an Email request to

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in the Email request you should include one of the
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Command: Subscribe {list} Username-at-EmailAddress
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From: {lcs-at-rlmtc.DNET.hcc.com}:ddn:wpafb
Date: 5-3-94 8:15am
Subject: NOMENCLATURE: HREM, HRSEM, LVSEM, LVHRSEM

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Message-Id: {9405051128.AA17490-at-riker.ml.wpafb.af.mil}
To: WALCKSD:ml:wpafb, SCHELTFJ:ml:wpafb
Subj: NOMENCLATURE: HREM, HRSEM, LVSEM, LVHRSEM, ETC.
Orig-Author: {lcs-at-rlmtc.DNET.hcc.com}:ddn:wpafb
-----------------------------------------------------------

FOR THOSE OF YOU INVOLVED IN EDITING JOURNALS, WRITING BOOKS, ETC.
IN THE FIELD, AND ANYONE ELSE WITH AN OPINION, WHAT DO YOU THINK ARE
THE MOST ACCEPTABLE ACRONYMS TODAY FOR:
HIGH RESOLUTION (TRANSMISSION) ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
" " (SCANNING) " "
LOW VOLTAGE, FIELD EMISSION, SEM
HIGH PRESSURE OR ENVIRONMENTAL SEM

WOULD APPRECIATE SHORT RESPONSES WITH SUGGESTED ACRONYMS, TKS, LINDA SAWY











From: Glenn Poirier :      GLENN_P-at-GEOSCI.Lan.McGill.CA
Date: Thu, 5 May 1994 14:46:09 EST5EDT
Subject: Carbon rod sharpeners

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Message-Id: {199405051848.OAA28124-at-sifon.CC.McGill.CA}

Does anyone know of a low to moderately priced sharpener for carbon
coater rods? The motorized ones I've seen in microscopy supply houses
are going for about $1000 which seems a bit over-priced to me.
I saw one once that was based on an ordinary manual type pencil
sharpener, have not been able to find one. Any help on this subject
would be greatly appreciated.

**********************************************************************
* Glenn Poirier glenn_p-at-geosci.lan.mcgill.ca *
* Electron Microprobe Lab Phone: (514) 398 6774 *
* Earth and Planetary Sciences Fax: (514) 398 4680 *
* McGill University THERE ARE THREE SIDES TO EVERY STORY; *
* Montreal, Quebec YOUR SIDE MY SIDE AND THE TRUTH *
**********************************************************************




From: vierreth-at-rorc.usbm.gov
Date: Thu, 5 May 1994 15:37:33 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: Re: Carbon rod sharpeners

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The X-ray lab at the US Bureau of Mines has a carbon coater rod sharpener
that is like a pencil sharpener. Where they aquired it i am not sure.
You should contact Gary Van Landyut at PO Box 280, Rolla, Mo 65401 or
call 314-364-3169.
C




From: MARK-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca
Date: 5 May 94 15:13:30 PST+8PDT
Subject: carbon rod sharpeners

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This may sound a little crazy but... Try a theatrical lighting
company-one that specializes in high intensity spotlights. these
apparently use carbon rods which are sharpened in a similar manner.

Mark Elliott
UBC-Pulmonary Research Laboratory,
St. Paul's Hospital,
Vancouver, BC




From: rsjolund-at-vaxa.weeg.uiowa.edu
Date: Thu, 05 May 1994 19:44:31 CST
Subject: Cooled CCD for LM

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I'm interested in any recommendations for cooled CCD cameras and associated MAC software for light-level immunofluorescent studies.
We currently use a Hamamatsu SIT camera and NIH Image. The sensitivity is OK for our studies, but I'd like better resolution. Our cells are very small and we
want to image several monoclonals against antigens in the same cell.
What are the advantages of the various CCD brands? Has anyone used IPLabs software with a Power Mac?
Will we see a big improvement in resolution over the SIT camera (an NTSC-based video camera) we now use?
Thanks for any replies.




From: Jan Coetzee EM Univ Pretoria :      JANC-at-ccnet.up.ac.za
Date: Fri, 6 May 1994 08:31:57 GMT+2
Subject: TEM - Tantalum electropolishing

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Does anybody have a proven method (recipe and conditions) for the
electropolishing of Ta single crystal samples?
Thanks.
Jan Coetzee
Unit for Electron Microscopy Tel:+27-12-420-2075
University of Pretoria Fax:+27-12-342-1738
Pretoria Internet:janc-at-ccnet.up.ac.za
0002 South Africa




From: MOSTQM:: Chris Bowser-at-HMO_HYBRIDS
Date: 6-MAY-1994 07:03:02.90
Subject: Carbon Rod Sharpeners

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============================================================================

Date 5/6/94
Subject Carbon Rod Sharpeners
From Chris Bowser
To Magnavox Internet

Subject: Time:7:03 AM
OFFICE MEMO Carbon Rod Sharpeners Date:5/6/94
smtp%"microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov"

I have a carbon rod sharpener that I purchased about 10 yr ago from the Ernest
F Fullam company. You might try them. Also the Ted Pella company has a small
hand sharpener for about $40.00.





From: Marcelle A Gillott :      magem-at-csd4.csd.uwm.edu
Date: Fri, 6 May 1994 11:43:46 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: carbon rod sharpners

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I believe Fullum has one and I know that Balzers (now Bal-tec) used to
sell one - I liked the Balzers version much better

happy hunting

marcelle








From: JAUSTIN-at-isdtcp2.hwc.ca
Date: Fri, 06 May 1994 15:20:25 -0500
Subject: Freeze-substitution

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Message-Id: {sdca606c.001-at-isdtcp2.hwc.ca}
X-Mailer: WordPerfect Office 4.0

We are planning on using freeze-substitution
as our standard protocol for specimen
preparation for thin sections. I would like
to get an idea of how many subscribers to
this newsgroup use freeze-substitution and
what general comments you may have.
I have several questions, some of which
cannot be answered by reading published
methods. We will be freezing our specimens
(bacteria) in liquid nitrogen cooled liquid
propane. Should a special grade of propane
be used for this? What safety precautions
should be used with liquid propane? What
types of substitution media are preferred?
I have seen that both methanol and acetone
are commonly used as solvents. Most
substitution media contain glutaraldehyde,
osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate. Are
there any tricks to making this mixture up?
Once the substitution medium has been made
up, should it be stored frozen in liquid
nitrogen?
Thanks in advance for any comments.

J. W. Austin
Microbiology Research Division
Food Directorate
Health Protection Branch
Health Canada
Ottawa, Ont.





From: Nestor J. Zaluzec-ANL EMCenter :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Tue, 10 May 1994 12:19:15 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: Gen Info: Back OnLine!

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May 10, 1994 12:20 pm CST

All Microscopy Subscribers:

The Microscopy Listserver has been down due to hardware
problems for the last 2-3 days. Things should be back to
normal shortly. Please report any major problems
to:
Zaluzec-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Sorry for the DownTime. :-(

Nestor




From: Fermin, Cesar :      Fermin.Cesar-at-tmc.tulane.edu
Date: 10 May 1994 17:12:09 -0600
Subject: re: Confocal?

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Message-Id: {9405101759.AA03306-at-riker.ml.wpafb.af.mil}

Sometimes ago I posted a questions about difference between digital and other
type confocal. I got an address for a server group. I tried subcribing, but
could not.
Does anyone has that server address, and can someone give me information about
confocals.




From: tivol-at-tethys.ph.albany.edu
Date: Tue, 10 May 1994 18:08:24 EDT
Subject: Nitrogen backfill & related topic

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S. D. Walck's contribution to the backfill question had a lot of good things to
say. I'd like to add two cents worth: Using teflon tubing, available, e.g.
from Cole-Parmer works better than tygon in LN2.

Yours,

Bill Tivol




From: GLENN HOLM :      KARUZIS-at-wccf.mit.edu
Date: Tue, 10 May 1994 19:48:29 -0500 (EST)
Subject: U.S. supplier for vertical staining dishes?

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i'm looking for a U.S. distributor, if there is one, for vertical
slide staining dishes and racks. like standard dishes + racks, but
the slides go in vertically and use less solution, and can hold
more slides (25x75)than a coplin jar - 20 or 30 i think.
they're evidently standard in Japan, and we have a quote from a
Matsunami Trading Co. in Osaka for them at $10.70 for racks and $11.36 for
dishes, which is reasonable, but Air Parcel Post at 2/3 of the list
price isn't.
so i was wondering if anyone might know of a U.S. source for these things.
haven't come across any in the obvious places.

------------------------------------------------------------------
|Glenn Holm Internet:karuzis-at-wccf.mit.edu|
|M.I.T Dept. of Brain + Cog. Sci. Bitnet:karuzis-at-mitwccf |
|Cambridge, MA 02139 "Real Neuroscientists don't do gels!" |
------------------------------------------------------------------




From: MORILAK%SHIRE-at-uthscsa.edu
Date: Wed, 11 May 1994 09:21:15 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Re: vertical staining dishes

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Glenn:

Try Fisher Scientific - the staining sets are plastic, hold from 100-250 ml
depending on how much of the slide you need immersed, and the racks hold 25
slides. The only problem I have found using these setups is that evaporation of
solution is serious if you leave them sit. I keep my solutions in bottles and
pour them back when I'm finished staining (the ones that aren't made up fresh of course). The sets are made by Tissue-Tek.

Cheers

David Morilak
Dept Pharmacology
UT Health Science Center
San Antonio
morilak-at-uthscsa




From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-umbc.edu
Date: Wed, 11 May 1994 10:33:36 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: books

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I was wondering if anyone could recommend a couple of good books on TEM
and SEM of plant materials. I've always worked with animal and human
tissue, and microorganisms so all of my books are related to these
topics.

Thanks,

Phil Rutledge
p.s. If you know the publisher and ISBN that would help also.

Thanks again!
:-{)




From: MARK-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca
Date: 11 May 94 08:47:50 PST+8PDT
Subject: lm:lens

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940511084750.751-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Does anyone know of an easy way to fix a scratch on a 40X dry
objective lens for an Olympus scope, other than returning it to
Olympus??? Someone here scratched their's and are on limited budget
and need it fast. Any suggestion greatly appreciated.

Thanks,
Mark Elliott
UBC-Pulmonary Research Lab,
Vancouver




From: MARK-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca
Date: 11 May 94 09:52:25 PST+8PDT
Subject: PLANT BOOKS

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940511095225.756-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca}
To: MICROSCOPY-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

a FEW SUGGESTIONS;
Introduction to Biological Electron Microscopy: Theory and Techniques,
By Clinton J. Dawes Ladd Research Industries, Inc, Burlington Vermont,
Library of Congress # 86-082930-not sure of ISBN #

Also Books by Robards, not sure of title-if find will let you know.
Can also check for books by Hyatt, not sure which one but one has
plant material in it.

Depends on what type of plant material you are dealing with-Fungi,
marine algae or vascular plants-they are all different and their
methods of preparation are different.

MArk Elliott




From: Liang, Long :      LLIANG-at-is.Arco.COM
Date: 11 May 1994 12:24:12 GMT
Subject: SEM - Kevex EDS & PC interface

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Message-Id: {MACMS.LLIANG.3738.1994 0511 12 24 12 24}


I am trying to interface a Kevex Delta-5 EDS system and a IBM PC. My
goal is simple: just to transfer image Tiff files from Kevex to PC.

I followed the instructions in the manual "Kevex kermit communications
package for the Delta" to setup the hardware and software, but it did
not work.

Does anyone have this kind of experience ? Can I call you for more
information ? Thanks.

Long Liang -- ARCO EPMA/SEM Laboratory






From: ROSEANN CSENCSITS (708) 252-4977, -7902 :      CSENCSITS-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Wed, 11 May 1994 15:30:38 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: LaB6 filaments for a JEOL 4000 TEM

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We have been using Denka LaB6 {100} 60 deg filaments in our JEOL 4000
with less than great results. Brightness is poor and after a week of
use the center of the filament is small and dim and most of the
illumination is from the lobes. Has anyone tried the LaB6 filaments
from Kimble Physics or FEI in a JEOL 4000? Do they seem better or
worse? Do they last?

Thanks
Roseann Csencsits
Electron Microscopy Center
Argonne National Laboratory
Argonne, IL




From: David Garrett :      DGARRETT-at-gab.unt.edu
Date: Wed, 11 May 1994 15:45:49 CST6CDT
Subject: Need Display boards for Noran 5500 Series II

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If anyone has a Noran 5500 no longer in service with good display
boards and wants to make a deal. Please contact me directly by e-mail
or voice.

***************************************
David Garrett "DGARRETT-at-GAB.UNT.EDU"
University of North Texas
Dept. Biological Sciences
(817)565-3964 Fax (817)565-4136
***************************************




From: chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU (John Chandler)
Date: Wed, 11 May 1994 15:32:43 -0700
Subject: Re: LaB6 filaments for a JEOL 4000 TEM

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} We have been using Denka LaB6 {100} 60 deg filaments in our JEOL 4000
} with less than great results. Brightness is poor and after a week of
} use the center of the filament is small and dim and most of the
} illumination is from the lobes. Has anyone tried the LaB6 filaments
} from Kimble Physics or FEI in a JEOL 4000? Do they seem better or
} worse? Do they last?
}
} Thanks
} Roseann Csencsits
} Electron Microscopy Center
} Argonne National Laboratory
} Argonne, IL

We were trying the Kimball filaments when I first got here two years ago.
After blowing a few, about which they were VERY understanding and generous,
we decided to go back to tungsten, until everyone could sit down and figure
out what was happening.

Peter Sewell, who makes the filaments, has been very helpful and
accessible. At the time, he told me that they were doing some more testing
on why they were getting runaway heating in JEOL scopes, but not Philips.
It has to do with the control circuitry of the gun and what is being
regulated. (I'm neither a physics nor an electronics whiz, so please don't
ask for more specifics from me!)

The bottom line is that conditioning of the filament to be used in a JEOL,
as well as conditioning of the gun, is essential if you're going to use
their filaments. We have a JEOL 2000 EXII and have adopted their procedure
at installation of tungsten filaments. We haven't gone back to trying the
Kimball ones yet.

Filament conditioning: after installation, set gun bias to zero, turn up
filament heating SLOWLY, when the vacuum starts to degrade stop, when it
stabilizes continue turning up till you get to near your normal operating
conditions. Only after heating the filament and getting beyond the
outgassing should you turn up the bias to get emission. After conditioning
this way, you shouldn't get any more outgassing. From what I can tell, you
should be able to do this at any accelerating voltage. This conditioning
has taken me one and a half hours. Be patient. I'm expecting very long
filament life after this treatment.

I'd be interested in others experiences with this kind of procedure.


John chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU Fort Collins CO






From: TOWER::GWERDOS Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers
Date: Thu, 12 May 1994 08:50:50 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Fw: Re: Silver enhancement, ultra structure

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} From: IN%"jgoodhouse-at-molecular.Princeton.EDU" "Goodhouse, Joseph"
} Subj: Silver enhancement, ultra structure
}
} Return-path: {jgoodhouse-at-molecular.Princeton.EDU}
} Received: from anlemc.msd.anl.gov by gnv.ifas.ufl.edu (PMDF V4.2-11 #3240) id
} {01HC7XIRCF4G8X5IJZ-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu} ; Wed, 11 May 1994 16:49:27 EST
} Date: Wed, 11 May 1994 09:48:00 -0400 (EDT)
} From: "Goodhouse, Joseph" {jgoodhouse-at-molecular.Princeton.EDU}
} Subject: Silver enhancement, ultra structure
} To: Micrscopy {Microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov}
} Message-id: {2DD0E2AB-at-molecular.princeton.edu}
} X-Mailer: Microsoft Mail V3.0
} Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT
} Encoding: 10 TEXT
}
}
} I am trying to do silver enhancent on 3nm gold probes in Drosophila embryos
} for ultra structure morpholgy. The problem I am experiencing is that the
} reaction is occurring too rapidly and is blowing the embryos apart. Can
} some one direct me to a few good references on this technique for cells and
} tissues, or provide me with a working protocol. Much appreciation
} Joe Goodhouse
} Dept. of Molec. Bio.
} Princeton University
} jgoodhouse-at-molecular.princeton.edu
#################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%##################%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
If you are using one of the daylight kits like the one from BioCell
you might try diluting the reagents with water to slow the reaction. Their
rep. told me this at a meeting one time. Maybe lowering the temp would work
too
**********************************************************
* Greg Erdos ** *
* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
**********************************************************
**********************************************************
* Greg Erdos ** *
* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
**********************************************************




From: TOWER::GWERDOS Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers
Date: Thu, 12 May 1994 08:55:23 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Fw: Re: RE: U.S. supplier for vertical staining dishes?

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} From: IN%"KARUZIS-at-wccf.mit.edu" "GLENN HOLM"
} Subj: RE: U.S. supplier for vertical staining dishes?
}
} Return-path: {KARUZIS-at-wccf.mit.edu}
} Received: from WCCF.MIT.EDU by gnv.ifas.ufl.edu (PMDF V4.2-11 #3240) id
} {01HC7V1A7RVK8X8BBU-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu} ; Wed, 11 May 1994 15:38:11 EST
} Received: from wccf.mit.edu by wccf.mit.edu (PMDF V4.2-14 #2603) id
} {01HC7UYC8CK48WXF5V-at-wccf.mit.edu} ; Wed, 11 May 1994 15:37:26 EST
} Date: Wed, 11 May 1994 15:37:26 -0500 (EST)
} From: GLENN HOLM {KARUZIS-at-wccf.mit.edu}
} Subject: RE: U.S. supplier for vertical staining dishes?
} To: GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
} Message-id: {01HC7UYC8CK68WXF5V-at-wccf.mit.edu}
} Organization: Mass. Inst. Tech. - Whitaker College
} X-VMS-To: IN%"GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu"
} MIME-version: 1.0
} Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT
}
} greg-
}
} thanks for the reply. i looked at the Fisher staining dish, but what we
} want is a bit larger and holds the slides vertically in a rack, not in
} grooves in the side of the dish like a coplin jar. will keep hunting.
} ------------------------------------------------------------------
} |Glenn Holm Internet:karuzis-at-wccf.mit.edu|
} |M.I.T Dept. of Brain + Cog. Sci. This VAX doesn't do NeXTmail |
} |Cambridge, MA 02139 "Real Neuroscientists don't do gels!" |
} ------------------------------------------------------------------

############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%##############%%%%%%%%%%%%%%##########
I just remembered where I saw it. Shandon & Lipshaw Catalogue. Purveyors
of goods for pathology, cytology and mortuary. Call 800-547-7429 and they
will send a catalogue that smells like a morgue. Check out page 184 for a rack
that holds 38 slides vertically on end.

Or if you are close to a hospital pathology lab or autopsy lab they
may have the catalogue.

**********************************************************
* Greg Erdos ** *
* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
**********************************************************




**************************************************




From: MORILAK%SHIRE-at-uthscsa.edu
Date: Thu, 12 May 1994 09:04:37 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Re: silver enhancement

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reply to Joe Goodhouse

Joe

A few years ago, I used a very nice silver enhancement kit from Janssen called
IntenseII. I used it only for light microscopy, but I know that people have
used it successfully for EM as well. It was simple and quite forgiving with
regard to development time. I also believe the reaction can be slowed by
diluting the reagents. I don't remember who the US distributor for Janssen
is now, but for some reason I'm thinking it might be Vector.

Cheers

David Morilak
Dept Pharmacology
UT Health Science Center
San Antonio
morilak-at-uthscsa.edu




From: Stanley L Flegler :      flegler-at-pilot.msu.edu
Date: Thu, 12 May 1994 10:39:16 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Miguel Avalos E-mail

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Dr. Avalos, I lost your E-mail address. Please send it. Thank you. My
apologies to the others on the list.
Dr. Stanley L. Flegler
flegler-at-pilot.msu.edu




From: GRAZUL-at-zodiac.rutgers.edu
Date: Thu, 12 May 1994 10:54:01 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: does the semicaps system work??

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I can't afford a new scanner but the thought of upgrading my Hitachi S450
with the Semicaps imaging system has excited me. My questions are...does
anyone have the system on an analog scope? How does it grab the image off
the scope? Can I use it with my TEM also? Is it as good as the other
systems out there?

John Grazul
Rutgers University
Electron Microscope Facility





From: David Henriks :      73531.1344-at-CompuServe.COM
Date: 12 May 94 10:57:59 EDT
Subject: TEM: Silicon on sapphire sample prep

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I saw a request recently from Michael Winton concerning TEM sample preparation
of silicon on sapphire, but I saw no responses posted to the listserver.

Did anyone out there have a good (or reasonably good!) answer for him?

Thanks!

David Henriks
South Bay Technology, Inc.
1120 Via Callejon
San Clemente, CA 92673

TEL: 714-492-2600
FAX: 714-492-1499
Toll-free: 800-728-2233





From: Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers :      GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Date: Thu, 12 May 1994 11:19:57 -0500 (EST)
Subject: silver enhance

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Now I remember. The comercial daylight kits for silver enhancement
require the addition of gum arabic in order to slow the reaction. I can't
immediately recall the deatails but maybe it will ring a bell in a younger
brain
**********************************************************
* Greg Erdos ** *
* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
**********************************************************




From: tanchen-at-msc.cornell.edu
Date: Thu, 12 May 1994 11:27:13 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re:TEM Si/Saphire

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Reply-To: tanchen-at-msc.cornell.edu

} Does anyone have proven sample preparation techniques for thin film
} silicon on sapphire substrates?


Hi, Michael:


I tried to post this mail last weekend but the listserver was down.
I hope this can be any help to you.

I made such a sample once. It came out beautifully.
I assume that you are talking about cross-sectional TEM sample
because it is easy to make plane-view sample.
The recipe is as following:

1. Stack two pieces face to face together with a very thin layer of
M-bond. Curing samples at 170 degree C for two hours.
2. Grind and polish one side. (with SiC paper first then finish with
diamond paste). The thickness of the sample is 100 um now.
3. Dimple the other side to less than 25 um.
4. Ion mill the sample.

The experiences of grinding, polishing and using dimpler are necessary.
Since sapphire is brittle and hard, you need patience. Good luck.
--
Tan-Chen Lee
Cornell University
tanchen-at-msc.cornell.edu








From: X.m. Burany :      burany-at-sfu.ca
Date: Thu, 12 May 1994 08:47:02 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: Catalog

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Dear Clayton Smith:
Thank you for your letter of May 4, 1994 and the catalog. Dr. Curzon
will make a decision.
My apologies to the others on the list.
Sandy Burany





From: Wil Bigelow :      Wil_Bigelow-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 12 May 1994 14:23:54 U
Subject: N2 from LN2

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Subject: Time:1:49 PM
OFFICE MEMO N2 from LN2 Date:5/12/94
In the recent discussions about using dry nitrogen to backfill
vacuum systems, several of us have mentioned collecting the
gas that boils off liquid nitrogen storage vessels and using it
for this purpose. There is a very inexpensive way to do this
that I devised some 20 years ago and used for many years with
good success. What you do is to run a flexible, non-collapsible
plastic tube (I prefer polyethylene tubing to Tygon, because
Tygon seems to exude so much plasticizer - which might find
its way into the vacuum system) from the liquid nitrogen
container to the gas inlet of the vacuum system. At a
convenient site, insert a tee joint into this tube. A large,
flexible, inflatable, plastic container (a beach ball or childs
toy animal) is attached to this tee joint by means of a length
of soft, highly-flexible surgical rubber tubing. Before
installing this tubing, however, take a sharp scalpel or razor
blade and make a clean slit about 100 mm long in it. This
slit will ordinarily close tightly enough so that the nitrogen
from the storage vessel will flow into the plastic ball. When
the ball becomes full, however, the slit will serve as a
primitive pressure release valve by opening slightly to allow
the gas to escape, thereby preventing the ball from rupturing.
When the gas inlet is opened, the dry nitrogen in the ball will
flow into the system under atmospheric pressure, and so
there is no danger of over-pressurization. A small weight can
be placed on the ball to sustain flow after the system reaches atmospheric
pressure, if desired. A ball that is a half meter
in diameter will store enough gas to fill most laboratory
systems several times. This is a very inexpensive
arrangement, but one that works quite well, and an inflated
dinosauer that is hooked to your SEM will provide a topic of
conversation for everyone who visits your lab.
Again I mention that this technique, and many others, are
described in my recent book on Vacuum Methods in Electron
Microscopy, which can be ordered from Portland Press Ltd.,
c/o Ashgate Publishing Co, Old Post Road, Brookfield, VT
05036-9704, USA. (Fax: 802-276-3837); or Portland Press Ltd.,
Commerce Way, Colchester, CO2 8HP, UK (Fax: 0206-799331)






From: Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers :      GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Date: Thu, 12 May 1994 11:19:57 -0500 (EST)
Subject: silver enhance

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X-Nupop-Charset: English

check Y_D Stierhof, et al J of electron microsc tech 17:336 for a
nice comparison of different silver enhancement techniques

-------
Forwarded Message Follows - - - - - - -



Now I remember. The comercial daylight kits for silver enhancement
require the addition of gum arabic in order to slow the reaction. I can't
immediately recall the deatails but maybe it will ring a bell in a younger
brain
**********************************************************
* Greg Erdos ** *
* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
**********************************************************




From: Malea Kneen :      mmk-at-physiol.unimelb.EDU.AU
Date: Fri, 13 May 1994 12:12:29 +1000
Subject: Immersion oils

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Hello
We're looking at living cultured cells in a perfusion bath maintained at 37 deg
C. To minimise heat loss through the objective lens, we heat the lens during
the experiments. I'm looking for a source of an appropriate immersion oil that does not change refractive index over the range 20-40 deg C to reduce any
abberations in images of the cells. Any suggestions would be appreciated.
Thanks
Malea

************************************************************************
Malea Kneen
Department of Physiology
The University of Melbourne
Grattan Street, Parkville, 3052
Victoria, AUSTRALIA

Telephone: 61 3 344 5843
FAX: 61 3 344 5818
Email: mmk-at-rabbit.physiol.unimelb.edu.au
************************************************************************




From: Prof. P.J. Goodhew :      goodhew-at-liverpool.ac.uk
Date: Fri, 13 May 1994 09:03:37 +0100 (BST)
Subject: PC software

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Re: Donald Grimes request for microscopy software details:

There are four PC packages published by the UK Institute of Materials,

titled

Scanning Electron Microscopy by John Humphreys
Transmission Electron Microscopy by Peter Goodhew
Electron Diffraction by Peter Goodhew
Analysis in the EM by Peter Goodhew, John Humphreys and Graham Cliff

There is also a nice package on Stereographic Projection by John Humphreys,
which is useful for those working with crystals.

They are all intended for introductory use (for people new to EM) and
employ quite a lot of graphics. They are NOT research tools for competent
microscopists. We use them with 2nd and 3rd year undergrads and people
attending short courses on EM.

Each package costs about US$145. They are distributed by

Ashgate Publishing Co
Old Post Road
Brookfield VT 05036
USA
Tel 802 276 3162 Fax 802 276 3837
(for the world except Europe)

and

Institute of Materials
1 Carlton House Terrace
London SW1Y 5DB
Tel 071 976 1338 Fax 071 839 2078
(for UK and Europe)


Work is in progress to upgrade these programs from DOS to Windows versions
but there are no immediate plans for Mac versions (unless someone would
like to volunteer to translate/re-emgineer them).

Peter Goodhew (series editor)
University of Liverpool
goodhew-at-liv.ac.uk
(44) 51 794 4665 Fax (44) 51 794 4675




From: Sharathchandra Dakshinamurthy :      dakshs-at-rpi.edu
Date: Fri, 13 May 1994 09:26:59 -0400
Subject: publication quality trace analysis?

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How are publication quality trace analysis results generated? I can
get a stereogram with all the poles etc plotted on a computer, but how do
you go about drawing the great circles (which are best done using a Wulff
net} ? Some Bezier curves can be drawn to get the right curvature etc. but
this would be pretty inaccurate, generally. Drawing by hand, unless done by
a professional is not publication quality. Any suggestions?
Thanks,
Sharath
dakshs-at-rpi.edu




From: KJMcCarthy :      KJMCCARTHY-at-bmg.bhs.uab.edu
Date: 13 May 1994 10:30:52 CST+6CDT
Subject: Re: PC/Mac Software

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Message-ID: {MAILQUEUE-101.940513102236.352-at-bmg.bhs.uab.edu}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Don,
Signal Analytics Corporation makes several exellent digital imaging packages sold under
the name IP Lab Spectrum for the Macintosh. Their forte is that the software is easy to
install, configure, and use and the price is relatively (?) inexpensive, their base package
starting around $1500. We have such a system up and running in our digital imaging facility
at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and have had great success with it. Their
address is:

Signal Analytics Corporation
440 Maple Avenue East
Suite 201
Vienna, Virginia 22180

Phone 703-281-3277
Fax 703-281-2509
They are not on Internet yet but anticipate entering the network in the near future. I am
currently working with the company to set up a user's group archive that will be accessable
via Internet using Gopher. We hope to have this up an working in the next month or two.
Any input from any interested parties would be greatly appreciated

Kevin McCarthy
Kevin McCarthy
Assistant Professor
Department of Cell Biology
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Birmingham, Alabama 35294
Phone 205-934-9923/9924
Fax 205-934-7029




From: MARK-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca
Date: 13 May 94 08:43:52 PST+8PDT
Subject: immersion oils

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940513084352.998-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

To Malea Kneen
could you please repeat the last part of your message about an
appropriate immersion oil. For some reason I did not recieve the
complete message so am not sure what type of oil you are looking for.
Thanks
Mark Elliott,
UBC-Pulmonary Research Lab
Vancouver, Canada




From: NTCNET!NTCPOSTE!Gagne-at-ntcmtl.attmail.com
Date: 13 May 94 17:16:00 GMT
Subject: SEMICAPS

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We have a semicaps system on a digital SEM and it works fine. Possibly the
supplier can tell you if it is posible to use with an analog scope or TEM.









From: NTCNET!NTCPOSTE!Gagne-at-ntcmtl.attmail.com
Date: 13 May 94 17:22:00 GMT
Subject: does the semicaps system work??

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John

I believe Hitachi has there own imaging system called "quantum PCI". You
might want to contact them directly.







From: Nestor J. Zaluzec-ANL EMCenter :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Sun, 15 May 1994 15:55:35 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: Research Funding: $$ next year look poor

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Fellow Subscribers:

As many of the readers of this list have funding
grants from DoE(Energy & Water Budget), NSF, and NASA
(VA-HUD-IA Budget) I thought that you
might want to know about this gem which is going
through the US Congress.. It's not microscopy, however,
it will likely impact our research funding. Apologizes in
advance if you've already seen this information,
or if you are one of our International Subscribers
who isn't interested in the US research budget.

Nestor J. Zaluzec
ANL EMCenter

----------
WHAT'S NEW by Robert L. Park Friday, 13 May 94 Washington, DC

1. BUDGET: CONGRESS TURNS OFF THE LIGHT AT THE END OF THE TUNNEL.
Yesterday, the House Appropriations Committee divvied up the FY
95 budget among the 13 Subcommittees. Only Military Construction
was up from last year. Energy and Water came out $81M below the
President's request. VA-HUD-IA, which includes both NASA and NSF,
came out $361M below the President's request; Subcommittee chair
Louis Stokes (D-OH) said he had "grave concerns about whether
this allocation can fund the space station." The specter of the
SSC hangs over the space station debate; supporters of the space
station like to point out that the money saved from the SSC last
year did not go to science. Actually, no one in their right mind
expects savings from the space station to go to science either--
the important thing is stop the money from going the other way.






From: Alexey Sidorenko :      AVS-at-srdlan.npi.msu.su
Date: Mon, 16 May 1994 10:19:49 +0300 (MSK)
Subject: HELP

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HELP

Alexey Sidorenko phone: (7-095) 932-88-61
Moscow State University E-mail: avs-at-srdlan.npi.msu.su
Institute of Nuclear Physics http://www.npi.msu.su/people/avs/avs.html




From: Fermin, Cesar :      Fermin.Cesar-at-tmc.tulane.edu
Date: 16 May 1994 11:20:57 -0600
Subject: RE:Internet Companion-Laquey

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Hello:

I just got my hands on the softcover book "The internet Companion-A beginner's
guide to global Networking", and recommend it highly to anyone who is not a
computer expert. Even though, I used the internet now for over two years, not
until browsing through the text, did I finally understand some of the things I
was doing without knowing why. If everyone in the userlist were to read the
book, we would probably not get certain message-types that are explicitly
discouraged in chapter three of the book.

***** ************ ************** ************
*Cesar D. Fermin, Ph.D |Fax (504) 587-7389
*Tulane Medical School |Answ. Mach.(504) 584-2618
*Pathology/SL79 |Secretary (504) 584-2436
*New Orleans, La 70112 | Lab (504) 584 2521
***** ***************** ***********************




From: MARK-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca
Date: 16 May 94 14:46:53 PST+8PDT
Subject: general internet

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940516144653.198-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Does anyone know of a similar network to the microscopy one that
deals with tissue culture problems???? We are having problems with
guinea pig lymphocyte stimulation with phytohemaglutinin and need
advice. Any help would be appreciated.
Thanks
Mark Elliott
Pulmonary Research LAb
Vancouver Canada




From: Glen Macdonald :      glenmac-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Mon, 16 May 1994 16:14:27 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: RE:alternate to the Internet Companion-Laquey

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Have you checked out the "Big Dummies Guide to the Internet"? It is a
Hypercard stack which covers most aspects of using the Internet. It is
available via ftp. I think I got my copy from sumex-aim.stanford.edu.

Glen MacDonald
Hearing Development Laboratories RL-30
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195
(206)543-8360
glenmac-at-u.washington.edu



On 16
May 1994, Fermin, Cesar wrote:

}
} Hello:
}
} I just got my hands on the softcover book "The internet Companion-A beginner's
} guide to global Networking", and recommend it highly to anyone who is not a
} computer expert. Even though, I used the internet now for over two years, not
} until browsing through the text, did I finally understand some of the things I
} was doing without knowing why. If everyone in the userlist were to read the
} book, we would probably not get certain message-types that are explicitly
} discouraged in chapter three of the book.
}
} ***** ************ ************** ************
} *Cesar D. Fermin, Ph.D |Fax (504) 587-7389
} *Tulane Medical School |Answ. Mach.(504) 584-2618
} *Pathology/SL79 |Secretary (504) 584-2436
} *New Orleans, La 70112 | Lab (504) 584 2521
} ***** ***************** ***********************
}




From: EMLAB-at-opus.mco.edu
Date: Tue, 17 May 1994 08:34:16 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: general internet/tissue culture

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Mark Elliott queries about a similiar discussion group about tissue culture.
In looking through a list of numerous listservers/discussion groups out their
I can up with this: MEDCC-L-at-UAFSYSB Issues related to the study of media,
culture, etc. Hope this helps.

Ed Calomeni




From: Alexey Sidorenko :      AVS-at-srdlan.npi.msu.su
Date: Tue, 17 May 1994 10:49:10 +0300 (MSK)
Subject: Re: HELP

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Hello!

I'm sorry for my annoying message to this mailing list. I wanted to
subscribe and expected to get an automatic response with information.

Thanks to everyone who helped me.

Alexey


Alexey Sidorenko phone: (7-095) 932-88-61
Moscow State University E-mail: avs-at-srdlan.npi.msu.su
Institute of Nuclear Physics http://www.npi.msu.su/people/avs/avs.html




From: MORILAK%SHIRE-at-uthscsa.edu
Date: Tue, 17 May 1994 08:47:30 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Re: general internet

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To Mark Elliott:

you might try any of the bio. or sci. news groups. Reading "news" can be a
real chore, and you have to wade through a lot of noise, but you do find the
occasional gem. There are a handful of bionet news groups that function more
or less like our mail lists, ie posting of questions and answers that all interested parties
get to "eavesdrop" in on. I believe you can ftp a utility called TheNews from
sumex-aim which holds your hand as you custom,ize your newsgroup subscriptions
and set up your sessions. It also gives a listing of the zillion or so groups
that are available. Good luck.

David Morilak
UT Health Science Center
Dept Pharmacology
San Antonio
morilak-at-uthscsa.edu




From: jester-at-crnjjsgi.swmed.edu (James V. Jester)
Date: Tue, 17 May 1994 09:54:21 -0500
Subject: Alternate to the Internet Companion

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I have just tried to access sumex-aim.stanford.edu to obtain a copy of
"Big Dummies Guide to the Internet", but the server is not available.
Does anyone know of another ftp site?

_____________________________________________________________________
| James V. Jester | Dept Ophthalmology |
| jester-at-crnjjsgi.swmed.utexas.edu | UT Southwestern Medical Center |
| (214)648-7215 | 5323 Harry Hines Blvd |
| | Dallas, TX 75235-9057 |
|__________________________________|__________________________________|





From: Fermin, Cesar :      Fermin.Cesar-at-tmc.tulane.edu
Date: 17 May 1994 18:45:38 -0600
Subject: RE: More on Internet comp.

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Hi there, I am sorry about not sending the complete reference for the book. I
hope that the following is of help.

RE:Internet Companion-Laquey

Source for Internet comp-Laquey
The publisher is Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
ISBN 0-201-62224-6
Fourth Printing March 1993 ($11.00)

However, the text can be downloaded by anonymous FTP from FTP.STD.COM. If you
have a Word Wide Web (WWW) browser like Mosaic you can get it from many
sources, including our here at Tulane, by looking in the category internet
information and is free, I like the book because is a nice ready reference.
Good luck.

P.D. Other commonly recommended texts are also available from the same source.




From: John M Hudak :      hudakjm-at-mcmail.cis.mcmaster.ca
Date: Wed, 18 May 1994 11:22:12 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Electron Flight Simulator

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Just received a demo disk for the Electron Flight Simulator
program from Small World. It looks interesting. Does anyone have any
experience with, or comments about this product? They're asking $449. Is
it worth it?


..............................................................................
John Hudak hudakjm-at-mcmaster.ca
I.M.R. - Electron Optics (905) 525-9140 Ext.24890
ABB Rm. 331 FAX: (905) 521-2773
McMaster University
1280 Main St. West
Hamilton, Ont. L8S 4M1
Canada













From: Philippe Male :      Philippe_Male-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 18 May 1994 11:32:47 -0500
Subject: Time:11:32 AM

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From: walambe-at-erenj.com (Bill Lamberti)
Date: Wed, 18 May 1994 18:28:09 -0400
Subject: Thin ceramic films on Salt Flats

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Posted-Date: Wed, 18 May 1994 18:28:09 -0400
Message-Id: {9405182229.AA27567-at-eredns.erenj.com}
X-Sender: walambe-at-crsgi1.erenj.com
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Folks:

Does anyone know of a commercial source for various thin ceramic
(150 - 300 angstrom thick) films on salt flats (1" x 1" minimum area)? We
need these for some "non-microscopy" experiments we are considering. The
compositions required are SiO, SiO2, and/or SiN. Non-stoichiometric films
are OK, we only need the average molecular weight to be correct.

Of course, we need these yesterday! Thanks to all in advance.

Regards, Bill Lamberti.

William A. Lamberti
Office LA-196
Exxon Research and Engineering Company
Route 22 East
Annandale, NJ 08801
(908)730-2144 office
(908)730-2262/2104 labs
(908)730-3042/3051 fax
Email: walambe-at-erenj.com






From: Glenn Poirier :      GLENN_P-at-GEOSCI.Lan.McGill.CA
Date: Wed, 18 May 1994 18:37:09 EST5EDT
Subject: Re: Electron Flight Simulator

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Message-Id: {199405182238.SAA21109-at-sifon.CC.McGill.CA}


John
I recieved the same package yesterday. The program does indeed look
useful, but I have a serious problem with the price. $500 seems like a
lot to pay for a nice interface, especially when non-Window versions
are available free on the EMMPDL. Just my two cents.
**********************************************************************
* Glenn Poirier glenn_p-at-geosci.lan.mcgill.ca *
* Electron Microprobe Lab Phone: (514) 398 6774 *
* Earth and Planetary Sciences Fax: (514) 398 4680 *
* McGill University THERE ARE THREE SIDES TO EVERY STORY; *
* Montreal, Quebec YOUR SIDE MY SIDE AND THE TRUTH *
**********************************************************************




From: T. Page Owen Jr :      tpowe-at-conncoll.edu
Date: Thu, 19 May 1994 09:01:54 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: SEM: need suggestions for new SEM

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I am shopping for a new SEM and wanted to know what active users would
recommend or not recommend. Ideally, I need an actual resolution of 75 A
at 25K magnification. Our expected budget will be $200,000 and we would
also like a microprobe. This microscope will be multi-departmental
(biological sciences and chemistry).
Thank you in advance,
Page Owen

Page Owen
Dept. of Botany
Connecticut College
270 Mohegan Ave., Box 5555
New London, CT 06320
(203)439-2147





From: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
Date: Thu, 19 May 1994 14:14:56 +0100
Subject: Journal of Microscopy. June 1994 issue

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Sender: rms-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
74250.331-at-COMPUSERVE.COM, ROSS.MACKENZIE-at-OX.AC.UK,
MICROSCOPY-at-ANLEMC.MSD.ANL.GOV
Message-ID: {0097EAA9.E96BF6C2.17-at-vax.ox.ac.uk}

JUNE 1994 ISSUE - VOLUME 174 PART 3

SPECIAL ISSUE - ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPIC IMAGING AND ANALYSIS
TECHNIQUES. A SELECTION OF PAPERS FROM THE 4TH EUROPEAN WORKSHOP
HELD AT THE INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS, UNIVERSITY OF MUNSTER, GERMANY


Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 3, June 1994, pp. 133 - 142.

KOHLER ILLUMINATION IN THE TEM: FUNDAMENTALS AND ADVANTAGES

G. BENNER & W. PROBST
Electron Optics Division, Carl Zeiss, 73446 Oberkochen, Germany

Summary

Kohler illumination is the most favourable design for the
illumination path of an electron microscope with a condenser
objective lens. The new illumination system of the EM 910 and EM
912 OMEGA allows both wide area (Kohler) illumination for TEM
operation and spot illumination for analytical investigations.
Compared to conventional systems and objective lenses with a
condenser mini lens, this system offers many advantages. In
addition to the homogeneous, highly coherent and parallel
illumination of every point in the specimen, it offers advantages
for selected area diffraction and spot scan mode.
Combined with the electron optical selection of a condenser
aperture, this illumination system provides the flexibility
necessary to achieve optimum illumination for the specimen.



Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 3, June 1994, pp. 143 - 148.

INFLUENCE OF ZERO-LOSS FILTERING ON ELECTRON OPTICAL PHASE
CONTRAST

P. HIRSCH & L. REIMER
Physikalisches Institut, Universitat Munster, Wilhelm-Klemm-
Strasse 10, 48149 Munster, Germany

Summary

Complex scattering amplitudes are used to calculate the phase
contrast of colloidal gold particles.Comparison of measurements
of the phase contrast intensity at the centre of the gold
particle as a function of defocus for unfiltered and zero-loss
filtered images demonstrates the increase in phase contrast
achieved by zero-loss filtering even for a thick carbon substrate
film. The granulation of amorphous germanium films is measured
by the spatial root mean square values of image intensity in a
defocus series.


Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 3, June 1994, pp. 149 - 159.

IMAGE-EELS: SIMULTANEOUS RECORDING OF MULTIPLE ELECTRON ENERGY-
LOSS SPECTRA FROM SERIES OF ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPIC IMAGES

K.-H. KORTJE
Institute of Zoology, University Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 30, D-
70593 Stuttgart, Germany

Summary

A new approach for element microanalysis with energy-filtering
transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) is presented which was
accomplished with the CEM 902 electron microscope (Zeiss,
Germany). This method is called Image-EELS, because it is a
synthesis of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and
electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI). Series of energy-filtered
images at increasing energy losses are recorded from one area
with a TV camera. In a second step the intensity of selected
regions in the image stack is measured with an image analysis
system and plotted as a function of the energy loss. Thus many
spectra from different objects can be calculated from one image
series and compared with each other. The spatial resolution of
EELS is considerably enhanced, the noise is decreased because
many pixels from irregular objects are integrated, and the
information from ESI can be analysed as a function of the energy
loss.



Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 3, June 1994, pp. 161 - 169.

OPTIMAL CONDITIONS FOR THE USE OF CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS FOR
ELEMENT DETERMINATION IN EELS IMAGES

E. S. GELSEMA, * A. L. D. BECKERS* & W. C. DE BRUIJN +
* Department of Medical Informatics, and + AEM-unit Pathological
Institute, Erasmus University, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam,
The Netherlands

Summary

Correspondence analysis is used for the determination of element
localization and element concentration in electron energy-loss
imaging. The introduction of a new method for the quantification
of element concentration embedded in the protocols of
correspondence analysis may be regarded as a useful replacement
of the power-law estimation technique, especially in regions of
the spectrum where the latter method cannot be used. Conditions
for the optimum use of the method are established.


Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 3, June 1994, pp. 171 - 182.

QUANTITATIVE ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPIC IMAGING IN BIO-MEDICINE:
METHODS FOR IMAGE ACQUISITION, CORRECTION AND ANALYSIS.

A. L. D. BECKERS,* W. C. DE BRUIJN,+ E. S. GELSEMA,* M. I.
CLETON-SOETEMAN# & H. G. VAN EIJK#
*Department of Medical Informatics, +AEM-unit Pathological
Institute, #Department of Chemical Pathology, Erasmus University
Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Summary

Many questions about the metabolism of specific elements in the
human body might be answered if elemental concentrations could
be measured in situ in cells. With electron energy-loss
spectroscopic imaging (ESI), concentrations can potentially be
determined with high spatial resolution. The theory of the
quantification procedure has already been derived. Many
practical instrument-related problems, however, have to be
solved. In the current research an energy-filtering TEM is used
and the image-acquisition chain is examined in detail.
Quantification requires images to be recorded over a large
dynamic range. To solve this problem, the use of optical
attenuation filters has been introduced. The use of the
combination of a scintillator screen and a TV-camera as a
detection system has consequences for the processing of the data.
Corrections for the camera photometric sensitivity and , to some
extent, for shading are necessary. Further consequences of such
a detection system for the correction of the element-aspecific
spectral background and element detection are discussed. The
derived methodology is tested in several ways and finally applied
for the quantitative analysis of iron in liver parenchymal cells
of a porphyria cutanea tarda patient.




Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 3, June 1994, pp. 183 - 193

EFFECT OF SPECIMEN THICKNESS AND CARBON CONTENT ON THE CARBON
PEAK REGION IN EEL SPECTRA

R. DOOR, K. D. HABERLE & R. MARTIN
Sektion Elektonenmikroskopie, Universitat Ulm, D-89069 Ulm,
Germany

Summary

Amorphous carbon films of different thicknesses and combinations
of carbon films with CaF2 films of different thicknesses were
used to create a standard reference library of EEL spectra. The
relationship between the size and shape of the carbon peak region
and the low-loss part of the spectrum was determined. The
steepness of the background of the C-K edge, the size of the
carbon peak and the plasmon shoulder on top of the carbon peak
were investigated as a function of the thickness of the films and
of the relative amount of carbon after normalization of the zero-
loss peak. The minimum at the C-K edge and the maximum of the
carbon peak were considered as examples for a modelling of the
carbon peak region in different specimens. Methodological
aspects which affect the accuracy of the measurement
(characteristic lines of the detector, calculation of specimen
thickness, method of t/lamda measurement, mass loss, energy
resolution) were examined. The results indicate that modelling
of the whole carbon peak region, considering its dependence on
mass thickness and carbon concentration, should be possible from
our standard reference spectra without use of the low-loss
region. The use of modelled standard reference spectra for
background extrapolation in biological specimens with unknown
calcium content is proposed.


Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 3, June 1994, pp. 195 - 206.

APPLICATION OF RECORDING AND PROCESSING OF ENERGY-FILTERED IMAGE
SEQUENCES FOR THE ELEMENTAL MAPPING OF BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS:
IMAGING-SPECTRUM

JEAN-LOUIS LAVERGNE, * + COLETTE FOA, # PIERRE BONGRAND, #
DOMINIQUE SEUX ++ & JEAN-MICHEL MARTIN*
* Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique
des Systemes, URA CNRS 855, Departement de Technologie des
Surfaces, F-69131 Ecully Cedex, France
+ KODAK-PATHE, Laboratoire d'Analyses, Z.I. nord, F-71102
Chalon sur Saone, France
# INSERM U 387, Laboratoire d'Immunologie, Hopital St
Marguerite, F-13277 Marseille Cedex 9, France
++ Laboratoire de Developpement et de Pathologie des Tissus
Dentaires, UPR CNRS 412, Faculte d'Odontologie, F-69372 Lyon
Cedex 8, France

Summary

Computerized energy-filtered transmission electron microscope
(EFTEM) permits the recording and the processing of energy-
filtered images, allowing a part of an electron energy-loss
spectrum for each picture element to be obtained. This method,
called 'Imaging-Spectrum', uses a Zeiss CEM902 coupled to several
image analysis systems. The actual configuration records
sequences of 48 images, 256 x 256 pixels, in steps of the energy
loss, þE . Processing these sequences results in part of a core-
loss EELS-spectrum for each pixel. This approach produces
elemental maps with a short processing time. We have implements
three kinds of background calculation for the image subtraction.
The influence of the irradiation dose and of the energy selecting
slit width on the quality of the spectra is investigated. The
method is applied to the analysis of some biological specimens
(pericellular coat behaviour during adhesion between macrophages
and red blood cells and location of calcite microcrystals in
dental pulp cells). The Imaging-Spectrum method appears to be
suitable for the analysis of large areas.


Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 3, June 1994, pp. 207 - 223.

EVALUATION OF LANTHANIDE TRACER METHODS IN THE STUDY OF
MAMMALIAN PULMONARY PARENCHYMA AND CARDIAC MUSCLE BY
ELECTRON ENERGY-LOSS SPECTROSCOPY

H. FEHRENBACH, A. SCHMIEDL, F. BRASCH & J. RICHTER
Abt. Elektronenmikroskopie, Zentrum Anatomie, Kreuzbergring 36,
D-37075 Gottingen, Germany.

Summary

Lanthanum (La) has widely been used as a tracer to study the
integrity of plasma membranes. With conventional transmission
electron microscopy (cTEM), the absence of electron scattering
deposits from the cytoplasm has generally been assumed to reflect
an intact cell membrane. However, the application of electron
spectroscopic imaging (ESI) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy
(EELS) reveals that electron scattering deposits may be present
which do not contain La. However, La could be detected in
regions of pulmonary parenchyma and cardiac muscle that were
devoid of electron scattering deposits. Therefore, to exclude
misinterpretations based on CTEM the application of
microanalytical techniques is strongly recommended for the study
of the integrity of plasma membranes by means of La tracers. In
addition, ESI and EELS are shown to distinguish between different
tracers in simultaneous applications of La and terbium (Tb) which
were used at the different faces of the pulmonary air-blood
barrier. The analysis of the distribution of both tracers which
form electron scattering deposits, indistinguishable by cTEM, may
help us to understand the different functional significance of
cellular alterations of both cellular borders of the barrier.
As was shown for La, however, strictly controlled conditions are
mandatory during the fixation procedure because an increase in
the incubation time to more than 1 h in samples of pulmonary
parenchyma may result in the occurrence of La deposits within the
cytoplasm. In the absence of electron scattering deposits, the
presence of La in glycogen granules and ribosome-containing areas
of various types of alveolar septal cells even after 15 min
incubation indicates that the absence of deposits does not
necessarily correspond to the absence of the tracer.


Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 3, June 1994, pp. 225 - 232.

DEMONSTRATION OF ALUMINIUM IN POLYPHOSPHATE OF LACCARIA
AMETHYSTEA (BOLT. EX HOOKER) MURR. BY MEANS OF ELECTRON ENERGY-
LOSS SPECTROSCOPY

I. KOTTKE * & F. MARTIN +
* Universitat Tubingen, Botanishches Institut, Spezielle
Botanik und Mykologie, Auf der Morgenstelle 1, D-72076 Tubingen,
Germany
+ INRA, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Forestiere, Centre de
Recherches Forestieres, 54280 Champenoux, France

Summary

Toxic aluminium species in acidified soil damage the rootlets of
trees. The symbiotic association with ectomycorrhizal fungi may,
however, protect the rootlets by sequestration of aluminium in
polyphosphates. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy was used to
identify the relative amount of aluminium in the polyphosphate
of the mycelium of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria
amethystea. A three-window method at the L-2,3 edge yielded
results which were in agreement with the spectra obtained at the
aluminium K edge. The aluminium net distribution images were
recorded at 85 eV, the backgrounds at 70 eV and 60 eV, setting
the energy selecting slit to 5 eV and the beam current to 15 microA.
The method can be used to study the sequestration of
aluminium in mycelia of ectomycorrhizal fungi under different
stress situations.


Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 174, Pt. 3, June 1994, pp. 233 - 238.

ESI IN SITU ANALYSES OF EXTRACHROMOSOMAL RNP GRANULES

S. ABOLHASSANI-DADRAS, * G. H. VAZQUEZ-NIN, *# O. M. ECHEVERRIA,
*# V. BOUTINARD ROUELLE-ROSSIER* & S. FAKAN*
* Centre of Electron Microscopy, University of Lausanne, 27
Bugnon, CH-1005 Lausanne, Switzerland
# Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Department of Biology,
Faculty of Sciences, National Autonomous University of Mexico,
Mexico City, D.F. 04510, Mexico

Summary

Observation of unstained ultrathin sections of salivary gland
cells of Chironomus thummi and C. tentans, by means of electron
spectroscopic imaging (ESI), has revealed that phosphorus is
distributed in two types of granular structures in the
nucleoplasm of these cells. In addition to a specific type of
premessenger ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particle, known as the
Balbiani ring (Br) granule, ESI revealed a new type of
phosphorus-rich small granular component. Examination of
unstained sections by energy-filtering transmission electron
microscopy (EFTEM) offers the opportunity of obtaining the signal
from the specimen alone, thus avoiding the possible contributions
of heavy metals present in any staining product.






From: David Garrett :      DGARRETT-at-gab.unt.edu
Date: Thu, 19 May 1994 08:38:17 CST6CDT
Subject: Referee needed -- Earth Science

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X-Nupop-Charset: English

I need a reviewer for a short manuscript on the use of electron
microscopy in the examination of minerals and soils. If any
subscribers are qualified and willing to help in this matter please
contact me directly.

***************************************
David Garrett "DGARRETT-at-GAB.UNT.EDU"
University of North Texas
Dept. Biological Sciences
(817)565-3964 Fax (817)565-4136
***************************************




From: DPCAMPBELL :      DPCAMPBELL-at-CSUPomona.Edu
Date: 19 May 94 10:57:00 PST
Subject: INTERNET COMPANION

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A recent posting listed the FTP site at STD.COM for obtaining the
Internet Companion. It would be a great help if the posting individual
could provide pointers to the directory where it is listed. The search
engines always seem to be tied up when I try to log on, so this would
be a help. Thanks.





From: peggy-at-research.nj.nec.com (Peggy Bisher)
Date: Thu, 19 May 1994 15:14:10 +0000
Subject: Nitrocellulose Films

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Message-Id: {9405191915.AA03641-at-shakti.nj.nec.com}

Does anybody have any information regarding the thickness and
roughness of nitrocellulose in amyl acetate (0.1%)?
The procedure we used was to take 2 drops of the solution in a
pasteur pipet and cast onto a very clean glass coverslip. This technique is
used for a motility assay of actin filaments on myosin absorbed on the
nitrocellulose layer.
Any references or protocols would also be helpful.




Margaret (Peggy) Bisher

NEC Research Institute, Inc.
4 Independence Way
Princeton, NJ 08540

(609) 951-2629
FAX: (609) 951-2496





From: jeanne_barker-at-merck.com (Jeanne Barker)
Date: 19 May 1994 15:41:11 U
Subject: LM

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Subject: Time:3:32 PM
OFFICE MEMO LM Date:5/19/94
I am doing basic morphological studies on rat kidneys. I am looking at 1
micron epon sections that have been processed for standard electron
microscopy. I have a few questions on what I am looking at, and I am looking
for someone that I can talk to that might be able to answer some simple
questions such as what kind of artifacts will you get when you perfuse, or is
a perfused kidney even preferred over a biopsy, how much variation is there
from rat to rat, etc., etc..
If anyone has experience working with rat kidney, I would really appreciate it
if you could contact me.
Thank-you, Jeanne






From: Randi Holmestad :      randih-at-imf.unit.no
Date: Fri, 20 May 1994 09:21:24 +0200
Subject: Mac software

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There is a new Macintosh software for electron diffraction and
crystallographic calculations developed by Drs. J. M. Zuo and
H.R. Zhu. Preliminary report can be found in last year MSA
proceedings. This program plots crystal structure, stereoprojection
electron diffraction pattern (SAD and CBED) and backscattered kikuchi
pattern with a simulated microscope control panel. Intensity
of kinematic approximation is used. The program also has calculator
for complex numbers and vectors of real and reciprocal space, and functions
for calculating electron and x-ray structure factors and Bragg angles etc.
For more information contact

Dr. Sharon Zhu
zhu-at-jchslab.la.asu.edu

Thanks for attention

j.m. zuo





From: richard.easingwood-at-stonebow.otago.ac.nz (Richard Easingwood)
Date: Mon, 23 May 1994 17:45:14 +1200
Subject: TEM Akashi/ISI EM-002A

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Dear Electronmicroscopists,

We have an Akashi/ISI EM-002A TEM (1988), one of only eight or nine made. I
am keen to get in touch with any other owners of these instruments with
regards to sorting out technical problems and obtaining spare parts. This
would include owners of the EM-002B, which is similar in many ways.
Yours faithfully,

Richard Easingwood
EM Unit,School of Medicine
University of Otago
Dunedin
New Zealand

Richard Easingwood
Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology,
P.O. Box 913
University of Otago,
Dunedin, New Zealand.
Fax:64-3-479 7254
Telephone:64-3-479 7301






From: Ian Harper :      IHARPER-at-eagle.mrc.ac.za
Date: Mon, 23 May 1994 10:59:45 GMT-0200
Subject: Internet Companion

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html

Message-ID: {MAILQUEUE-101.940523105945.6080-at-eagle.mrc.ac.za}

I recently downloaded the Internet Companion successfully, as follows:

site: ftp.std.com
dir: \ftp\OBS\The.Internet.Companion
files: internet.companion (349 910 bytes) (Text version)
internet.companion.Z (zipped version, Unix)
COPYRIGHT
Order.form
Tracy.gif (I assume a .gif of the author, Tracey Laquey)

Note: if you are downloading to a DOS machine, you will have to save
the files to a DOS-acceptable filename..(eg internet.txt)
The ftp-site filename of {internet.companion} is OK in Unix, but
not in DOS. [The same applies if you ever download uuencoded or
zipped files. If the filename within the uuencoded file is more than
8 characters or contains unnacceptable characters, the file may not
be uudecoded on a DOS machine. It is then necessary to change the
filename within the compressed file (using any text editor) before
uudecoding etc.]

Hope this helps

Ian Harper
iharper-at-eagle.mrc.ac.za





From: sassaroli-at-msvax.mssm.edu
Date: Mon, 23 May 1994 10:48:07 -0500
Subject: LM - intracellular Ca imaging using Indo-1 probes

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Hello Ca imagers!
We have been trying to image Ca transients in some cells (neutrophils and
some mouse macrophages) following cross-linking of surface receptors but we
have been running into some difficulties.
Our hardware configuration is as following:
We are using an intensified Hamamatsu CCD camera mounted on the side port
of a Zeiss Axiovert. We are using the following filters:
excitation 340nm 10nm FWHM or
350nm 10nm FWHM
dichroic 375nm
emission 405nm 45nm FWHM
490nm 45nm FWHM

The objective is a Zeiss 40X UltraFluar. We also use OD filters in the
excitation path to minimize bleaching of the probe (usually 25 or 50%
transmission).
The dynamic range of the measurement, in terms of the ratio between the
Ca-free and Ca-bound ratios, is only ~10, which may be insufficient to give
good accuracy at Ca concentrations away from the Kd of the probe! This
problem is compunded by the 8-bit accuracy of the imaging system (Image
1/FL, Universal Imaging Corp. using a Matrox video board).
Does anybody have comments? Since most of the papers report values of
[Ca]i and not the raw ratio values, I cannot judge whether we are doing
something wrong! Is this a common observation? Comparable measurements
with a spectrofluorometer on cells in suspension give us a dynamic range
(as defined above) of ~40. Is anybody willing to share her/his experience?
Any comments/suggestions will be greatly appreciated.

Thank you in advance!

************************************
*Massimo Sassaroli *
*Dept. of Physiology and Biophysics*
*Mount Sinai School of Medicine *
*New York, NY 10029-6574 *
*Tel: 212-241-9512 *
*sassaroli-at-msvax.mssm.edu *
************************************

P.S. : Is there any other interest group dealing specifically with Ca
measurement techniques? Thanks again






From: randy nessler :      rnessler-at-emiris.iaf.uiowa.edu
Date: Mon, 23 May 1994 13:21:43 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: PC SEM interface, or lost poll

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Hello,
Last week the results of a poll on how people record their images
was posted. After briefly scanning the replies, I deleted the file. Now
I find myself wishing I hadn't. Could someone email the file to me? Is
there an archival site where I could retrieve it from (seems to me I saw
this listed here before).
The reason I would like to recover this file is that we are
contemplating interfacing a PC with our Hitachi S-4000 FESEM. Anyone who
has any suggestions, please reply.

___________________________________________________________________
Randy Nessler
rnessler-at-uiowa.edu
The University of Iowa Central Electron Microscopy Research Facility







From: richard.easingwood-at-stonebow.otago.ac.nz (Richard Easingwood)
Date: Tue, 24 May 1994 08:54:54 +1200
Subject: TEM - Akashi/ISI EM-002A

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Dear Electronmicroscopists,

We have an Akashi/ISI EM-002A TEM (1988), one of only eight or nine made. I
am keen to get in touch with any other owners of these instruments with
regards to sorting out technical problems and obtaining spare parts. This
would include owners of the EM-002B, which is similar in many ways.
Yours faithfully,

Richard Easingwood
EM Unit,School of Medicine
University of Otago
Dunedin
New Zealand

Richard Easingwood
Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology,
P.O. Box 913
University of Otago,
Dunedin, New Zealand.
Fax:64-3-479 7254
Telephone:64-3-479 7301






From: richard.easingwood-at-stonebow.otago.ac.nz (Richard Easingwood)
Date: Tue, 24 May 1994 09:04:58 +1200
Subject: TEM - Akashi/ISI EM-002A

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Dear Electronmicroscopists,

We have an Akashi/ISI EM-002A TEM (1988), one of only eight or nine made. I
am keen to get in touch with any other owners of these instruments with
regards to sorting out technical problems and obtaining spare parts. This
would include owners of the EM-002B, which is similar in many ways.
Yours faithfully,

Richard Easingwood
EM Unit,School of Medicine
University of Otago
Dunedin
New Zealand

Richard Easingwood
Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology,
P.O. Box 913
University of Otago,
Dunedin, New Zealand.
Fax:64-3-479 7254
Telephone:64-3-479 7301






From: murphy-at-ms.sjdccd.cc.ca.us (Murphy, Judy)
Date: Mon, 23 May 1994 14:11:13 PST
Subject: NIH-Image Listserver

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Message-Id: {1994May23.141113.859926163-at-ms.sjdccd.cc.ca.us}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov (microscopy list)

I am trying to subscribe to the NIH-Image Listserver and was told that the
address was
listserv-at-soils.umn.edu
and the message should be
subscribe NIH-IMAGE {your name}

However when I did that I got a return receipt from listproc-at-soils.umn.edu
that indicated that there was no NIH-IMAGE to subscribe to.
Does anyone know the correct address for subscription.
Thanks
Judy Murphy
San Joaquin Delta College
Dept. of Microscopy
Stockton, CA
209/474-5284
murphy-at-ms.sjdccd.cc.ca.us






From: MICROARCHIVE-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Mon, 23 May 1994 23:45:00 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: archive message 1332

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html


--------Message not delivered to the following:

rnessler No matches to nameserver query

--------Error Detail (phquery V3.12):

The message, "No matches to nameserver query," is generated whenever
the ph nameserver fails to locate either a ph alias or name field that
matches the supplied name. The usual causes are typographical errors or
the use of nicknames. Recommended action is to use the ph program to
determine the correct ph alias for the individuals addressed. If ph is
not available, try sending to the most explicit form of the name, e.g.,
if mike-fox fails, try michael-j-fox.


--------Unsent Message below:

Received: from anlemc.msd.anl.gov by nexus.uiowa.edu (1.38.193.4/931201)
on Mon, 23 May 1994 23:41:13 -0500 id AA04787 with SMTP




From: KJMcCarthy :      KJMCCARTHY-at-bmg.bhs.uab.edu
Date: 13 May 1994 10:30:52 CST+6CDT
Subject: Re: PC/Mac Software

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Message-ID: {MAILQUEUE-101.940513102236.352-at-bmg.bhs.uab.edu}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Don,
Signal Analytics Corporation makes several exellent digital imaging packages sold under
the name IP Lab Spectrum for the Macintosh. Their forte is that the software is easy to
install, configure, and use and the price is relatively (?) inexpensive, their base package
starting around $1500. We have such a system up and running in our digital imaging facility
at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and have had great success with it. Their
address is:

Signal Analytics Corporation
440 Maple Avenue East
Suite 201
Vienna, Virginia 22180

Phone 703-281-3277
Fax 703-281-2509
They are not on Internet yet but anticipate entering the network in the near future. I am
currently working with the company to set up a user's group archive that will be accessable
via Internet using Gopher. We hope to have this up an working in the next month or two.
Any input from any interested parties would be greatly appreciated

Kevin McCarthy
Kevin McCarthy
Assistant Professor
Department of Cell Biology
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Birmingham, Alabama 35294
Phone 205-934-9923/9924
Fax 205-934-7029

--------End of Unsent Message




From: Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers :      GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Date: Tue, 24 May 1994 07:42:29 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Fw:

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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=
= POSITION AVAILABLE
=
= Lab Manager for the Electron Microscopy Core Laboratory of the
=Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research at the University
=of Florida.
=
=DUTIES: Preparation and examination of biological specimens for
= transmission and scanning electron microscopy in a facility that
= serves the entire university community on a fee for service
= basis. Collaborative research possible as part of the program.
= Incumbent is expected to deal directly with the clients on
= experimental design, execution of the project and preparation of
= the data for publication, in consultation with the Scientific
= Director of the laboratory. General lab management.
=
=QUALIFICATIONS:
= experience in most aspects of biological electron microscopy.
= Good communication skills, both oral and written. Ability to
= deal on a one to one basis with investigators from a wide variety
= of disciplines and backgrounds.
=
=STARTING DATE: Immediately
=
=APPLICATION DEADLINE: Open until position is filled.
=
=SALARY:$22,633 - 26,500.
=
=Inquiries by E-mail or full resumes to the address below
=
=**********************************************************
=* Dr. Greg Erdos ** *
=* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
=* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
=* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
=* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
=**********************************************************





From: DRStadden:R_D:Armstrong
Date: 5-24-94 8:01am
Subject: AO Spencer Stereoscope

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To: MICROSCO:CENTRAL
cc: DRStadden:R_D:Armstrong
Subj: AO Spencer Stereoscope
------------------------------------------------------------------
I am interested in knowing if anyone has used a repair service for AO
Spencer stereomicroscopes. We have a vintage 1959 model with a
detatched prism, and find it nearly impossible to repair ourselves,
using makeshift alignment procedures. There must be a better way. If
you know of a good repair service, or a method for doing it that we may
not have thought of, or have gone through a similar experience, I'd love
to hear from you. If you've seen this message before, I apologize, but
I got several undeliverable mail notices when I sent it out about a
month ago and received no replies.
Please reply to:
DRStadde+aCENTRAL%ARMSTRONG-at-MCIMAIL.COM
or phone: (717)-396-5109
THANKS!




From: sassaroli-at-msvax.mssm.edu
Date: Tue, 24 May 1994 10:14:41 -0500
Subject: J of Microscopy message

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Hi
I received the J. of Microscopy, June issue summary, but I have no clue on
how it was encoded so that I may be able to decode it and read it!!
My mail is received by a VAX but it is automatically rerouted to a SGI
workstation and, finally, to a Mac running Eudora v. 1.4.
The header of the message does not include the encoding method.
Thank you for your help!

Massimo Sassaroli
sassaroli-at-msvax.mssm.edu






From: randy nessler :      rnessler-at-emiris.iaf.uiowa.edu
Date: Tue, 24 May 1994 09:56:19 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: RE: PC SEM interface, or lost poll

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Dear Nestor,
After posting to sci.microscopy about the poll, I realized that it
was mailed to me personally by the person who conducted the poll. I guess
the reason that I received the results was that I had participated in the
poll. As far as the below message, it is all I recieved. Was a file to
be included? I have the address of another contributor to the poll, so I
will see if they kept a copy of the file.
___________________________________________________________________
Randy Nessler
rnessler-at-uiowa.edu
The University of Iowa Central Electron Microscopy Research Facility


On Mon, 23 May 1994 MICROARCHIVE-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov wrote:

} Randy
}
} I'm not sure if I sent you what you wanted, but from your description
} it was the only thing that looked right in the archives....
}
} Nestor Zaluzec
} ANL EMCentee
} r







From: Liang, Long :      LLIANG-at-is.Arco.COM
Date: 24 May 1994 09:59:09 CST
Subject: SEM - Polaroid film

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Message-Id: {MACMS.LLIANG.8669.1994 0524 0959 0959}


I was told that there is a new Polaroid product called 'Polapan 400'
which is a medium-speed (ISO 400), coaterless, black-and-white
professional film. The Polaroid company claims that this film is a new
choice for T52 and T53 applications.

Does anyone have used this new film before? Can I get some comments from
you? I use a SEM and take a lot of T53 films on rocks and minerals.
Thanks.


Long Liang
Electron Microprobe and SEM Lab
ARCO Exploration and Production Technology
2300 West Plano Parkway
Plano, TX 75075
E-mail : LLIANG-at-is.Arco.COM







From: Michael Rock :      merock-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Tue, 24 May 1994 09:09:32 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: Re: SEM - Polaroid film

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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The polaroid polapan 400 film works fine as a replacement for type 52,
we use it with the same settings as the type 52. I don't know how they
compare as far as cost, we were given 8-10 sheets to demo. I'm sure they
will provide you a sample if you ask.





From: smiller-at-umr.edu (Scott Miller)
Date: Tue, 24 May 1994 13:32:05 -0400
Subject: TEM-preparation of indium alloys

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Message-Id: {199405241837.NAA14765-at-saucer.cc.umr.edu}
X-Sender: smiller-at-umr.edu
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"


Does anyone have any experience with or sources for the electropolishing of
indium alloys, specifically InCd or InPb? I need to prepare TEM specimens
of these materials, and keep all the steps taken during preparation below
room temperature. Any suggestions will be greatly appreciated.
*************************************************
F. Scott Miller smiller-at-umr.edu
Electron Microscope Lab University of Missouri-Rolla
voice: 314 341 4727 fax: 314 341 6934
*************************************************





From: Kathi Alexander :      alexanderkb-at-ma160.ms.ornl.gov
Date: 24 May 1994 16:33:55 U
Subject: TEM - Materials Science Postdoc Position

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Message-Id: {199405242036.QAA28556-at-cosmail2.ctd.ornl.gov}

Subject: Time:
4:24 PM
OFFICE MEMO Post-doc position-TEM/Mat. Sci. Date:
5/24/94


A postdoctoral position is available in TEM characterization of high
temperature superconducting (HTSC) materials in the Metals and
Ceramics
Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Job
responsibilities
would include characterization using advanced EM techniques (EDS,
HREM,
EELS, CBED, etc.) of a variety of oxide-based HTSC materials.
Candidates
*must* have a PhD in materials science or related field with a solid
background *and* extensive experience in characterization of HTSC
materials.

*** DO NOT REPLY ELECTRONICALLY ***
*** ELECTRONIC RESPONSES WILL NOT BE CONSIDERED ***
*** RESPOND ONLY BY MAIL***

To apply, send a resume, publication list, and names of at least
three
references to:

G. Sims
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
P. O. Box 2008
Building 4500S, MS- 6116
Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6116

Oak Ridge National Laboratory is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative
Action
Employer.






From: Kathi Alexander :      alexanderkb-at-ma160.ms.ornl.gov
Date: 24 May 1994 17:17:54 U
Subject: TEM - Materials Science Postdoc Position

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Message-Id: {199405242118.RAA00182-at-cosmail2.ctd.ornl.gov}

Subject: Time:
4:24 PM
OFFICE MEMO Post-doc position-TEM/Mat. Sci. Date:
5/24/94


A postdoctoral position is available in TEM characterization of high
temperature superconducting (HTSC) materials in the Metals and
Ceramics
Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Job
responsibilities
would include characterization using advanced EM techniques (EDS,
HREM,
EELS, CBED, etc.) of a variety of oxide-based HTSC materials.
Candidates
*must* have a PhD in materials science or related field with a solid
background *and* extensive experience in characterization of HTSC
materials.

*** DO NOT REPLY ELECTRONICALLY ***
*** ELECTRONIC RESPONSES WILL NOT BE CONSIDERED ***
*** RESPOND ONLY BY MAIL***

To apply, send a resume, publication list, and names of at least
three
references to:

G. Sims
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
P. O. Box 2008
Building 4500S, MS- 6116
Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6116

Oak Ridge National Laboratory is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative
Action
Employer.






From: James C. Long :      jlong-at-bga.com
Date: Tue, 24 May 1994 16:53:35 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: Re: SEM - Polaroid film

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html


I use Polapan400 exclusively, the contrast is as good as Type 52, IMHO,
and not needing coating is too good to pass up.

You can get a discount if you order the "bulk pack" - 10 boxes/case (no
outer packing)

It does not, however, have a negative with it. If you need a good 4X5
neg, shoot sheet film!

James Long (no relation ;-))

On 24 May 1994, Liang, Long wrote:

}
} I was told that there is a new Polaroid product called 'Polapan 400'
} which is a medium-speed (ISO 400), coaterless, black-and-white
} professional film. The Polaroid company claims that this film is a new
} choice for T52 and T53 applications.
}
} Does anyone have used this new film before? Can I get some comments from
} you? I use a SEM and take a lot of T53 films on rocks and minerals.
} Thanks.
}
}
} Long Liang
} Electron Microprobe and SEM Lab
} ARCO Exploration and Production Technology
} 2300 West Plano Parkway
} Plano, TX 75075
} E-mail : LLIANG-at-is.Arco.COM
}
}
}
}




From: nina allen :      allen-at-ac.wfunet.wfu.edu
Date: Tue, 24 May 1994 18:20:38 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: AO Spencer Stereoscope

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Re AO Spencer Stereoscopes.

We were just discussing that same problem yesterday with those same
scopes. The solution in this department has been to put them in a closet
and buy new ones. I found there is a closet full..... and I thought we
ought to be able to fix them. I couldn't get the prism straight
myself... so if anyone knows of an economical way to fix them, let us know.
Thanks ... Nina Allen




From: gkennedy-at-ucsd.edu
Date: Wed, 25 May 1994 08:07:29 -0700
Subject: Re: AO Spencer Stereoscope

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Your local microscope repair facility should be able to fix those easily. If not, McBain Instruments in Chatsworth, Calif. certainly can. Their phone # is (818)998-2702.





From: Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers :      GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Date: Wed, 25 May 1994 15:02:02 -0500 (EST)
Subject: RNase-Gold

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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HELP!!\

Following the protocol of Bendayan I complexed Dnas, phospholipase and
prteinase_K to colloidal gold but totally failed with RNase A using ph 9.3
and 7.9 and 5.6. I tried to use Sigma Cat. # R 5503 ribonuclease A from
bovine pancreas described as being essentially protease and salt free. How ever
when I added 0.2ml of a 5mg/ml pure water solution to 10 mls of colloidal
gold it immediately turned blue/purple and begain to settle out justas if I had
added a high concentration of salt.

Where did I go wrong????
**********************************************************
* Greg Erdos ** *
* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
**********************************************************




From: Rodney L Kuehn :      kuehn002-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu
Date: Wed, 25 May 1994 16:50:30 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: Enlarger problems

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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I am unable to achieve uniform illumination and focus on my prints,
particularly with 35 mm (T-max 100) film. Does anyone know if this is a
characteristic of the Beseler CB-7 enlarger or is it something to expect
with any enlarger?
My 50 mm lens (a Schneider Companon-S) gives a sharp grain (as seen with
grain magnifier) in the center but considerably more light and focus
degradation at the periphery. The pattern is not a simple circle. The
100 mm lens (Rodenstock Apo-Rodagon) gives better uniformity of
illumination and focus but the image is not crisp. The lens apertures are
1-2 stops from wide-open.
All exterior lens surfaces are clean. I am using the standard enlarger
head with recently cleaned condensers and heat shield. The Kodak
polycontrast filters are, unfortunately, below the focusing lens.
If the Beseler is inadequate for biological EM lab work using 4 x 5, 3.25
x 4, and 35 mm films, does anyone have recommendations for a better enlarger?

Thanks.

Rod Kuehn
University of Minnesota









From: JJMILL-at-bunyip.ph.rmit.oz.au
Date: Thu, 26 May 1994 14:10:13 EST-10
Subject: SEM and polyethylene

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940526141013.256-at-bunyip.ph.rmit.edu.au}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

SEM : viewing polyethylene and other "plastics"

Is it possible to gold coat polyethylene in a standard uncooled gold
sputter coater without heating the surface so as to modify it ? We are
looking specifically at surface detail and do not wish to have it
modified at all. We also wish to look at other probably higher melting
point plastics as well.
John Millar
jjmill-at-rmit.edu.au




From: DOUG ARRELL :      ARRELL-at-jrc.nl
Date: Thu, 26 May 1994 08:32:03 GMT+0200
Subject: Re: Enlarger Problems

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940526083202.576-at-FS-IAM-1.JRC.NL}

Rodney L Kuehn reported problems with evenness of ilumination and
focussing on an enlarger. I think that the main problem is that the
aperture used in the enlarger lens is simply too large (too small an
f number). This results in a small depth of focus. If a larger f number is selected,
such as f16 or f22, then the depth of field will increase significantly, and the focussing problem should disappear. The
unevenness of the illumination is probably also a problem of aperture
size and should also be cured by increasing the f number.
I hope this is of use.


Dr Douglas J Arrell
Mechanical Performance and Joining
Institute for Advanced Materials
1755 ZG Petten
Netherlands




From: Jan Coetzee EM Univ Pretoria :      JANC-at-ccnet.up.ac.za
Date: Thu, 26 May 1994 08:43:24 GMT+2
Subject: Re: RNase-Gold

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Greg Erdos asked about precipitation problems during RNase / colloidal
Gold complexing. Our experience suggests that concentrations of 0.5mg of
most proteins per 100ml of gold (Frens method) is adequate. If the Sigma
RNase is not completely salt free there may still be enough salt in there to
aggregate the colloid. Try 0.01ml of the 5mg/ml protein solution per 10ml
gold at pH5 - it may work - and still give you adequate label(l)ing.



Jan Coetzee
Unit for Electron Microscopy Tel:+27-12-420-2075
University of Pretoria Fax:+27-12-342-1738
Pretoria Internet:janc-at-ccnet.up.ac.za
0002 South Africa




From: W.G. Burgess :      wgb10-at-cus.cam.ac.uk
Date: Thu, 26 May 1994 10:26:03 +0100 (BST)
Subject: Re: diff. software

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We have used EMS for some time here without any great problems. The bu1
program does take some time to get used to, and building crystals using
the space groups can be rather confusing. If the unit cell looks
incomplete, try displaying a 2x2x2 block, as the structure may then
become clearer.

Alternatively (the method I prefer) use the option which allows you to
specify the lattice type (PFIC etc) and then the positions of the atoms
in the motif. Thus by specifying F lattice and giving atoms at +- 1/8,1/8,1/8
the silicon crystal can be built very quickly. (I think, from memory,
that the option needed is /b)

The bu1 program will provide a file containing all sorts of
useful/useless information. In this is a count of the number of atoms in
the unit cell. Whichever way you build the crystal, check this file to
see that you have the right number.

George Burgess
Materials Science & Metallurgy
Cambridge
CB2 3QZ




From: OO2ANNA-at-robin.mbfys.lth.se
Date: Thu, 26 May 1994 12:07:50 +0200
Subject: Re: diff. software

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Dear Bob!

We have two versions of EMS, one running on a VAX and one on a PC. In both
versions it works fine with silicon in x,y,z=1/8,1/8,1/8. If you look at
the .prt file created by bu1, you can check if all atoms are there, and
in the right place.


Anna Carlsson
National Center for HREM
Inorganic Chemistry 2
Chemical Center
Lund University
P.O. Box 124
S-221 00 Lund
Sweden
Phone: +46 46 108231
Fax: +46 46 104012
e-mail:Anna.Carlsson-at-oorg2.lth.se




From: hecub-at-ttacs.ttu.edu (Charles J. Butterick)
Date: Thu, 26 May 1994 07:07:34 -0600
Subject: RE: AO Spencer Stereomicroscopes

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Nina Allen wrote

} Re AO Spencer Stereoscopes.

} We were just discussing that same problem yesterday with those same
} scopes. The solution in this department has been to put them in a closet
} and buy new ones. I found there is a closet full..... and I thought we
} ought to be able to fix them. I couldn't get the prism straight
} myself... so if anyone knows of an economical way to fix them, let us know.
} Thanks ... Nina Allen

If you want, you can contact Ron Roos at Leeds Instruments,
800-444-5333. He is supposed to be some kind of repair modification
specialist. Leeds buys, sells, and trades all different kinds of older
microscopes. Basic service is ~$60 an hour and parts. On site service is
available. Other than liking the service this company provides, I have no
connection with Leeds.

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* * | |
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* Charles J. Butterick * |__| | | |__|
* Electron Microscopy Center * | |
* Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy * ______| |______
* Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center * | __ __ |
* Lubbock, Texas 79430 * |__| | | |__|
* USA * | |
* Phone 806 743-2706 voice * | |
* 806 743-2707 fax * | |
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From: baskin-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu (Tobias Baskin)
Date: Thu, 26 May 1994 08:59:02 -0500
Subject: RE: Enlarger problems

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The symptoms that Rodney Kuehn described for his enlarger sound to me
exactly like a condenser out of alignment; they do not sound like a depth
of focus problem. The Besslers that I am familar with have to be adjusted
between 4 x 5 use and 35 mm use. If this is not done correctly, or if the
bulb is not well centered, you get problems of focus and illumination that
resemble those described by Kuehn.
HTH,
Tobias Baskin



- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Tobias I. Baskin Baskin-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu
University of Missouri * Division of Biological Sciences * 109 Tucker Hall
Columbia, MO 65211 USA voice: 314-882-0173 fax: 314-882-0123
___ ____ ^ ____ _____
/ \ / / \ / \ /
/ | / / \ / /
/___ / /__ /_____\ / /__
/ / / \ ( /
/ / / \ \ /
/ /____ / \ \____/ /_____






From: EMLAB-at-opus.mco.edu
Date: Thu, 26 May 1994 10:02:22 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: Enlarger problems

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From: Carlo Montemagno :      cmontema-at-hawk.ce.nd.edu
Date: Wed, 25 May 1994 11:55:11 -0700
Subject: Micro '94

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Does anybody know if the organizers of Micro '94 have an e-mail address to
which one could submit an abstract for a poster.

Carlo





From: smithj-at-acad.winthrop.edu
Date: Thu, 26 May 1994 17:20:53 -0400
Subject: JEM 100B parts available

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Message-Id: {199405261952.AA01126-at-mail.mmmg.com}

If there is anyone out there still trying to nurse along a JEOL JEM100B TEM, we have just declared ours surplus. With the
exception of a few parts that I have already committed, parts
are free to a good home. If it's light, I'll ship it to you; if it's
heavy, you need to pay the freight.
Julian Smith III
Biology
Winthrop University
Rock Hill, SC 29733
803-323-2111 (Vox)
803-323-2246 (Fax)




From: Rick A. Harris :      szrick-at-othello.ucdavis.edu
Date: Thu, 26 May 1994 15:18:11 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: RE: Enlarger problems

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I agree. It is obviously a condenser problem. The condenser needs to
raised, or lowered, or switched with another.

R. Harris
UC DAVIS




From: peling-at-amnh.org (Peling Melville - Interdepartmental Facilities)
Date: Thu, 26 May 1994 11:01:09 -0500
Subject: film printers

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Message-Id: {199405261501.LAA21826-at-science.amnh.org}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Hi everyone,

I was wondering if anyone has any information on film printers that can be
hooked up to a computer (that is also connected to an SEM). Can anyone
share their experiences (if any) with the use of these film printers with
me and of course how much they cost. We had a refurbished Mirus film
printer donated to us awhile back, but it didn't work right after awhile.

I hope that these are appropriate questions for this list. I sent almost
the same questions to the NIH-Image list as well, but was not sure if that
was the appropriate list either.

Thanks in advance for any information,
Peling Melville

--------------------------------------------------------------
Peling Melville peling-at-amnh.org
Interdepartmental Laboratories
American Museum of Natural History






From: richard.easingwood-at-stonebow.otago.ac.nz (Richard Easingwood)
Date: Fri, 27 May 1994 14:31:52 +1200
Subject: TEM/LM - Lowicryl availability

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Lowicryl users,
I have heard that HM20 resin is no longer available. Can anyone confirm
this and/or offer any explanation as to why it is no longer sold.

Thank you.

Allan Mitchell

per Richard Easingwood,
South Campus EM Unit
University of Otago, Dunedin
New Zealand.

Richard Easingwood
Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology,
P.O. Box 913
University of Otago,
Dunedin, New Zealand.
Fax:64-3-479 7254
Telephone:64-3-479 7301






From: Nestor J. Zaluzec-ANL EMCenter :      ZALUZEC-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov
Date: Thu, 26 May 1994 21:09:20 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: Microprobe: Chemical Shifts

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Re: Chemical Shifts in X-ray Spectra

I haven't kept up with this aspect of the field for
the last few years, however, many moons ago when I was
a younger lad, John Colby (of Magic IV fame) did some work
on the shifts in light element K lines. Duncumb et al did
work in the mid 60's, Holliday did work on carbide phases
around the same time. These shifts are best measured by
WDS (but as a uprobist you know this already). The chemical
shifts are due to the fact that the emission lines are due
to transitions of valence electrons to Kshell vacancies rather
than deeper core levels (ie. L's or M's) to the K shell which
we see in higher atomic number elements.

My suggestion is to look into some of the more recent books
on Bulk X-ray analysis. Love and Scott, or the rewritten
book by Reed (which should be on the market soon). You
should also probably check out the last few years conference
proceedings of the Microbeam Analysis Society.

Nestor Zaluzec
ANL EMCenter




From: Scott Simmons :      SRS-at-zeus.ahabs.wisc.edu
Date: 26 May 94 16:25:12 CST
Subject: RNase-Gold

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Message-Id: {MAILQUEUE-101.940526162512.448-at-ahabs.wisc.edu}
To: microscopy-at-anlemc.msd.anl.gov

Proteins below their isoelectric points are positively charged.
Addition of the positively charged protein to the gold collapses the
negative charge layer which keeps the gold sol in suspension. Raise
the pH of the gold and the problem should disappear. Unfortunately,
it is sometimes impossible to resuspend the gold in a buffer of much
lower pH than that at which it will conjugate to the protein.

Scott Simmons
University of Wisconsin

HELP!!\

Following the protocol of Bendayan I complexed Dnas, phospholipase and
prteinase_K to colloidal gold but totally failed with RNase A using ph 9.3
and 7.9 and 5.6. I tried to use Sigma Cat. # R 5503 ribonuclease A from
bovine pancreas described as being essentially protease and salt free. How ever
when I added 0.2ml of a 5mg/ml pure water solution to 10 mls of colloidal
gold it immediately turned blue/purple and begain to settle out justas if I had
added a high concentration of salt.

Where did I go wrong????
**********************************************************
* Greg Erdos ** *
* Director, ICBR EMCL ** Phone 904-392-1295 *
* 218 Carr Hall ** FAX 904-392-8598 *
* University of Florida ** gwerdos-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu *
* Gainesville, FL 32611 ** *
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From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-umbc.edu
Date: Thu, 26 May 1994 09:50:03 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Dougs'enlarger problems

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Doug:

You said you had problems with focusing and uneven illumination with your
enlarger. What type of enlarger and light source are you using? The
aperture has very little to do with an image being out of focus. If you
use a focusing aid to focus on the emulsion grains, make sure the
focusing aid is in focus for your eyes. Check the focusing knob and make
sure it stays put when you focus. Sometimes the focusing knob will have
a tendancy to slip after a period of time if it is an older enlarger.
You may be able to tighten the knob or have to have it replaced. Also,
make sure the height adjustment knob is locked in place. Make sure the
easel is nice and flat on the enlarger base. As far as uneven
illumination, if you use a point light source make sure it is properly
aligned in the enlarger head. Make sure your condenser lenses are clean.
Make sure the lens you are using is the proper lens for the film.
35mm.......50mmlens
21/4.......90mmlens
4x5.......150mmlens
Make sure the condenser lens matchs up with the film and lens you are using.
Make sure the lens is in properly on the lens board and the board is in
properly. Sometimes I have that problem with my enlarger. Someone else
will change the lens and not get it in place properly. I use a Durst 45
enlarger and putting the lens in wrong is easy to do. F-stops has very
little to do with uneven illumination or focus. F-stops are primarily for
better depth of focus. If the image is out of focus nothing will help to
bring into focus unless you use something like f:64 for a long enlarging
time dependant on the density of the neg. If you a use point light source,
you don't have to worry about f-stops anyway. Hope this helps! If you
have any problems, you can reach me at:
Phone: (410) 455-3582
Fax: (410) 455-3875
Email: prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu

Phil Rutledge 8-)





From: Bill Bug :      bbug1-at-cc.swarthmore.edu (Bill Bug)
Date: Fri, 27 May 1994 08:42:15 -0400
Subject: fluorescent screen maker

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Unsubscribe Microscopy bbug1-at-cc.swarthmore.edu

--


*************************
* Bill Bug *
* Dept. of Biology *
* Swarthmore College *
*************************






From: Fermin, Cesar :      Fermin.Cesar-at-tmc.tulane.edu
Date: 27 May 1994 08:21:53 -0600
Subject: RE: DR enlarger condenser-uneven

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To: Rodney L Kuehn {kuehn002-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu}

Dear Rodney:

A common problem in our daily operation is unleveled upper condenser. This is
particularly troublesome in the old Omega enlargers lacking clips for holding
the upper (collecting) condenser in place. If the enlarger is moved, etc. the
condenser will occasionally slide just enough to cause the problem you
describe. This is less troublesome with enlargers that have motorized
adjustments. I correct the problem by measuring the distance between the upper
rim of the enlarger condenser housing and the glass edge of the condenser with
a metric ruler. It takes some times to move it around until is all even. Then
you must ensure that it will not move when returning it to the enlarger
housing.

This happens here all the time. Agree, it is a pain.

***** ************ ************** ************
*Cesar D. Fermin, Ph.D |Fax (504) 587-7389
*Tulane Medical School |Answ. Mach.(504) 584-2618
*Pathology/SL79 |Secretary (504) 584-2436
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From: Greg Erdos ICBR EM Core Lab Univers :      GWERDOS-at-gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Date: Fri, 27 May 1994 10:27:34 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Fw: RE: Fw: DNA Staining of LIVING Embryos

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I refered this question to my colleague who has done a lot of work
with embryos and here is his reply

=From: IN%"paddy-at-ufom0.health.ufl.edu" "michael paddy"

=
=i am from the Sedat and Agard labs where more most of these observations have
=been made, and the notion that one needs to wait until the 7th cleavage
=division is entirely bogus. i believe it is everyone's experience that histone
=incorporation into incorporation can be observed after a si