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From: Andreas Brech :      andreas.brech-at-bio.uio.no
Date: Thu, 28 Dec 1995 07:22:49 +0100
Subject: subscribe

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subscribe microscopy abrech-at-darwin.uio.no



Andreas Brech
Electron Microscopical Unit for Biological Sciences
Department of Biology, University of Oslo.
P.O.Box 1062 Blindern
N-0316 Oslo 3
Norway
Tel.: + 43-22 85 61 89 (work)
+ 43-22 43 83 23 (privat)
Fax.: + 43-22 85 47 26
e-mail.: abrech-at-bio.uio.no





From: wesleysm-at-biology.und.ac.za (James Wesley-Smith)
Date: Tue, 2 Jan 1996 08:52:00 +0200
Subject: Re: Texts for confocal and cryomicrotomy

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Comments: Authenticated sender is {wesleysm-at-biology.und.ac.za}

Dear Fred

On the cryo side I recommend Patrick Echlin's
James Wesley-Smith
Electron Microscope Unit
George Campbell Building
University of Natal
Durban, South Africa





From: wesleysm-at-biology.und.ac.za (James Wesley-Smith)
Date: Tue, 2 Jan 1996 09:00:59 +0200
Subject: Re: Texts for confocal and cryomicrotomy

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Comments: Authenticated sender is {wesleysm-at-biology.und.ac.za}

Ooops. Let's try again!
Dear Fred
On the cyo side I recommend Patick Echlin's Low Temperature
Microscopy and Analysis (Plenum Press) as an "all rounder"
reference textbook on the subject, including a chapter on cryomicrotomy.

Wish you and membres of this listeserver a prosperous and
aberration-free 1996.

James Wesley-Smith
Electron Microscope Unit
George Campbell Building
University of Natal
Durban, South Africa





From: hawkey-at-neuro.duke.edu (Larry Hawkey)
Date: Tue, 2 Jan 1996 09:15:29 -0500
Subject: advice needed on how to sell a TEM

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Dear Fellow Electron Microscopist

I am trying to sell our TEM. I have advertised in Microscopy Today and
Journal of the Microscopies and have had some interest, but I have not
gotten any bids. Our scope is five years old and in great condition. I
have heard that there is a flood of TEMs on the market, so the value of
TEMs has dropped. I would be interested in talking to anyone who has sold
or bought a scope resently. Duke has told us that we should take bids.
Would it be better for us if we set a price we could advertise?

Any help on this would be greatly appreciated.

Larry Hawkey
hawkey-at-neuro.duke.edu






From: Peter P Molnar MD PhD med./habil Debrecen :      MOLNARP-at-lib.dote.hu
Date: Tue, 2 Jan 1996 16:19:46 +100
Subject: rat karyotyping

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Happy New Year to Everybody! - Does anyone have a reference for
karyotyping rat cells? Any reference would be welcome!
Thanks in advance.
Peter P. Molnar, M.D., Ph.D.
molnarp-at-lib.dote.hu




From: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu (Greg Erdos)
Date: Tue, 2 Jan 1996 09:48:59 GMT
Subject: Archive

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For the past few months we have been archiving information from this mail
server, and other sources, that related to biological microscopy. There are
now 45 topics available. We hope that others can make good use of this
information.

go to: http://www.biotech.ufl.edu/~emcl. Then click the Wizard on the Tips
and Tricks block.

We will include any contributions that you might want to make and will
appreciate any comments that you might have.
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-
Greg Erdos Phone: 352-392-1295
Scientific Director,
ICBR Electron Microscopy Core Lab
218 Carr Hall Fax: 352-846-0251
University of Florida E-mail: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu
Gainesville, FL 32611
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-





From: colijn-at-kcgl1.eng.ohio-state.edu (Henk Colijn)
Date: Tue, 02 Jan 1996 13:11:01 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Q: Polaroid negative clearing tanks

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Recently there was a thread about both commercial and home-made Polaroid
negative clearing tanks/racks. I apparently didn't keep a copy of the
thread. Could someone point me to the listserver archives or email me a
copy of the thread?

Thanks,

Henk Colijn

Henk Colijn colijn.1-at-osu.edu OSU Campus Electron Optics Facility
-------------------------------------------------------------------
An optimist believes that we live in the best of all possible worlds.
A pessimist fears this is true.






From: RNBALDUC-at-ARCRIDE.EDU.AR
Date: Tue, 2 Jan 1996 15:45 -0300
Subject: OIL IDENTIFICATION

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HY

I need know the caracteristics of the diffusion pump oil CIT - ALCATEL 220.

PLEASE, send the answer to "csedax-at-arcride.edu.ar"

thanks, in advance.

F. Balducci.




From: wise-at-vaxa.cis.uwosh.edu
Date: Tue, 02 Jan 1996 14:36:38 +0000
Subject: Flatbed scanners

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To all,

Although not strictly a microscopy question, perhaps someone has an
answer for me. We are considering buying a scanner for a Macintosh
computer. I have a catalog that lists them from $300 to $3000. Obviously,
there must be differences. Has anyone had any experience with scanners
(Relisys, Umax, Epson, Microtek)? Color vs B&W? Scan speed? DPI? How
about software? What's a good OCR program? Etc?

Bob


Robert R. Wise, PhD
Department of Biology
University of Wisconsin Oshkosh
Oshkosh, WI 54901
(414) 424-3404 tel
(414) 424-1101 fax
wise-at-vaxa.cis.uwosh.edu






From: Darrell.Wiens-at-uni.edu
Date: Tue, 02 Jan 1996 14:38:19 -0600 (CST)
Subject: join bulliten board

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subscribe Darrell.Wiens-at-uni.edu




From: Wil Bigelow :      Wil_Bigelow-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 2 Jan 1996 15:52:26 -0400
Subject: RE-Clearing Polaroid Negs

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Message-ID: {n1391524395.91458-at-mse.engin.umich.edu}

Subject: Time: 3:42 PM
OFFICE MEMO RE:Clearing Polaroid Negs Date: 1/2/96

For several years now three SEM labs here at the Univ of Michigan have not
been using sulfite baths for treating Poloroid P/N negatives. Instead, they
merely rinse them for an hour or so in warm running water (only a slow flow
is needed-just enough to keep the water lukish) and then hang them up by the
corner to drain and dry on spring-clip-type clothespins that are strung on a
piece of rope or wire. This eliminates the cost of the sulfite bath, the
problems of disposing of the spent bath liquor, and the ungodly mess that
students always produce by splashing the sulfite solution all over the lab.
Try it, you might find it satisfactory for your purposes. Wil Bigelow
(bigelow-at-umich.edu)





From: DENNIS WARD :      dw0005-at-epfl2.epflbalto.org
Date: Tue, 2 Jan 1996 18:45:07 -0500 (EST)
Subject: hair mitochondria

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Can anyone provide a few micrographs showing the gross
presence/distribution/morphology of mitochondria in the human
hair shaft? For teaching and demonstration purposes only.

Dennis Ward
dw0005-at-epfl2.epflbalto.org




From: f.lawrence-at-qut.edu.au (Felicity Lawrence)
Date: Wed, 03 Jan 1996 12:30:04 +1000
Subject: microscopical identification of minerals

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I am studying the microfractographic network and the mineral content of
bricks. In doing so it is my hope to use confocal microscopy to analyse the
microfractographical network of the bricks. However, I am not certain of the
common techniques used to identify the minerals that make up the bricks and
how to associate different mineral grains to the fissures that may traverse
them. It is my hope that I can develope a multi-digital image analysis of
the bricks' fracture network and its mineral composition. For mineral
identification I have found a number of techniques discussed in the
literature such as polarised light microscopy, acoustic microscopy, SEM
(Backscattered electron imaging and energy diepersive X-Ray mapping) and
uranium -induced fission tracked micro-mapping. I would like to request any
information on these techniques or any such others that may be used in
conjunction with CLSM for mineral identification of the composition of clay
bricks as to form a multi-image analysis technique.

Thank-you,

Felicity Lawrence
e-mail : f.lawrence-at-qut.edu.au





From: Robert McDonald :      robert-at-geology.gla.ac.uk
Date: Wed, 3 Jan 1996 08:39:58 GMT
Subject: microscopical identification of minerals

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Message-Id: {9912.199601030839-at-starav.}


subscribe microscopy robert-at-geology.gla.ac.uk




From: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu (Greg Erdos)
Date: Wed, 3 Jan 1996 08:58:33 GMT
Subject: Re: Flatbed scanners

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} To all,
}
} Although not strictly a microscopy question, perhaps someone has an
} answer for me. We are considering buying a scanner for a Macintosh
} computer. I have a catalog that lists them from $300 to $3000. Obviously,
} there must be differences. Has anyone had any experience with scanners
} (Relisys, Umax, Epson, Microtek)? Color vs B&W? Scan speed? DPI? How
} about software? What's a good OCR program? Etc?
}
} Bob
}
}
} Robert R. Wise, PhD
} Department of Biology
} University of Wisconsin Oshkosh
} Oshkosh, WI 54901
} (414) 424-3404 tel
} (414) 424-1101 fax
} wise-at-vaxa.cis.uwosh.edu
}
}
} } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } }
We are running a Umax Power-look with a transparency scanner for doing
negatives. It come with all the right software including Adobe Photoshop
for either PC or MAC. I think it was about $2600. directly from Umax. We
have been very happy with it so far. Another lab has the same scanner
running on an SGI Indy. Apparently the software is more tricky on that
platform but the results have been very good.
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-
Greg Erdos Phone: 352-392-1295
Scientific Director,
ICBR Electron Microscopy Core Lab
218 Carr Hall Fax: 352-846-0251
University of Florida E-mail: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu
Gainesville, FL 32611
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-





From: Chris Frethem (CBN) :      frethem-at-lenti.med.umn.edu
Date: Wed, 3 Jan 1996 11:45:52 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Subscribe

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Message-Id: {m0tXVRp-0005UzC-at-island.amtsgi.bc.ca}


subscribe frethem-at-lenti.med.umn.edu



=======================================================================
Chris Frethem (612)624-4652 (voice)
Cell Biology & Neuroanatomy (612)624-8118 (FAX)
U of MN, Minneapolis e-mail: frethem-at-lenti.med.umn.edu







From: wschweitzer-at-access.ch (Wolf Schweitzer)
Date: Wed, 3 Jan 1996 18:11:02 +0100
Subject: Re: Flatbed scanners

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X-Sender: wschweitzer-at-mail.access.ch
Message-Id: {v01510100ad1067b05190-at-[193.246.40.108]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

I am using a Hewlett Packard ScanJett IIc, about 800 dpi with some
interpolation,
color / bw. This is an "older" model, so I bought a used one for 500 sFr.
(swiss franks).

- OCR even for small printed text (as in journals) is satisfying with OmniPage.
- Microscopic slides *can* be scanned, resulting in about a 30 fold
magnification.

Personally I am very satisfied with this device. Good Luck, Wolf.



} To all,
}
} Although not strictly a microscopy question, perhaps someone has an
} answer for me. We are considering buying a scanner for a Macintosh
} computer. I have a catalog that lists them from $300 to $3000. Obviously,
} there must be differences. Has anyone had any experience with scanners
} (Relisys, Umax, Epson, Microtek)? Color vs B&W? Scan speed? DPI? How
} about software? What's a good OCR program? Etc?
}
} Bob
}
}
} Robert R. Wise, PhD
} Department of Biology
} University of Wisconsin Oshkosh
} Oshkosh, WI 54901
} (414) 424-3404 tel
} (414) 424-1101 fax
} wise-at-vaxa.cis.uwosh.edu


------------------------------------------------------------------
W.Schweitzer, MD / CH-8596 Scherzingen/TG / wschweitzer-at-access.ch
Tel+Fax 077 877203/URL:"http://www.access.ch/whoiswho/wschweitzer"






From: hallel :      hallel-at-macgw1.crd.ge.com
Date: 3 Jan 1996 09:22:50 U
Subject: MSA Call For Nominations

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Message-Id: {n1391461579.82389-at-Macgw1.crd.ge.com}

MSA is seeking nominations for its major annual awards, to be presented at the
1996 Annual Meeting in Minneapolis, MN in August. Nominations must be
received by January 15, 1996, and should consist of a brief description of why
the nominee is deserving of the award and, if possible, a CV or resume.
Additional notes of support from colleagues are also helpful.

The major MSA awards are as follows:

MSA Distinguished Scientist Awards (Physical and Biological): given for
unique and distinguished contributions to microscopy, imaging, and/or
compositional analysis.

Burton Medal: given for the most important contribution(s) in the fields of
microscopy, imaging, and/or compositional analysis during the last five years
by a person under the age of 35 on June 30, 1996. Preference will be given
for work carried out in North America.

Morton D Maser Distinguished Service Award: given to honor significant
volunteer service to MSA over a period of years and generally in more than one
area.

Outstanding Technologist Award: given to honor outstanding contributions by a
technologist.

Nominations or questions can be addressed to:

Ernie Hall
MSA Physical Sciences Director
GE CRD, PO Box 8 (1 Research Circle), Schenectady, NY 12301
e-mail: hallel-at-crd.ge.com
fax: 518-387-6972
phone: 518-387-6677

Conly Rieder
MSA Biological Sciences Director
Wadsworth Center, Emipre State Plaza, PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201
e-mail: rieder-at-wadsworth.org
fax: 518-486-4901
phone: 518-474-6774




From: Ilene Sugino :      suginoik-at-UMDNJ.EDU
Date: Wed, 3 Jan 1996 12:23:05 -0500 (EST)
Subject: job openings

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Message-Id: {199601031723.LAA03657-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com}

The Ocular Cell Transplantation Laboratory in the Department of
Ophthalmology at UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical School has the following job
openings:

ELECTRON MICROSCOPIST: The individual will be expected to perform all
aspects of TEM from harvesting animal tissue to preparation of
publication prints. In addition, some specialized EM techniques will be
performed such as immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. Animal
work is required and will involve assisting in surgeries and euthanasia.
We are seeking a skilled electron microscopist with a minimum of three
years experience after receiving a bachelor's degree.

RESEARCH TEACHING SPECIALIST: This individual will be expected to
harvest tissue and prepare it for light and electron microscopy.
Embedding media will mainly involve epon, JB4, or lowicryl. Animal work
is required. A bachelor's degree plus one year of relevant experience
after receipt of the degree are the minimum requirements for this
position. Individual must have experience embedding and sectioning
tissue embedded in epon and JB4. Experience with black and white
photography highly desirable.

MICROSCOPIST: Medjet, Inc., a biotech company specializing in the
development of ophthalmic instruments is seeking a skilled microscopist
to conduct animal studies. This position requires an individual with
skills in both TEM and SEM. The individual will be expected to work
independently and prepare and present data at weekly meetings. The
position requires commuting between UMDNJ in Newark to the Medjet
facilities in Edison, NJ (about an hour drive). A PHD or MA is required
with a minimum of 3 years relevant experience.

Interested individuals should mail or fax their resumes to:--



------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ilene Sugino e-mail: suginoik-at-umdnj.edu
UMDNJ-Ophthalmology
DOC 6th Floor fax: (201) 982-7762
90 Bergen Street
Newark, New Jersey 07103

------------------------------------------------------------------------------




From: huffe-at-pgL7.chem.nyu.edu (Edward J. Huff)
Date: Wed, 3 Jan 1996 15:44:56 -0500
Subject: How are coverslips made?

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Does anyone have a reference to a description of the
actual method of making coverslips? Is it true that
they are float glass? Wouldn't that mean that one side
might be different from another (not optically, but maybe
chemically)? Inquiring minds need to know...




From: Peters-at-BSAC.UCHC.EDU (Klaus-Ruediger Peters)
Date: Wed, 3 Jan 1996 12:11:54 -0500
Subject: Re: Flatbed scanners

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Mime-Version: 1.0
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{ We are considering buying a scanner}


Bob, we are using extensively flatbed scanners for digital imaging of our
negatives (fluorescence and histology color LM, TEM and old Polaroids from
my FSEM). My suggestion: Buy an Agfa Arcus II for true 8-12 bit graytone
or 24-48 bit color "output" in TIFF. AGFA is experienced, has excellent
color handling and will be around for a long time for support. The street
price of US$ 2,000 (any US catalog company, i.e., The Mac/PC Zone
1-800-248-0800) includes a "full version" of Photoshop 3.04 which reads and
writes 8-12 bit Tif files. TIFF is the MSA standard. Both versions (PC and
Mac) of Photoshop 3.04 are now available and allow us to work with 12-bit
Tiff's (at my microscope on a PC and at my networked office with a Mac).
The scanner comes with AGFA's FOTOLOOK acquisition software which is opened
from within Photoshop: Files-Acquisition.

Please consider: Not spatial resolution but "contrast resolution" is
important for the acquisition of digital image data, i.e., if you read more
intensity steps you can work with more intensity levels per pixels and can
"see" smaller contrasts. Our experience is that all microscopes can deliver
12-14 bit contrast resolution. The jump from 8-bit to 12-bit gives you an
increase in contrast resolution of 1:16 which is adequate for utilizing the
full range of contrasts found in (TEM, Polaroid) negatives. Their is
already some software out for the handling of 12-bit image data and I
believe that soon many other software packages will available for working
at the level of 12-bit contrast resolution already available in many
microscopes, e.g. AFM microscopes, good CCD cameras for TEM and several SEM
acquisition systems. Even, if you cannot handle 12-bit data at this time
and may have to wait for an upgrade of NIH image, a foreseeing investment
in adequate hardware will pay of very soon when 12-bit contrast resolution
will have a common place in microscopy imaging.

Optimal scanning of negatives requires that the negatives are exposed 1-2
stops more than for ordinary photographic printing (high lights should be
"covered" and not be empty, dark areas should be very dark. Good scanners
can handle more than 3.0 optical density which is "very dense" for a
photographic negative). Also the scanning procedures must be adapted in
order to take advantage of the full contrast transfer function of the
negatives as well as the scanner. I am in the process of putting a report
together at my WWW site on our experience with 8-bit versus 12-bit negative
scanning.

Best regards Klaus

******************************************************************************
* : *
* Klaus-Ruediger Peters, Ph.D. : WWW Home Page: *
* Director, Molecular Imaging Laboratgory : *
* Biomolecular Structure Analysis Center : Molecular Imaging Laboratory *
* University of Connecticut Health Center : http://panda.uchc.edu/ *
* 263 Farmington Ave. : htklaus/index.html *
* Farmington, CT 06030-2017; U.S.A : Differential Hysteresis *
* : Processing Demo at http:// *
* Tel: (203) 679-3977; Fax: (203) 679-1989 : panda.uchc.edu./htbit/indiv/ *
* e-mail: Peters-at-BSAC.UCHC.EDU : /software_docs/dhp.html *
* : *
****************************************************************************
**






From: Greg :      greg-at-umic.umic.sunysb.edu
Date: Wed, 3 Jan 1996 16:55:32 EST5DST
Subject: TEM of yeast

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I am looking for a protocol for the embedding of yeast for
TEM. I made a few attempts and the results have been
mixed. The biggest problem is that the cut sections look
like Swiss cheese. Where yeast should be there are holes.
The fixation appears to be fine in the yeast that do not
fall out. I am treating the cells with KMnO4.
Over weekend infiltrations with Spurr's or Epon 812 have
not worked. Any suggestions would be helpful.

Thanks, Greg Rudomen
Greg-at-umic.umic.sunysb.edu





From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Wed, 3 Jan 1996 12:06:54 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Flatbed scanners

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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} We are running a Umax Power-look with a transparency scanner for doing
} negatives. It come with all the right software including Adobe Photoshop
} for either PC or MAC. I think it was about $2600. directly from Umax. We
} have been very happy with it so far. Another lab has the same scanner
} running on an SGI Indy. Apparently the software is more tricky on that
} platform but the results have been very good.

Dear Greg,
What is the resolution of this scanner? How accurate is the quan-
titation of the OD's? Would it be a suitable substitute for the Perkin-
Elmer flatbed microdensitometer? TIA.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: Fermin, Cesar :      fermin-at-TMC.Tulane.Edu
Date: 3 Jan 1996 15:50:15 -0500
Subject: Gray FB scan

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Message-Id: {n1391437919.10686-at-msmail.tmc.tulane.edu}

Macintosh system

If black and white prints are to be scanned, the Apple one Scanner (up to 1200
dpi) cost now less than 700 dollars and is very good with OFOTO software.
Equivalent scanners (e.g. LaCie are just a good), but I am not sure about PC
equivalent and would certainly like to know the outcome of recommendations.
Images in the page below were scanned with the Apple one scanner at 300dpifrom
black and white prints without any manipulation (filtering, etc).


******************************************************************
*Cesar D. Fermin, Ph.D \|T|/ Fax (504) 587-7389 *
*Tulane Medical School /|M|\ Voice Mail (504) 584-2618 *
*Pathology/SL79 \|C|/ Secretary (504) 584-2436 *
*New Orleans La 70112-2699 /|*|\ Lab/Techn. (504) 584-2521 *
* {Fermin-at-tmc.tulane.edu} Prof. Pathology & Otolaryngology *
* http://www1.omi.tulane.edu/departments/pathology/fermin/cdftop.html *
******************************************************************

Felices Pascuas!






From: bozzola-at-siu.edu (John. J. Bozzola)
Date: Wed, 3 Jan 1996 19:43:47 -0600
Subject: Re: TEM of yeast

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X-Sender: bozzola-at-saluki-mail.fiber2.siu.edu
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Mime-Version: 1.0
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} I am looking for a protocol for the embedding of yeast for
} TEM. I made a few attempts and the results have been
} mixed. The biggest problem is that the cut sections look
} like Swiss cheese. Where yeast should be there are holes.
} The fixation appears to be fine in the yeast that do not
} fall out. I am treating the cells with KMnO4.
} Over weekend infiltrations with Spurr's or Epon 812 have
} not worked. Any suggestions would be helpful.
}
} Thanks, Greg Rudomen
} Greg-at-umic.umic.sunysb.edu

RESPONSE:

Hi Greg,
I've worked with Candida albicans and Saccharomyces over the years and
rarely had problems using KMnO4 fixation and embedding in either Spurr's or
Epon-type resins. Check that the cells are completely dehydrated (is the
alcohol or acetone really absolute?) and that there is no water in the
resins.

I have used the following protocol:
After fixation, rinse 3x in distilled water 20 min ea. If individual cells,
suspend the cells in 2% agarose at 45 C, pour onto glass slide and allow to
solidify. Cut into small cubes. Suspend briefly in dist water and then
dehydrate in ethanol series (25 min ea), 25, 50, 75, 95, ABS x 3 changes.
Prop oxide 3 x 25 min. I use a l:l mix of Epon/Spurr's resin made up for
long pot life. Infiltrate as follows: 2 PO/1 resin for 1 day, equal parts
PO/resin for 1 day. Pure resin in capped container at RT 3 changes at 1 day
each. Transfer specimens into capsules and polymerize at 60 C for 48 hr.

CALL IF YOU NEED MORE INFO.




#############################################################################
John J. Bozzola, Director
Center for Electron Microscopy
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale, IL 62901-4402
U.S.A.
Phone: 618-453-3730
Fax: 618-453-2665
Email: bozzola-at-siu.edu
Web: http://www.siu.edu/departments/shops/cem.html
#############################################################################






From: albrite-at-netcom.com (larry)
Date: Wed, 3 Jan 1996 20:13:32 -0800
Subject: WTB Iris Diaphragm

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Message-Id: {199601040305.AA16027-at-ux1.cso.uiuc.edu}

I am looking for an iris diaphragm for a Nikon SMZ-10 Stereo microscope.
They have discontinued this item, it is a double diaphragm wafer that goes
in the microscope stack. The Part number is 76270. I am also looking for
a fine focus attachment for the Nikon camera UFX. It fits over the eyepiece
of the camera.
Larry Albright
419 Sunset Avenue
Venice, California 90291
Phone 310-399-0865...Fax 310-392-9222 or albrite-at-netcom.com




From: wesleysm-at-biology.und.ac.za (James Wesley-Smith)
Date: Thu, 4 Jan 1996 12:41:20 +0200
Subject: Re: TEM of yeast

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Comments: Authenticated sender is {wesleysm-at-biology.und.ac.za}

Dear Greg
You may also want to try freeze-substitution. Although it sounds
like more than you bargained for, it works superbly for yeast
(personal experience). Because of their small size, they freeze and
substitute well, and the preservation attained is worth the effort.

Try and get hold of the article by Baba and Osumi in the Journal
of Electron Microscopy Technique, March 1987, Vol 5, number 3, p249.

Good luck.

James Wesley-Smith
Electron Microscope Unit
George Campbell Building
University of Natal
Durban, South Africa





From: sco.umc2-at-Mail.health.ufl.edu
Date: Thu, 04 Jan 1996 05:02:20 -0500
Subject: Flatbed Scanners

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One user's opinions:
1. Consider the media you will be scanning. Some scanners do
better at transparencies than others (nikon has a slide scanner
for 3K$), some are designed for large format (Umax has a 17 x 12
inch for 7k$), some do black and white on the cheap (HP has one
B&W for $400).

2. Consider the destination of the image. There is no use
buying a 30 bit high definition scanner if all you will do is
newsprint. A 300dpi 256 gray scanner goes a long way with laser
printers and costs $400.

3. Consider the resolution you need. If you are going to scan
stamps that are 1 inch, and display them at poster size, you need
a very high res scanner (1200 dpi or more) if you are going to
scan 8 x 10 positives and display them in a small window, then
600 is plenty, 300 adequate.

4. Consider the speed. Some scanners take 30 seconds to scan
one page. This can be a real pain if you have any number of
images to scan. Some are available with a document feeder, which
is a nice thing to have, but not if all your scans will be of
pictures (which must be hand fed anyway)
"Single pass" scanning means that all 3 colors (red green blue)
are captured simultaneously--this is faster (HP scanjet 4 offers
this)

5. Real Res. Most scanners interpolate the dpi at high res.
This is ok, but non-interpolated scans are better. Be willing to
pay more for a hardware 600dpi than a software 600dpi.





From: Keith Ryan :      KPR-at-wpo.nerc.ac.uk
Date: Thu, 04 Jan 1996 15:53:50 +0000
Subject: Cell substrates for TEM sections

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Message-Id: {s0ebf7db.028-at-wpo.nerc.ac.uk}
X-Mailer: Novell GroupWise 4.1

Does anyone have any experience or advice on substrates suitable for
ultramicrotomy of settled organisms for TEM?

We have someone culturing small marine sea-squirts (Ascideans) who
wants to cut ultrathin sections. These form spreading colonies about 1 mm
in height. I have seen references somewhere to Mercox/Mercanox? but do
not know its source/supplier. Also can this be cut on glass knives - marine
organisms are notorious harbourers of small sand particles which do not go
well with diamond knives!

Any comments welcome.

Keith Ryan
Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Citadel Hill
Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK

e-mail: k.ryan-at-pml.ac.uk





From: Darrell.Wiens-at-uni.edu
Date: Thu, 04 Jan 1996 10:55:23 -0600 (CST)
Subject: LM Microtome shopping

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I am prepared to purchase a microtome for LM. I have info on the Zeiss HM 315
and Zeiss HM 325 (the one with specimen retraction. I also have info on the
Leica Histocut 820. I wish to section chick embryos from very early stages, in
paraffin blocks for immunostaining purposes. I have been using a very old AO
Spencer. I am interested in "bang for the buck" value. Is the specimen
retraction feature worthwhile for paraffin block sectioning? Are the
disposable blades as stable as the stainless steel knives or can one get
sectioning artifacts when using very small block faces? Any advice or
suggestions?
Darrell Wiens
University of Northern Iowa




From: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu (Greg Erdos)
Date: Thu, 4 Jan 1996 09:30:48 GMT
Subject: Re: TEM of yeast

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} I am looking for a protocol for the embedding of yeast for
} TEM. I made a few attempts and the results have been
} mixed. The biggest problem is that the cut sections look
} like Swiss cheese. Where yeast should be there are holes.
} The fixation appears to be fine in the yeast that do not
} fall out. I am treating the cells with KMnO4.
} Over weekend infiltrations with Spurr's or Epon 812 have
} not worked. Any suggestions would be helpful.
}
} Thanks, Greg Rudomen
} Greg-at-umic.umic.sunysb.edu
}
} } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } }

Greg,
See: Anderson et al., 1991 J EM Tech. 18:172 for a protocol using
periodate treatment of the wall.

and, Byers & Goetsch, 1991 Methods in Enzymology 194:602 for a
method using enzymatic treatment of the wall.
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-
Greg Erdos Phone: 352-392-1295
Scientific Director,
ICBR Electron Microscopy Core Lab
218 Carr Hall Fax: 352-846-0251
University of Florida E-mail: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu
Gainesville, FL 32611
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-





From: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu (Greg Erdos)
Date: Thu, 4 Jan 1996 09:15:39 GMT
Subject: Re: Flatbed scanners

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K.-R. Peters wrote:

} Optimal scanning of negatives requires that the negatives are exposed 1-2
} stops more than for ordinary photographic printing (high lights should be
} "covered" and not be empty, dark areas should be very dark. Good scanners
} can handle more than 3.0 optical density which is "very dense" for a
} photographic negative). Also the scanning procedures must be adapted in
} order to take advantage of the full contrast transfer function of the
} negatives as well as the scanner. I am in the process of putting a report
} together at my WWW site on our experience with 8-bit versus 12-bit negative
} scanning.
}
} Best regards Klaus
}
} ******************************************************************************
} * : *
} * Klaus-Ruediger Peters, Ph.D. : WWW Home Page: *
} * Director, Molecular Imaging Laboratgory : *
} * Biomolecular Structure Analysis Center : Molecular Imaging Laboratory *
} * University of Connecticut Health Center : http://panda.uchc.edu/ *
} * 263 Farmington Ave. : htklaus/index.html *
} * Farmington, CT 06030-2017; U.S.A : Differential Hysteresis *
} * : Processing Demo at http:// *
} * Tel: (203) 679-3977; Fax: (203) 679-1989 : panda.uchc.edu./htbit/indiv/ *
} * e-mail: Peters-at-BSAC.UCHC.EDU : /software_docs/dhp.html *
} * : *
} ****************************************************************************
} **
}
}
} } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } }
we have partially overcome this problem by overlaying negatives with
photographic contrast filters or neutral density filters. This may not be
appropriate for very high res. work but is no problem for video display and
printing to a laser printer
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-
Greg Erdos Phone: 352-392-1295
Scientific Director,
ICBR Electron Microscopy Core Lab
218 Carr Hall Fax: 352-846-0251
University of Florida E-mail: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu
Gainesville, FL 32611
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-





From: wise-at-vaxa.cis.uwosh.edu
Date: Thu, 04 Jan 1996 14:07:07 +0000
Subject: "Antique" microscopes

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Our department has about a dozen old Spencer light microscopes--monoccular,
black laquer with lots of brass, probably pre-WWII. Does anyone know if
there is a market for such things out there? Are there 'antique'
microscope dealers who might be interested in these? They are not very
functional but too nice to throw away.

Bob


Robert R. Wise, PhD
Department of Biology
University of Wisconsin Oshkosh
Oshkosh, WI 54901
(414) 424-3404 tel
(414) 424-1101 fax
wise-at-vaxa.cis.uwosh.edu






From: jbpawley-at-facstaff.wisc.edu (Jim Pawley)
Date: Thu, 4 Jan 1996 12:13:15 -0600
Subject: Re: Flatbed scanners

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In response to Klaus Peter's eloquent plea for 12-bit versus 8-bit scanners:

While I would not want to be thought of against precision, it must be
admitted that there are some limitations to using 12-bit data, namely
greater storage (and display?) requirements. So one should consider this
step carefully.

Assuming that it is done correctly, 12-bit data is digitized to 1 part in
4,000 while 8-bit data is digitized to only 1 part in 256. Therefore, to
make proper use of such precision one must have data of similar precision.
Although many considerations can reduce the precision of recorded data:
measurement noise, low contrast, it can never be better than the
statistical limitations placed by quantum mechanics on the number of events
counted (grains of silver (assuming that they are all of the same size
which whey aren't)/pixel or photons/pixel or electrons/pixel). Clearly,
this all depends on the size of a pixel: larger pixels imply the chance to
count more quanta (but they also mean lower scanner resolution) so you may
need less intensity resolution if you have greater real (non interpolated)
spatial resolution.

Now it is clear that, for instance, in STM, where a 0.05 nm height
resolution can be detected and the piezo may have a height sensing range of
many microns, there is no difficulty in obtaining 12-bit data (or even
16-bit data) although you may have trouble displaying all of this "depth"
to a human observer at one time. Likewise, CCD sensors having noise levels
of +/- 3-4 RMS electrons/pixel and full-well signal levels of 300,000
electrons/pixel easily satisfy the 4,000:1 (more like 100,000:1 possible)
requirement as long as you use a long enough exposure to actually record at
least 20,000 electrons/pixel. However, in confocal microscopy, 256
photons/pixel is often quite a high signal and digitizing from a color
slide of a fluorescent image recorded on high speed film (depending on
original magnification and pixel size. Remember, 1200 DPI implies 20 micron
pixels.) one may find it difficult to find even 10 distinguishable levels.

So far we have only spoken of linear digitization (as is appropriate to
scanners which usually make every effort to be linear). However, for
signals degraded mainly by statistical noise and recorded by the direct
digitization of electron signals, the separation between "meaningful" grey
levels (those separated in intensity from neighboring levels by an amount
at least equal to their standard deviation?) the difference between the
first two such levels (1 event/pixel and 4 events/pixel) is 3 event/pixel
whereas that between the 15th level and the 16th is 31 events/pixel. In
other words, if we are only interested in recording the INFORMATION in a
signal limited only by quantum noise (SEM? Confocal?), we could first take
its square root and then digitize this. This could be done using only one
half of the number of bits that would have been necessary to preserve the
information in a linear signal and each SQRTBit would be a "real" grey
level.

All this said, one must admit that getting real 8-bit data requires more
than the use of an 8-bit DAC (0.4% illumination stability, low-noise
detector, freedom from digital electronic interference, proper bandwidth
for sampling rate in both the electron and optical parts of the information
path, etc) and many scanners may not provide the performance they claim.
This might explain much of the difference claimed to exist between 8-bit
and 12-bit results.

(To any owners who have read this far: have you any MEASUREMENTS on scanner
performance on known images?)

SEM might provide a good case in point: The SE signal variation associated
with small features is often less than 1% of the total signal. As "seeing"
a small feature with only 1% contrast requires collecting at least 1/0.01
x0.01 = 10,000 electrons/pixel, it might seem worthwhile to use 12-bits to
preserve these small variations. However, unless there are "holes" in your
specimen from which virtually no signal is obtained (i.e. if your signal
does not have "important" high contrast), little would be lost if one
digitized only the 256 levels nearest in intensity to those of the small
feature and a positive improvement would be gained (all the information
that could possibly be coded in up to 65,000 detected electrons vs. 10,000)
by digitizing the square-root of the signal into only 8 bits. In either
case you would have to "process" the signal before you displayed it on the
screen.

Just some thoughts. Sorry that they were so long but I felt a trend to
Digital-One-up-man-ship...

Jim Pawley

****************************************
Prof. James B. Pawley, Ph. 608-263-3147
Room 1235, Engineering Research Building, FAX 608-265-5315
1500 Johnson Dr., Madison, WI, 53706 JBPAWLEY-at-FACSTAFF.WISC.EDU






From: Joyce Palmer, ECE Marcus 20 413-545-4647 :      PALMER-at-ecs.umass.edu
Date: Thu, 04 Jan 1996 15:51:40 -0500
Subject: ball and stick models of crystals

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Dear Colleages,
I'm having trouble locating a simple item - those plastic ball and
stick models for making models of simple crystals. I need some models for a
course I'm teaching in the spring, and so far the models I've seen in the
scientific/lab products catalogs I've looked in are a bit disapointing. By
that, I mean they are more oriented toward molecular models, and the emphasis
in the models are on the bonds, not the arrangement of the atoms, which is
what I'd rather stress for this class (intro to semiconductors).
Does anyone out there know of any good sources for ball and stick
models?
Thanks

Joyce Palmer
Umass Amherst ECE department





From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Thu, 4 Jan 1996 17:00:38 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: TEM of yeast

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}
} I am looking for a protocol for the embedding of yeast for
} TEM. I made a few attempts and the results have been
} mixed. The biggest problem is that the cut sections look
} like Swiss cheese. Where yeast should be there are holes.

Dear Greg,
I had the same problem with pollen grains, and it arises from the
difference in hardness between the specimen and the resin. Our solution
was to experiment with different proportions of the constituents of the
resin until its hardness matched that of the specimen. Of course, this has
to be a trial-and-error process. Good luck.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: Peters-at-BSAC.UCHC.EDU (Klaus-Ruediger Peters)
Date: Thu, 4 Jan 1996 15:20:41 -0500
Subject: Re: Flatbed scanners: 12-bit versus 8-bit

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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} } K.-R. Peters wrote:
} }
} } Optimal scanning of negatives requires that the negatives are exposed 1-2
} } stops more than for ordinary photographic printing (high lights should be
} } "covered" and not be empty, dark areas should be very dark. Good scanners


} Greg Erdos responded:
}
} we have partially overcome this problem by overlaying negatives with
} photographic contrast filters or neutral density filters. This may not be
} appropriate for very high res. work but is no problem for video display and
} printing to a laser printer
} -at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-
} Greg Erdos Phone: 352-392-1295
} Scientific Director,
} ICBR Electron Microscopy Core Lab
} 218 Carr Hall Fax: 352-846-0251
} University of Florida E-mail: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu
} Gainesville, FL 32611
} -at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-


Thanks Greg, you make an important point concerning acquisition and display:

The application of contrast or neutral filters in photography shifts the
brightness (level) or contrast (slope) of the image data to a range at
which the eye is more perceptive (details in high lights may be preserved,
but reduced in the shadows or visa versa, or both may be compressed). These
procedures do not produce more "image detail" than the negative contains
but modifies the display of the details. If during image acquisition
(negative exposure) the highlights in the negatives were underexposed (or
the shadows overexposed) then the possibly lost detail information can not
be recovered, neither analog nor digitally.

It is therefore important (for both analog as well as digital imaging of
the negative) to the set the brightness level of the negative so that it
captures as much information as possible. Generally, the contrast transfer
function (slope) is not changed, i.e., through variation of developing
conditions or change of film/developing combination. But why don't we
normally care much about optimal exposures (or acquisition)?

Photography (analog) had long accepted that there is more information in a
negative (raw data) than the eye can "see" ("image" being that part of the
displayed image data which the eye can perceive and recognize). It
developed many useful tools for enhancing the contrast of certain image
components of the negative so that they become visible, but consider our
following findings. Measurments of the intensity ranges of contrast
patterns in digitized EM negatives and the contrast ranges required for
visual display of these contrast patterns (as images) indicates that an
optimally exposed TEM negative has an information depth of approximately 12
bit, or a 12-bit contrast resolution whereas the "image" has merely an
approximate 6-bit contrast resolution. We find in digital image data from
nearly all microscopies that the detail contrasts (structures of lowest
contrast levels) occupy only 1-10 % of the overall contrast range of the
image data whereas we need about 25% of the contrast range of an image for
visual recognition (not perception) of a contrast pattern (in an amorphous
environment). This means, most of the low-contrast data components (which
constitute the high-resolution details) are not visible in a conventional
image of the data. Unfortunately, we have adapted to this fact and tend to
acquire images at an insufficiently low contrast resolution level equal to
that of our visual system because we are not missing anything in the
"empty" high-lights or empty shadows although our microscopes can acquire
images at much higher contrast resolution. On the other hand, these facts
underline why digital acquisition (from the imaging sensor or from the
negative) should be done at a 12-bit level instead of an conventional 8-bit
level. Many manufactures of acquisition and processing equipment start to
provide a 12-bit "output" level, 12-bit scanners are now offered at catalog
firms, and Photoshop is now available for PCs and Macs with 12-bit TIFF
capabilities (version 3.04).

The basic idea of scanning negatives is to "preserve" all information of
the negative with a linear transfer function, irrespectively if the eye on
the negative or print can see it or not, and then use digital imaging for
the display of all the available image information. Thus, when exposing a
negative for digital scanning, we should capture the contrasts of interest
with the largest possible contrast range. Since good scanners can penetrate
the darkest black of a negative (max. OD = 3-3.5) capturing the details in
the shadows, we should expose more than conventionally done in order of
acquiring also as much detail as possible in the high-lights.

Additionally, one should consider that laser printing (HP LaserJet 4
providing 5-bit gray levels and 100 lines/inch) combined with the
LazarPrint expansion can print 8-bit gray levels at 300 lines/inch, thus
provides a good output for detail rich images at the 1Kx1K level (I tested
recently several printers and reported the results in my home page).



******************************************************************************
* : *
* Klaus-Ruediger Peters, Ph.D. : WWW Home Page: *
* Director, Molecular Imaging Laboratgory : *
* Biomolecular Structure Analysis Center : Molecular Imaging Laboratory *
* University of Connecticut Health Center : http://panda.uchc.edu/ *
* 263 Farmington Ave. : htklaus/index.html *
* Farmington, CT 06030-2017; U.S.A : Differential Hysteresis *
* : Processing Demo at http:// *
* Tel: (203) 679-3977; Fax: (203) 679-1989 : panda.uchc.edu./htbit/indiv/ *
* e-mail: Peters-at-BSAC.UCHC.EDU : /software_docs/dhp.html *
* : *
****************************************************************************
**






From: Fermin, Cesar :      fermin-at-TMC.Tulane.Edu
Date: Thu, 04 Jan 1996 14:21:55 +0000
Subject: Scanners

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To all,

I got a number of good responses on my question regarding flatbed
scanners. Everybody seemed pleased with the particular one they
owned--there were no clear favorites. A couple of tips: 1) Make sure
your computer has the right output. All of the scanners I have looked at
have a SCSI 2 output while my 2.5-year-old Mac only has a SCSI. I have
been told that I have to upgrade my computer in order to even hook it up to
a SCSI 2 scanner. I'm still investigating this. 2) Make sure you get the
software you need to manipulate the scanned image or text. A lot of
scanners come with software bundles. 3) Look into warranties. Some
devices have none--others are up to 2 years (longer?). 4) Photoshop
comes in two versions--LE and 3.1. The latter is more powerful (and
expensive) than the former. 5) Transparency adapters and document feeders
are usually extra. Both can be useful.--if you need them. 6) Read the
first response (from {sco.umc2-at-Mail.health.ufl.edu} ). It contains a lot of
good basic advice. 7) Good luck.

Bob
________________


One user's opinions:

1. Consider the media you will be scanning. Some scanners do
better at transparencies than others (nikon has a slide scanner
for 3K$), some are designed for large format (Umax has a 17 x 12
inch for 7k$), some do black and white on the cheap (HP has one
B&W for $400).

2. Consider the destination of the image. There is no use
buying a 30 bit high definition scanner if all you will do is
newsprint. A 300dpi 256 gray scanner goes a long way with laser
printers and costs $400.

3. Consider the resolution you need. If you are going to scan
stamps that are 1 inch, and display them at poster size, you need
a very high res scanner (1200 dpi or more) if you are going to
scan 8 x 10 positives and display them in a small window, then
600 is plenty, 300 adequate.

4. Consider the speed. Some scanners take 30 seconds to scan
one page. This can be a real pain if you have any number of
images to scan. Some are available with a document feeder, which
is a nice thing to have, but not if all your scans will be of
pictures (which must be hand fed anyway)
"Single pass" scanning means that all 3 colors (red green blue)
are captured simultaneously--this is faster (HP scanjet 4 offers
this)

5. Real Res. Most scanners interpolate the dpi at high res.
This is ok, but non-interpolated scans are better. Be willing to
pay more for a hardware 600dpi than a software 600dpi.
__________________

Sender: bob-at-befvax.uchicago.edu

What resolution do you need. Many of the inexpensive scanners have a very
small numerical aperature which leads to line broadening. So a step
size of (for example) 5 microns will not resolve a 5 micron line in
single (or two) pixels but rather 10 or more. The requirement for a
large numerical aperature coupled with dimensional stability is
what makes high resolution cost so much.

Bob J.
______________

Response from John Bozzola:

We use a Mac IIci attached to a LaCie 600 dpi color scanner (it's
equivalent to an Epson 300) to occasionally digitize prints. It cost $1,800
- a similar unit may now be purchased for around $600. I have used it for
over 3 years now with no problems whatsoever. 97% of the scanning is done
in the bw mode set to no more than 300 dpi. The program most often used to
drive the scanner is Adobe PhotoShop. As an OCR program, I use WordScan
Plus. It's OK, a bit slow, but it is also 3 years old and a newer version
may be better. I rarely use this program. However, when the documents are
of high quality (typed characters no smaller than 9 point) then it is a
great time saver. There are better OCR programs out there than this one.
_________________

Our Graphics Artist uses a Macintosh computer with a Hewlett Packard scanner
which he likes very much. The one we have is color and has a 400 optical
DPI, although the new Hewlett Packard has a 600 optical DPI. It comes with
Deskscan software and a limited version of PhotoShop. If you want to use
color, though, you need to have the full version of PhotoShop.

Hope this is helpful.

Kathy Stangenberg
Ted Pella, Inc.
_______________

I have a AGFA StudioScan IIsi scanner with Transparency module. I
think that it is a very good scanner. I using it every day.
Some technical data:

- Max. res. 400(H) x 800(V) optical
2400(H) x 2400(H) ppi through interpolation

Sample depth:
10 bits for grey
30 bits for colour

Scan mode: one pass

Scanning speed:
grey 4.5 ms/line
colour 10 ms/line

Scanning area: 316x355 mm (8.5"x14")

MAC PC
SM QM SM QM
Preview colour 16 16 15 15
A4 colour 200 ppi 54 54 32 39
A4 colour 400 ppi 96 104 86 126
15x10 cm colour
400 ppi 44 54 30 38
A4 grey 200 ppi 17 18 12 12
A4 grey 400 ppi 39 42 39 65
A4 line art 400 ppi 20 34 20 34

SM=Speed mode (in seconds)
QM=Quality mode (in seconds)

Software:

- OmniPage Direct OCR
(I suggest you to buy Recognita OCR software, because it is the best as
I think)
- FotoTune
- PhotoShop LE

Price: Scanner + Transparency Module = 250.000 HuF =} 1.700 USD

dr. Peter Kasa jr.

ALBERT SZENT-GYORGYI MEDICAL UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY
6720 SZEGED-HUNGARY

E-MAIL: KASA-at-PHARMA.SZOTE.U-SZEGED.HU
________________


The one chosen to be included in the Kodak Imaging Station is the high end
EPSON with or
without the transparency adapter. I have seen the output from this
equipment rated at an
interpolated 4800dpi , and it is very impressive. When prints are made on
a dye-sub printer
(Kodak or Codonics), it is hard to tell that they were not made from a
negative in a
conventional darkroom.

Regards, Skip
___________________

We are running a Umax Power-look with a transparency scanner for doing
negatives. It came with all the right software including Adobe Photoshop
for either PC or MAC. I think it was about $2600. directly from Umax. We
have been very happy with it so far. Another lab has the same scanner
running on an SGI Indy. Apparently the software is more tricky on that
platform but the results have been very good.

Greg Erdos E-mail: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu
______________________

We have an HP Scanjet 3c/T scanner on a Powermac 9500
used for image analysis and presentation purposes. It is
a superb accessory. You can scan virtually anything that
is 8.5 X 11 or smaller with it, although it does not substitute
for a good slide scanner. Since it has the transparency adapter
gels come out very nicely. It has its own miniprogram for
image adjustment, but if you are doing serious work we have
an Adobe suite (Illustrator, Pagemaker & Photoshop) installed
on the Mac and that is what just about everyone uses. For many
types of text (but definitely not all) you do not even need OCR.
If you can afford it, it seems to be the way to go. I am a user and
do not have any financial connection to Hewlett - Packard.

Bruce Cutler, Microscopy Laboratory, Univ. Kansas, Lawrence.
_________________

We have experience with some HP-IIcx's. One is on a Mac, the other on a IBM
PS/1. Both seem to work quite well. They ran about $1000 over a year ago. I
think they support 1200 dpi.

They came with minimal software. The software allowed scanning images well
enough. But optical character recognition required third-party software.
That may all have changed.

Warren E. Straszheim
E-Mail: wes-at-ameslab.gov (or: wesaia-at-iastate.edu)
___________________


I am using a Hewlett Packard ScanJett IIc, about 800 dpi with some
interpolation,
color / bw. This is an "older" model, so I bought a used one for 500 sFr.
(swiss franks).

- OCR even for small printed text (as in journals) is satisfying with OmniPage.
- Microscopic slides *can* be scanned, resulting in about a 30 fold
magnification.

Personally I am very satisfied with this device. Good Luck, Wolf.
______________


We use a UMAX 1260 color flatbed scanner, which will scan to 3000 dpi, and
we love it. It is a three pass color scanner, but the speed isn't slow
enough to justify another $1000 for a one pass scanner. It works as a
plugin to Photoshop.

Also, we use OmniPage Pro for OCR, and again, it's great!

Any questions, just email me.

Scott
________________


Bob, we are using extensively flatbed scanners for digital imaging of our
negatives (fluorescence and histology color LM, TEM and old Polaroids from
my FSEM). My suggestion: Buy an Agfa Arcus II for true 8-12 bit graytone
or 24-48 bit color "output" in TIFF. AGFA is experienced, has excellent
color handling and will be around for a long time for support. The street
price of US$ 2,000 (any US catalog company, i.e., The Mac/PC Zone
1-800-248-0800) includes a "full version" of Photoshop 3.04 which reads and
writes 8-12 bit Tif files. TIFF is the MSA standard. Both versions (PC and
Mac) of Photoshop 3.04 are now available and allow us to work with 12-bit
Tiff's (at my microscope on a PC and at my networked office with a Mac).
The scanner comes with AGFA's FOTOLOOK acquisition software which is opened
from within Photoshop: Files-Acquisition.

Please consider: Not spatial resolution but "contrast resolution" is
important for the acquisition of digital image data, i.e., if you read more
intensity steps you can work with more intensity levels per pixels and can
"see" smaller contrasts. Our experience is that all microscopes can deliver
12-14 bit contrast resolution. The jump from 8-bit to 12-bit gives you an
increase in contrast resolution of 1:16 which is adequate for utilizing the
full range of contrasts found in (TEM, Polaroid) negatives. Their is
already some software out for the handling of 12-bit image data and I
believe that soon many other software packages will available for working
at the level of 12-bit contrast resolution already available in many
microscopes, e.g. AFM microscopes, good CCD cameras for TEM and several SEM
acquisition systems. Even, if you cannot handle 12-bit data at this time
and may have to wait for an upgrade of NIH image, a foreseeing investment
in adequate hardware will pay of very soon when 12-bit contrast resolution
will have a common place in microscopy imaging.

Optimal scanning of negatives requires that the negatives are exposed 1-2
stops more than for ordinary photographic printing (high lights should be
"covered" and not be empty, dark areas should be very dark. Good scanners
can handle more than 3.0 optical density which is "very dense" for a
photographic negative). Also the scanning procedures must be adapted in
order to take advantage of the full contrast transfer function of the
negatives as well as the scanner. I am in the process of putting a report
together at my WWW site on our experience with 8-bit versus 12-bit negative
scanning.
_____________


If black and white prints are to be scanned, the Apple one Scanner (up to 1200
dpi) cost now less than 700 dollars and is very good with OFOTO software.
Equivalent scanners (e.g. LaCie are just a good), but I am not sure about PC
equivalent and would certainly like to know the outcome of recommendations.
Images in the page below were scanned with the Apple one scanner at 300dpifrom
black and white prints without any manipulation (filtering, etc).








From: Richard E. Edelmann :      edelmare-at-CASMAIL.MUOHIO.EDU
Date: Fri, 5 Jan 1996 09:00:35 -500
Subject: RE: KMnO4? TEM of Yeasts

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KMnO4 fixation? This is interesting, why are you using KMnO4?

Back in the early 1980's we did a pretty frightening study on KMnO4
fixation in fungi (T. M. Hammill, et al. refs available), in which it
was found that at concentrations of upto 8.5% KMnO4 the test fungi
(Mucor mucedo) continued to grow! (Albeit, abnormally, but ransfer
to fresh media resulted in a return to normal growth). So if these
fungi continue to GROW at 8.5% KMnO4 how good of a "fixative" is
1-3%?


Additionally, Greg, I agree with Bill Tivol's suggestion that the
"swisscheese" effect is due to the fact your resin (1) is too soft -
the chitin cellwalls of fungi are hard, and (2) you are seeing poor
infiltration of your resin - try a lower viscosity resin, I've had
excellent results with fungi using Spurr's Hard or Quetol 651/MNA
(Kushida, 1975).

Richard E. Edelmann
Electron Microscopy Facility Supervisor
352 Pearson Hall
Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056
Ph: 513-529-5712 Fax: 513-529-4243
E-mail: edelmare-at-muohio.edu

int.




From: minter-at-kodak.com (John Minter)
Date: Fri, 5 Jan 1996 08:43:34 -0500
Subject: Negative scanning

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I would like to add a couple of comments to the recent thread about
negative scanning.

Several people have mentioned using moderately priced flat-bed scanners
with transparency adapters. My evaluation of one of these (Epson Scantastic)
was that it was useful for quick prints of light (density 1 or less)
negatives to show qualitative microstructure. This unit had a
non linear response to density, especially over 1. This made the output
unsuitable for quantitative analysis and often resulted in "posterization",
where large areas with visible contrast differences were all mapped to
the same gray level. Check for this by scanning a density step tablet.
Scanning periodic features in the negative (i.e. lattice images) resulted
in moire patterns (check the FFT of some of your images).

As a result, we chose not to purchase this scanner and added a new
PC interface to our old Optronics P1000 rotating drum scanner. With
the addition of a new module for the log amplifier that permits a wider
range of gain and DC offsets, we can select linear ranges of density
of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 with a variable offset of up to 1.5
density units. (This all was supplied by CSI, a small company in England).
This provides the ability to get the most significant 8 bits of data per
pixel and is free from interference effects.

For the highest resolution, we send the negatives to another lab which
has a Perkin Elmer flatbed microdensitometer. These scans are very slow,
but have the potential of very high resolution (we have scanned down to
5 microns t0o be certain we oversampled the film).

Best Regards,
John

John R. Minter, Ph. D. Phone: (716) 722-3407
Eastman Kodak Company FAX: (716) 477-3029
Analytical Technology Division email: minter-at-kodak.com
Rochester, NY 14562-3712






From: kennedy-at-nsi.edu (grace kennedy)
Date: Fri, 5 Jan 1996 08:50:04 -0800
Subject: tissue water content

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A colleague needs to accurately determine the water content of very small
tissue samples (fish embryos at various stages of development). What would
be the best way to do this? Thanks for any suggestions. Grace






From: Ronald Cohn (415) 8556059 :      Ronald.Cohn-at-syntex.com
Date: Fri, 05 Jan 1996 10:05:53 -0800 (PST)
Subject: LM - immuno background problems

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Microscopists,

Does anyone on the list have tried-and-true methods for eliminating or
minimizing background while immunolabeling paraffin-embedded lung tissue? My
attempts to label a protein in rat lung using the Vector avidin-biotin alkaline
phosphatase kit and the Vector Red substrate development kit have resulted in
what I suspect is specific labeling, but also unacceptably high background.
Control experiments in which 1) primary antibody has been omitted, 2) spurious
avidin binding has been blocked by use of an avidin/biotin blocking kit, and 3)
the potential presence of endogenous alkaline phosphatase was blocked by
levamisole, have not reduced the background. The background appears to be
primarily over connective tissues, and develops simultaneously with specific
label.

Any suggestions will be greatly appreciated. If you would respond directly to
me, I will compile all reponses and post a summary in a few days. Thanks in
advance!

Ron Cohn
Roche Bioscience
ronald.cohn-at-syntex.com






From: Doug Davis :      doug_davis-at-maillink.berkeley.edu
Date: 5 Jan 1996 11:04:51 -0800
Subject: TEM and ID of G+/G- bacteri

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Message-ID: {n1391282501.36904-at-maillink.berkeley.edu}

Subject: Time: 12:09 PM
OFFICE MEMO TEM and ID of G+/G- bacteria Date: 1/5/96

To all:
Is there a definitive EM method of determining whether an unknown bacterium
(in this case a plant pathogen) is G+ or G-? This one gives ambiguous
results at the LM level. TIA.

Doug Davis doug_davis-at-maillink.berkeley.edu
EML
UC Berkeley





From: delannoy-at-welchlink.welch.jhu.edu (Michael Delannoy)
Date: Fri, 5 Jan 1996 10:07:16 -0500
Subject: Re: TEM of yeast

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} To: William Tivol {tivol-at-wadsworth.org}
} From: delannoy-at-welchlink.welch.jhu.edu (Michael Delannoy)
} Subject: Re: TEM of yeast
}
} } }
} } } I am looking for a protocol for the embedding of yeast for
} } } TEM. I made a few attempts and the results have been
} } } mixed. The biggest problem is that the cut sections look
} } } like Swiss cheese. Where yeast should be there are holes.
} }
} } Dear Greg,
} } I had the same problem with pollen grains, and it arises from the
} } difference in hardness between the specimen and the resin. Our solution
} } was to experiment with different proportions of the constituents of the
} } resin until its hardness matched that of the specimen. Of course, this has
} } to be a trial-and-error process. Good luck.
} } Yours,
} } Bill Tivol
} }
} } Greg,
} I've got a protocol that works well with yeast
(infiltration/embedding):
}
} 1)Fix in suspension 4%pf/2%ga 3hrs rotating. Spin after ~13K 10 sec.
} 2)Rinse in buffer 3 x 10 min (last rinse should be cacodylate)
} 3)Postfix 2-4% KMNO4 in caco, on ice 1 hr
} 4)3 X 5 min D-H2O
} 5)en-bloc 2%UA filtered aq 1hr dark
} 6)Quick 50% ETOH then break up pellet into poppy seed size granules
} 7)50-70-90% ETOH 5 min ea
} 8)3 x 100% ETOH
} 9)1:1 Spurrs:ETOH overnight rotating
} 10)Vac infiltrate 15 psi fresh Spurrs R.T. 2 hrs
} 11)Rotate fresh Spurrs 2 hrs
} 12)Repeat step 10
} 13)Change Spurrs and vac infiltrate 15 psi 30 min
} 14)Turn on oven cure o\n 60 degrees 15 psi
}
} You will need an oven that can be pumped down, if not use house vac.
} The KMNO4 extracts some ribosomes so that you can see organelles better
} than you would with Osmium. Don't fix too many cells, a 1-3 mm pellet
} in a 1.5 ml eppy is plenty. Of course your adding a 2x fix at equal
} vol to the suspension to get the final concentration in step 1. Not
} all samples will fix optimaly so you can play with fix conc. and time.
} Microwave fixation is an option to cut time down.
} Good Luck
} Mike D.
}
}





From: kennedy-at-nsi.edu (grace kennedy)
Date: Fri, 5 Jan 1996 11:12:48 -0800
Subject: water content II

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I forgot to mention in my former query that the obvious method of weighing,
drying, weighing again is not practical with these samples. They are too
small and delicate to accurately removes excess water from the outside--the
gross error is too large. Thanks Grace






From: mmdisko-at-erenj.com (Mark M Disko)
Date: Fri, 5 Jan 1996 10:58:23 -0500
Subject: Postdoctoral position TEM, Exxon R & E

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Posted-Date: Fri, 5 Jan 1996 10:58:23 -0500
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POSTDOCTORAL POSITION IN ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
AND MATERIALS SCIENCE OF CATALYTIC MATERIALS

Corporate Research Laboratory
Exxon Research and Engineering Company.

The position will involve the use of high resolution and
analytical electron microscopy for understanding model
supported catalysts, and for developing new catalysts used in
refining or chemical production. Requirements include
expertise with high resolution electron microscopy, electron
holography, field-emission analytical microscopy, and
scattering physics. Experience with the materials science of
catalysts is desirable for this rapidly advancing research
program. Research in this area involves a multidisciplinary
team approach which provides an excellent learning environment.
Our laboratory offers advanced instrumentation for
structure-property studies of catalysts, including a new
field-emission TEM equipped with a rotatable electron biprism
for electron holography. We have extensive software and
computer systems available for the computational component of
this research. Candidates should have experience with digital
imaging using CCD systems, and experience with or knowledge of
the analytical methods for processing electron holograms.

The term of the position is one year beginning early in 1996
with a likely extension to two years. Our research lab in
rural New Jersey offers convenient access to Philadelphia,
Princeton and New York City. Exxon offers an excellent
working environment, salary commensurate with skills and
experience, and excellent benefits.

Applicants for this position who meet the majority of the
qualifications outlined above should forward a resume,
publication list and two or three letters of reference to:

Dr. Mark M. Disko
Corporate Research Laboratory
Exxon Research and Engineering Company
1545 Route 22 East
Annandale, New Jersey 08801

(908) 730-2503
FAX (908) 730-3314

Please do not respond directly to this list server. In the
event you need further information rapidly, forward electronic
mail to me at mmdisko-at-erenj.com .

Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/H/V







From: Fermin, Cesar :      fermin-at-TMC.Tulane.Edu
Date: 5 Jan 1996 13:51:32 -0500
Subject: K-11 fixer

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Message-Id: {n1391272195.84003-at-msmail.tmc.tulane.edu}

Someone approached me today for details on a K-11 fixer, that I never used.
Any info. ref. will be appreciated.

******************************************************************
*Cesar D. Fermin, Ph.D \|T|/ Fax (504) 587-7389 *
*Tulane Medical School /|M|\ Voice Mail (504) 584-2618 *
*Pathology/SL79 \|C|/ Secretary (504) 584-2436 *
*New Orleans La 70112-2699 /|*|\ Lab/Techn. (504) 584-2521 *
* {Fermin-at-tmc.tulane.edu} Prof. Pathology & Otolaryngology *
* http://www1.omi.tulane.edu/departments/pathology/fermin/cdftop.html *
******************************************************************






From: em-at-mediacity.com (E. Monberg)
Date: Fri, 5 Jan 1996 10:29:06 -0800
Subject: tissue water content

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} From: kennedy-at-nsi.edu (grace kennedy)
} Subject: tissue water content
}
} A colleague needs to accurately determine the water content of very small
} tissue samples (fish embryos at various stages of development). What would
} be the best way to do this? Thanks for any suggestions. Grace
}


Gross Analysis: Weigh,
Freeze Dry
Weigh again.

The difference in weights = H2O Content.










Regards,


Ed Monberg, GM em-at-mediacity.com
LMDC (Laser Motion Development Company)
3101 Whipple Road Union City, CA 94587-1216
510-429-1060 voice
510-429-1065 fax


Inventory Catalogue Listing:

Send empty e-mail to: Cat-at-LaserMotion.com






From: STANSMAN-at-aol.com
Date: Sat, 6 Jan 1996 11:19:54 -0500
Subject: Re: Scanners

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boundary="PART.BOUNDARY.0.17542.mail06.mail.aol.com.820945190"


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Hello all,

The recent mail threads concerning flatbed scanners and negative scanning
provided very good information on the resolution and contrast requirements
needed to satisfy various imaging formats. I would like to provide for
informational purposes only technical specifications on two Nikon scanners
that have not been mentioned.

If you do not wish this to view this information please don't download the
attached file.

Regards,

Stan Schwartz
Nikon Inc.

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SCANTOUCH: $1,535 SRP
=0D
Gives Your Images That Professional Touch
=0D
If you spend a lot of time scanning, you'll appreciate Nikon's fast,
versatile, and affordable high-resolution color scanner. Backed by Nikon'=
s
renowned design and quality, the ScanTouch flatbed scanner offers the hig=
h
level of performance and value you demand. Take for instance its outstand=
ing
1,200 dpi resolution with a super-fast scanning method. And professional
scanning software for both Macintosh and IBM computers. Plus other rich,
image-enhancing features ideal for your professional-quality layouts and
publications using both images and text.
=0D
High resolution: 1,200 x 1,200 dpi
Featuring 24-bit full color with an optical resolution of 565 x 1,200 dpi=
,
the Nikon ScanTouch offers an impressive 1,200 x 1,200 dpi hardware
interpolated resolution. If you require finer image detail for line art a=
nd
graphics, its integrated powerful driver software provides a software
interpolated resolution of 2,400 by 2,400 dpi or higher.
=0D
10-bit internal processing per color
When it comes to detailed color reproduction, the Nikon ScanTouch makes n=
o
compromises. A 10-bit A/D conversion for each color (R, G, B) with ColorS=
ync
compatibility ensures that your photos and artwork are accurately reprodu=
ced
with fine color gradations.
=0D
Three scanning modes
Because requirements vary from job to job, the ScanTouch offers three
versatile modes for speed and quality (A4-size, 300 dpi full color): Norm=
al
Mode (approx. 60 sec.); Fast Mode (30 sec.); and High-Quality Mode (appro=
x.
120 sec.).
=0D
Compatibility with your personal computer
The ScanTouch comes ready to use with popular scanning packages - Photosh=
op
plug-in for Mac and PC and TWAIN compliant drivers (for PC only).
=0D
Fastest-class color preview
Just as important to productivity as great image quality is being able to=

preview your scanned images quickly. At 12 sec. per page (A4), ScanTouch
provides one of the fastest color preview times in its class.
=0D
Wide scanning area
A wide surface scanning area of 8.5 x 14 in. lets you use the ScanTouch f=
or
most standard paper sizes such as A4, US Letter, and Legal.
=0D
Multifunctional, easy-to-use driver software
Supports four types of output: line art, halftone, grayscale and full col=
or.
Available with automatic exposure, manual gamma compensation, manual gamm=
a
simulation, as well as cropping. You can also customize resolution and im=
age
specifications and adjust sharpness processing to emphasize contours and
blurring processing to prevent moire effect when scanning printed materia=
ls.
=0D
SCSI-II compatibility
For fast transfer rate of image data to your computer, this
high-quality scanner supports the advanced SCSI-II standard.
=0D
High character resolution for OCR applications
When used with standard commercial OCR (optical character recognition)
software, ScanTouch provides quick and accurate character reading.
=0D
Bundled software
Comes with Caere's OmniPage Direct OCR software and Light Source's Ofoto,=
an
imaging application featuring automated scanning functions, color calibra=
tion
and image editing capabilities. (Note: Nikon will temporarily be providin=
g
Photoshop LE instead of Ofoto for the Macintosh model Scantouch. Ofoto wi=
ll
be made available at a later date, free of charge. However, use of Ofoto =
will
require a modification to Scantouch. There will be a service fee for this=

modification. Please contact Nikon's Service Department -at- 516-547-4351 fo=
r
further information).
=0D
Specifications
- Original Document: Reflective original (printed/photo), max. 8.5 x 14 i=
n.;
Transparency or negative original (35mm to
5 x 5.7 in. film, at up to 1,200 dpi), Max. size with full rotation: 4 x =
5
in.
- Reading Method: Fixed original, moving optical unit flatbed
scanning
- Sensor: CCD linear image sensor
- Light Source: Fluorescent lamp
- Color Separation: 3-pass RGB
- Effective Reading Area: Reflective Original 8.5 x 14 in. (216 x 356mm);=

Optical Resolution: 565 x 1200 dpi; Interpolated Resolution: 1,200 x 1,20=
0
dpi (hardware), 2,400 x 2,400 dpi (software)
- A/D Conversion: 10 bits/color
- Output Data: Line Art, Halftone: 1-bit/pixel; Grayscale: 8 bits/pixel; =
Full
Color: 24 bits/pixel
- Reference Reading Time (A4 300 -dpi Full Color): Approx. 30 sec. (Fast
Mode, without exposure compensation)
- Interface: SCSI (Complies with SCSI-II)
- Dimensions (W x H x D): 14.8 x 6.3 x 23.6 in. (376 x 159 x 599mm)
- Weight: Approx. 26.5 lbs. (12kg)
- Power Requirements: AC 100 - 240V, 50/60Hz, max. 50W
- Environmental Conditions - Temperature: +50xF to +95xF (+10xC to +35xC)=

=0D

Optional Transparency Unit AT-45: $675 SRP
To scan transparencies and negative film (35mm to 5 x 5.7 in. film, at up=
to
1,200 dpi), Nikon offers a low-profile, lightweight transparency unit tha=
t's
remarkably easy to use.
=0D

All names of companies and products are trademarks or registered trademar=
ks
of their respective holders.
=0D
Specifications and equipment are subject to change without notice or
obligation on the part of the manufacturer. June, 1994.
=0D
LS-4500AF Multi-format Film Scanner
SRP: $11,295
=0D
New Technology for Enhanced Productivity
=0D
* Supports formats from 35mm to 4x5 in.
* Scanning head with dual-optical system
* Precision 12-bit A/D conversion maintains wide dynamic range =

* Autofocus ensures consistently sharp scans
* 360x-rotation film carriers with masks for all popular frame sizes
streamlines production =

* Easy-access front-loading design simplifies film handling
=0D
One scanner for multiple formats
=0D
The new Nikon multi-format scanner can handle popular film sizes from 35m=
m up
to 4x5 in. It features 12-bit A/D conversion, 3000 dpi resolution on 35m=
m
and 1000 dpi on 4x5, and it's small enough to fit on your desktop! The
LS-4500AF has an automatic energy-saving cycle and can handle your most
demanding high-end film scanning requirements. =

=0D
Dual-optical CCD scanning heads support multiple formats
=0D
Now, a single device can fulfill your multi-format needs. Nikon solved t=
he
challenge of matching film size to scanning engine by combining two scann=
ing
systems within the same device. The result is a scanner with high resolu=
tion
and performance, giving you the quality you need for all of its formats.
=0D
High-performance signal processing and mechanical accuracy
=0D
Preserving the wide dynamic range found on commercial transparencies, the=

LS-4500AF is ideal for professional applications. Color accuracy is tigh=
tly
controlled through 3D color matrix processing in hardware. The LS-4500's=

DSPs provide the power to scan and process any final size up to 3000 dpi =
in 1
dpi increments, even from panorama formats! Its native scanner intellige=
nce
handles a wide array of positive and negative film types, formats, color
masks and dye sets. =

The LS-4500's unique illumination path ensures a compact desktop footprin=
t,
and provides uniform edge-to-edge brightness, regardless of the film form=
at,
or its particular angle of rotation in the film carrier. High-definition=

optics overcome the problem of geometric distortion, enabling 3000/1000 d=
pi
high-quality output. With a precision-machined ballscrew drive, LS-4500A=
F

delivers remarkably accurate color registration.
=0D
Easy-to-use front loading design
=0D
Film handling with the LS-4500AF is a streamlined operation cutting hours=

from your scanning production time. With a versatile carrier and mask se=
t,
film can be quickly mounted, rotated to a precise angle, and inserted int=
o
the autoloading slot. It is positioned by a special servo system to
precisely locate the film in the optical path. You can be scanning withi=
n
seconds, confident that the alignment and focus are accurate.
=0D
High-speed scanning and preview
=0D
The LS-4500AF scans fast - 120 seconds for full-frame 35mm at 3000dpi, an=
d
180 seconds for full-frame 4x5 at 1000 dpi. Prescan is only 30 seconds o=
n
4x5 and 20 seconds on 35mm. In addition to precise servo-controlled manu=
al
focus, Nikon's autofocus takes care of precision focusing for you. This
scanner is suited to large-volume pre-press scanning operations. LS-4500=
AF
can breeze through complex assignments, putting the profit back into your=

scanning operation.Easy-to-use Nikon software
=0D
The LS-4500AF is also an easy scanner to use, giving you the comprehensiv=
e
controls you need for professional results. Bundled with the scanner, Ni=
kon
introduces a completely re-architected Photoshopx plug-in for Mac OS, and=

TWAIN source for Windows users. The new Nikon Scan driver runs with any
Photoshop or TWAIN-compatible image editing software, or standalone, usin=
g
the Nikon Control application shell.
=0D
Nikon Scan Driver Software Requirements
=0D
Operating System Mac OSr / Macintosh Windowsr
Computer Platform 68xxx CPU without FPU, or PowerPCx CPU IBMr PC-AT
compatibles (386, 486, or Pentiumx CPU
RAM Plug-in requires a minimum of 2MB free RAM, Virtual Memory and Modern=

Memory Manager compatible. Image editing applications typically require =
a
minimum of 5-8MB RAM. With system memory requirements exceeding 2MB, tot=
al
recommended RAM should be greater than 16MB for productive scanning. TWAI=
N
module requires a minimum of 2MB free RAM, Virtual Memory compatible. Im=
age
editing applications typically require a minimum of 5-8MB RAM. With syst=
em
memory requirements exceeding 2MB, total recommended RAM should be greate=
r
than 16MB for productive scanning.
Hard Disk Installation requires a minimum of 1MB free space. 300 MB or
larger disk is recommended for scanning operation Installation requires a=

minimum of 1MB free space. 300 MB or larger disk is recommended for scan=
ning
operation
Display 640 x 400 (or larger) full color (24-bit) display recommended 640=
x
480 VGA (or larger) full color (24-bit) display recommended
Interface SCSI-II ASPI compliant board supporting WINASPI.DLL
OS Version System 7.0 or later, in English, German, French versions
* MS-DOSr version 5.0 or later (requires enhanced mode)
* IBMr-DOS version 5.0 or later (requires enhanced mode)
* MSr-Windows version 3.1 or later (Win16 environment), English, German,
French versions
=0D
Nikon Scan Driver Software Features
=0D
Scanner source selection, source image type selection, resizable dialog b=
ox,
resizable preview, autoexpose, autofocus, manual focus, crop, zoom,
resolution, resize, fiducial reference scale, pixel address coordinate
display, on screen densitometer, sharpening, analog exposure, analog colo=
r
balance, contrast, brightness, color balance, white point, gamma curve ed=
it,
histogram, black point, final scan, eject, instant screen update on densi=
ty
and color adjustment, interactive helpLS-4500AF Specifications
=0D
1. Reading System/Optics
=0D
Film types: 4x5 in.; 40mm, 65mm, 75mm, and120/220 formats, including 6x4.=
5,
6x6, 6x7, 6x9, up to panorama formats; 35mm film (single frame, 6-frame
strip, mounted film)
Transparency, positive or negative, color or monochrome
Reading resolution: 5000-pixel monochrome linear CCD x 2
[A]: 1000 dpi reading resolution
[B]: 3000 dpi reading resolution
Note: Dual-optical system modes are indicated by [A] and [B] in this docu=
ment
No. of pixels [A]: Maximum 5000 x 12000 pixels
[B]: Maximum 5000 x 18000 pixels
Effective scanning area [A]: 5 in. (Main scan) x 6 in. (Sub-scan)
[B]: 42mm (Main scan) x 6 in. (Sub-scan)
Light source: 12V- 20W halogen lamp
Color separation: RGB frame sequential
Film carrier: The following film formats are supported by three types of =
film
carriers, and masks are used to mount the film according to aperture/fram=
e
size. All carriers can be manually rotated for exact alignment during sc=
an,
except the 35mm 6-frame strip carrier; 4x5 in. sheet film; 6x4.5, 6x6, 6x=
7,
6x9cm cut frames; 35mm cut frames (three-up) 35mm mounted slides (four-up=
);
35mm x 6 frame strip
Imaging optics:
[A]: 8 lenses in 4 groups
[B]: 6 lenses in 4 groups
Autofocus: Contrast detection by CCD, focusing area selectable, manual
focusing by software-controlled servo
=0D
2. Scanning/Signal processing
=0D
Image scanning Three-pass RGB
Main scan: 5000-pixel monochrome linear CCD
[A]: 5000 pixels (hardware-interpolated to 10000)
[B]: 5000 pixels
Sub-scanning: stepper driven film stage
[A]: 3 steps / line (2000 dpi)
[B]: 3 steps / line (3000 dpi)
Scan time:
[A] Pre-scan: Approx. 30 seconds; Final scan: Standard mode - Approx. 210=

sec, Medium-speed mode - approx. 180 sec
(-at- 1000 dpi, 4500 x 3600 pixels for approx. 46.3MB)
[B Prescan: Approx. 20 seconds; Final scan: Standard mode - Approx. 200 s=
ec,
Medium-speed mode - approx. 120 sec
(-at- 3000 dpi, 3900 x 2600 pixels for approx. 29MB)
Scanning spatial density: Pixel density:
[A]: maximum 2000 dpi interpolated from 1000 dpi
[B]: maximum 3000 dpi
Pixel size: [A]: 12.7um square
[B]: 8.5um square
A/D conversion: 12-bits per color channel
Output data: 8-bits per color channel
=0D
3. Data transfer
=0D
Panel indicators:READY, BUSY, and ERROR states indicated by LED
Scanning software: Photoshop plug-in for Mac OS and TWAIN source for Wind=
ows.
NikonScan application supports Photoshop plug-in and TWAIN source on both=
Mac
OS and Windows platforms
Interface: SCSI-II
Image transfer: Three-pass RGB frame sequential
Maximum transfer rate: 1 MB/sec, or better
=0D
4. Operating conditions
=0D
Power requirements: 100 - 120VAC/200 - 240VAC; 0.8A/0.4A, 50/60Hz
Environmental Temperature: 10xC - 35xC (50xF - 95xF)
Relative Humidity: 30 - 85% (non-condensing)
Dimensions and weight: =

295 (W) x 420 (D) x 250 (H)mm; approx. 13kg
11.6 (W) x 16.5 (D) x 9.8 (H) in.; approx. 28.7 lb.
=0D
Macintosh is a registered trademark and Mac OS is a trademark of Apple
Computer, Inc.
MS, MS-DOS and Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation=

Photoshop is a trademark of Adobe Systems, Incorporated
IBM is a registered trademark, and PowerPC is a trademark of Internationa=
l
Business Machines Corporation
Pentium is a trademark of Intel Corporation
=0D
Contacting Nikon is Easy!
=0D
In the US, for product literature and the name and number of a dealer nea=
r
you, call 800-52-NIKON. For Marketing, Technical and Service support for=

Nikon Electronic Imaging Products in North, Central, and South America pl=
ease
contact Nikon EID personnel at:
=0D
Nikon Inc.
Electronic Imaging Department
1300 Walt Whitman Road,
Melville, NY 11747-3064
Attention: Marketing, Technical Support or Sales =

Phone: 516-547-4355
Fax: 516-547-0305
800: 800-52-Nikon
America Online: Keyword Nikon
CompuServe: Go Nikon
=0D
For all other regions, consult the list below to find the Nikon subsidiar=
y
closest to you:
=0D
Nikon Corporation
Electronic Image Engineeering Division
Fuji Bldg., 2-3 Marunouchi 3-chome,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan
Phone: 81-3-3216-1034
Fax: 81-3-3214-8193
=0D
Nikon Canada Inc.
1366 Aerowood Drive,
Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 1C1
Phone: 416-625-9910
Fax: 416-625-0103
=0D
Nikon AG
Kaspar-Fenner Strasa 6,
8700 Kunacht/ZH, Switzerland
Phone: 41-1-913-61-11
Fax: 41-1-913-63-63
=0D
Nikon GmbH
Tiefenbroicher Weg 25,
40472 Dusseldorf, Germany
Phone: 49-211-9414-0
Fax: 49-211-9414-330
=0D
Nikon UK Ltd.
Nikon House
380 Richmond Road,
Kingston-upon-Thames,
Surrey, KT2 5PR, United Kingdom
Phone: 44-181-541-4440
Fax: 44-181-541-4584
=0D
Nikon France S.A.
191, rue du Marche Rollay,
94504 Champigny-sur-Mame, France
Phone: 33-1-45-16-46-00
Fax: 33-1-45-16-00-33
=0D
Anam Instruments Co., Ltd.
197-7 Guro 3-Dong,
Guro-Ku, Seoul, Korea
Phone: 82-2-460-5032
Fax: 82-2-861-4895
=0D
Lin Trading Co., Ltd.
2F. No. 270, Sec 3., Nanking E. Road, =

Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
Phone: 886-2-740-3366
Fax: 886-2-773-5577
=0D
Shriro (H.K.) Ltd.
2nd Floor, Hutchison House,
10 Harcourt Road (G.P.O. Box 181), Hong Kong
Phone: 852-2524-5031
Fax: 852-2810-6586
=0D
Shriro (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
Shriro House
11 Chang Cham, Singapore 0315
Phone: 65-472-7777
Fax: 65-472-1792
=0D
Shriro (Malaysia) SDN BHD
Lots 22 & 24Julan 225, Section 51A,
46100 Petaling, Jaya, Selangor, Daryl Ehsan,
Malaysia (P.O. Box 10571, 50718 Kula Lumpur)
Phone: 60-3-774-9842
Fax: 60-3-775-2463/775-2400
=0D
Maxwell Optical Industries Pty Ltd.
Unit 27, Level A, 100 Harris Street Pyrmont N.S.W
2009 Australia
Phone: 61-2-660-7088
Fax: 61-2-660-8739
=0D
T.A. Macalister Limited
Private Bag 92146, Aukland, New Zealand
Phone: 64-9-303-4334
Fax: 64-9-309-6502

--PART.BOUNDARY.0.17542.mail06.mail.aol.com.820945190--





From: Norm Granholm :      Norman.Granholm-at-uc.edu
Date: Sun, 07 Jan 1996 09:48:50 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Scanners

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help





From: user image :      schmutzm-at-lear.u-strasbg.fr
Date: Mon, 8 Jan 1996 10:43:26 +0100
Subject: Cell culture in SEM

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HI everybody,

Best wishes for this new year, hope that you will receive nice pictures...


There is a guy here in Strasbourg, who wishes to have a look on his oligodentrocytes in culture
by SEM. For these purpose he uses antibodies coupled to gold to label the cells.

My question is, what is the minimal size of the gold particles to have a chance to see them by SEM
and the best way to prepare the sample (metallisation or not, carbon spputering, tension etc...) for SEM.

The SEM we have is a XL 20 from Philips.

Any related litterature is welcome as we are novice in this field.

TIA


Marc Schmutz



______________________________________

Dr. SCHMUTZ Marc
Electron microscopy lab.
IGBMC
BP 163
F67404 ILLKIRCH Cedex
France

Phone: 33 88 65 33 32
Fax: 33 88 65 32 01
email: schmutzm-at-lear.u-strasbg.fr

--------------------------------------






From: Keith Ryan :      KPR-at-wpo.nerc.ac.uk
Date: Mon, 08 Jan 1996 09:43:06 +0000
Subject: water content II -Reply

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Message-Id: {s0f0e6e8.094-at-wpo.nerc.ac.uk}
X-Mailer: Novell GroupWise 4.1

Dear Grace

There is a method of estimating water content of specimens if you can do
TEM with X-ray microanalysis and work carefully; after the method of
Ingram FD & Ingram MJ (1986) Cell volume regulation studies with the
elctron microprobe. In: The Science of Biological Specimen Preparation for
Microscopy and Microanalysis (eds. J-P Revel, T Barnard and GH Haggis)
pp.139-146. SEM Inc. Chicago.

It means working on sections and may be too detailed for what you need.

I did something similar, using the chlorine peak of Spurr's resin to represent
100% hydration, and then lesser peak counts to represent replacement of
the water by tissue components. Tissue chlorine is normally pretty labile
and is lost in processing.

Keith Ryan
PLymouth Marine laboratory
Citadel Hill
Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK






From: Marc D'Olieslaeger :      mdoliesl-at-luc.ac.be
Date: Mon, 8 Jan 1996 13:33:52 +0100 (MET)
Subject: water content II -Reply

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unsubscribe microscopy mdoliesl-at-luc.ac.be




From: Norman Charnley :      norman-at-earth.ox.ac.uk
Date: 08 Jan 1996 12:28:35 +0000
Subject: Image transfer and re-use

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To: microscopy-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com


I am looking for advice and pointers in the realm of image transfer
and manipulation, and I know this forum has a wealth of people's
experiences available.

The department here has a number of instruments which can generate
images of various sorts - optical (light microscope), element maps
(SEMs/EMPA), secondary/back-scattered electron (SEMs/EMPA), isotope
maps(SIMS).

Any one sample may pass through several of these instruments, so that
the same area can be examined using different techniques. At the moment
images are transferred as hardcopy photographs or plots. We are starting
to investigate the possibilities of storing images electronically,
transferring them between instruments by wire rather than as hardcopy,
then redisplaying them and relocating areas of interest. (We are also
going to have to consider the problem of longer term image archiving,
which has recently been subject to useful discussion on the list.)

Obvious questions immediately occur:

In what format should the images be stored? TIFF seems to be a current
common standard for this sort of work, but are there better alternatives?
Are there any reviews/publications which would help? (We are also going
to have to consider the problem of longer term image archiving, which has
recently been subject to useful discussion on the list.)

Each instrument's specimen stage has its own particular coordinate
system. Relating coordinate systems should be possible, given
reference locations on the samples, but how to define such reference
points - using distinctive features, or by marking the specimen
somehow?

Other laboratories must be doing this sort of thing - how have they
got on, what are the problems? If they could start again, how would they
change things? What do we need to look out for, and take particular
care of?

This posting is one of the first steps on what is clearly going to be a
long term project. I look forward to the sort of interesting responses
and discussion which commonly arise in this mailing list.

Norman Charnley


======================================================================
Dr. Norman Charnley Tel: +44 1865 272012 (Laboratory)
Electron Microprobe Laboratory +44 1865 272053 (Office)
Department of Earth Sciences Fax: +44 1865 272072
University of Oxford
Oxford OX1 3PR, UK. E-mail:Norman.Charnley-at-earth.ox.ac.uk





From: ENERGY BEAM SCIENCES, INC :      75767.640-at-CompuServe.COM
Date: 08 Jan 96 09:28:09 EST
Subject: Re: Cell culture in SEM

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We have a technical paper available on colloidal gold immunolabelling and SEM at
our Web site.
The URL is:
http://www.mwrn.com/ebs/ebs.htm
I hope you find it helpful.
Steven Slap, Vice-President





From: wise-at-vaxa.cis.uwosh.edu
Date: Thu, 04 Jan 1996 14:07:07 +0000
Subject: "Antique" microscopes

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Message-ID: {n1391031777.18894-at-qmgate.anl.gov}
wise-at-vaxa.cis.uwosh.edu
X-Mailer: Mail*Link SMTP-QM 3.0.2

RE} "Antique" microscopes 1/8/96

Good morning. For your information, there is a society which I belong to that
is called The Microscope Historical Society, 14 Tall Acres Dr., Pittsford, NY
14534 that can help you. Also, there are dealers which focus on antique
microscopes . Contact Conrad Schure at 908.431.5191 about their next
instrument fair in February at Hyatt Regency Hotel in New Brunswick, NJ.

--------------------------------------

Bob


Robert R. Wise, PhD
Department of Biology
University of Wisconsin Oshkosh
Oshkosh, WI 54901
(414) 424-3404 tel
(414) 424-1101 fax
wise-at-vaxa.cis.uwosh.edu



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From: wise-at-vaxa.cis.uwosh.edu
Date: Mon, 08 Jan 1996 12:08:20 +0000
Subject: "Antique" microscopes

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To all,

Thank you for all the responses to my request regarding possible
home for used light microscopes. Apparently, there is a market for
reasonbly priced scopes. I received several names of people to contact and
20 requests (18 email, one phone and one fax) for the 12 scopes we have.
Many of the respondents wanted more than one scope. I have kept all
requests and will talk to our purchasing agent to see what can be done.
I'll get back to you all when I know more.

Bob


Robert R. Wise, PhD
Department of Biology
University of Wisconsin Oshkosh
Oshkosh, WI 54901
(414) 424-3404 tel
(414) 424-1101 fax
wise-at-vaxa.cis.uwosh.edu






From: randy nessler :      rnessler-at-emiris.iaf.uiowa.edu
Date: Mon, 8 Jan 1996 11:39:35 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Increased LN2 usage of EDS detector?

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Hello,
It seems that one of our EDS detectors consumption of LN2 has
increased as of late. I am making the assumption that possibly the vacuum
needs regeneration in the dewar. Does anyone know where one might acquire
the fitting to interface a vacuum system to the dewar of a Kevex detector?
Thank you in advance,
Randy Nessler






From: William R Oliver :      oliver-at-ipas4.afip.mil
Date: Mon, 8 Jan 1996 11:22:50 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Image transfer and re-use

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On 8 Jan 1996, Norman Charnley wrote:

}
}
} Obvious questions immediately occur:
}
} In what format should the images be stored? TIFF seems to be a current
} common standard for this sort of work, but are there better alternatives?
} Are there any reviews/publications which would help? (We are also going
} to have to consider the problem of longer term image archiving, which has
} recently been subject to useful discussion on the list.)

Well, for my two cents worth, my opinion is that format is almost
irrelevant, except for a couple of points. The reason for this is
that there are numerous utilities for moving between formats, both
public domain (such as the pbmplus and netpbm libs) and commercial.

Some formats have standardized compression methods, and many don't,
but even that doesn't really matter in most cases since you can
compress things without relying on the format. For instance,
you can use LZW compression as a part of the TIFF file, or you can
save it unformatted and then compress the file using a compression
routine. For my images, the difference in efficiency between the
two approaches has been small. Certainly, some methods incorporate
more efficient compression than others, but still, I have found
the practical effect of, say, 45% compressions versus 40% compression
to be of little importance for the number of images I manipulate.
You can certainly obsess over each little bit of efficiency, and
there are a number of religious arguments for a number of methods,
but I have found the differences of little practical value for
my archives.

With the differences between the formats of minimal interest to me
(with a few exceptions listed below), then the most important thing
to me becomes what *manipulation* software I use for which set of
images. For instance, I have one package that can read and write
TARGA files easily, but reads and writes TIFF images slowly and with
occasional errors. For images I use this software on, I use TARGA
files. A different program does a better job with Sun raster format.

I tend to save all my images in TARGA, but that is because it seems
to be read and written faster and with fewer errors for the
software I use. But, frankly, it really doesn't matter. I suggest
you first decide on what software you plan to use to manipulate your
images and *then* worry about format.

With all of this, there are a couple of things that become
important quickly:

1) Make sure you can save your images with enough depth. I generally
use 24-, 32- and 48-bit images. Thus, formats which do not support
at least 24 bit "truecolor" representation are useless for me. On
the other hand, if you are going to be happy with 8-bit images, then
you have greater flexibility. I don't think there is a 24-bit GIF
format, for instance, and relatively few formats will easily allow
you go move to 32-bits (Targa supports it well).

2) Make sure you use lossless compression if you plan to do
any image enhancement. Lossy compression, such as jpeg, can
destroy an image for enhancement -- you end up enhancing the
compression artifacts instead of the data. Jpeg and fractal
compression are notorious for this.

Given these two caveats, then, I suggest you first look at the
software you plan to use for image manipulation, and then choose
a format that fits that software nicely.


billo





From: loewe-at-uni-bonn.de (Andreas Loewe)
Date: Tue, 9 Jan 1996 09:43:55 -0500
Subject: TEM EM300 available (in Germany)

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Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Hello friends of electron microscopy,

we have a Phillips EM300 from 1971 to sell. It was well serviced throughout
its existence in our department. It is perfectly suited for routine
checking for biologist or medicine personal. There is a high resolution
bridge and a standart goniometer available. We will be able to offer this
microsope on a negotiational base. Transfer of the equipment must be
handled by the buyer. For futher details contact me through email or by
fax.
DEADLINE is 31.01.96

Andreas Loewe


Guten Tag Freunde der Elektronenmikroskopie,

in unserer Abteilung ist ein Phillips EM300 aus dem Jahr 1971 zu verkaufen.
Das Ger=E4t wurde w=E4hrend der gesamten Zeit durch einen Wartungsvertrag
gepflegt und ist in sehr gutem Zustand. Dieses Mikroskop ist ideal f=FCr
Routinearbeiten von Biologen und Medizinern. Es ist sowohl mit einer
Hochaufl=F6sungsplattform als auch mit dem normalen Goniometer ausgestattet.
Transport und die Transportkosten =FCbernimmt der K=E4ufer. Preis ist
Verhandlungssache. F=FCr weitere Informationen schreiben Sie mich bitte unte=
r
meiner email-Adresse oder per Fax an.
EINSENDESCHLUSS f=FCr Interessenten ist der 31.01.96


Andreas Loewe

______________________________________________________________
Andreas Loewe Tel: +49-228-550-355
University of Bonn Fax: +49-228-678-413
Insitute for Inorganic Chemistry email: loewe-at-uni-bonn.de
Inorganic Material Research
Roemerstr. 164
53117 Bonn
Germany http://www.elmi.uni-bonn.de/
______________________________________________________________






From: Peters-at-BSAC.UCHC.EDU (Klaus-Ruediger Peters)
Date: Tue, 9 Jan 1996 09:11:32 -0500
Subject: Re: Image transfer and re-use

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Message-Id: {v01520d01ad18200e08bf-at-[155.37.2.10]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Hi Norman,

I can only emphasize what Bill Oliver wrote: Start with the basic question
and ask at what precision you want to set up your digital lab. The
acquisition precision (contrast resolution) of most microscopes (except
some operation modes for confocal, see Jim Pawley's recent remarks at "RE:
Flatbed scanners: 12-bit versus 8-bit") is far more than 8-bit. Most
hardware and new software is already available for 12-16 bit graytone and
color (per channel). If you plan for the future, start with 16-bit
uncompressed raw data handling. Every thing else may change monthly. You
may start using what is available now for handling } 8-bit data and expand
as new software and hardware becomes available. And don't spend much money
for a "good" printer, a HP LaserJet is just fine when expanded with one of
the available high resolution boards. I started to put many comparative
image data from my own experience in designing a "Precision Digital Imaging
Laboratory" in a WWW page at http://panda.uchc.edu/htklaus/index.html. May
be this is of help to you. Best regards Klaus




******************************************************************************
* : *
* Klaus-Ruediger Peters, Ph.D. : WWW Home Page: *
* Director, Molecular Imaging Laboratgory : *
* Biomolecular Structure Analysis Center : Molecular Imaging Laboratory *
* University of Connecticut Health Center : http://panda.uchc.edu/ *
* 263 Farmington Ave. : htklaus/index.html *
* Farmington, CT 06030-2017; U.S.A : Differential Hysteresis *
* : Processing Demo at http:// *
* Tel: (203) 679-3977; Fax: (203) 679-1989 : panda.uchc.edu./htbit/indiv/ *
* e-mail: Peters-at-BSAC.UCHC.EDU : /software_docs/dhp.html *
* : *
****************************************************************************
**






From: Owen P. Mills :      opmills-at-mtu.edu
Date: Tue, 9 Jan 1996 09:42:35 -0500
Subject: Increased LN2 usage of EDS detector?

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Regarding Randy Nessler's question about a valve to interface with the
vacuum jacket of an EDS detector.

I have an old valve that is manufactured by Cryolab, 159 Santa Fe Rd., San
Luis Obispo, CA. This is an old valve and the company may be gone/moved. I
have no connection with this company whatsoever.

I too have a detector with high LN2 consumption and am considering doing the
job myself. I assume that one would need the appropraite valve, a high
vacuum station, leak detector and bakeout blank/tape. Is anyone familiar
with the procedure for regenerating the EDS cyrostat?

Thanks,
Owen P. Mills
Michigan Technological University
Metallurgical & Materials Engineering
Rm 512 MME Building
Houghton, MI 49931
906-487-2002
906-487-2934 FAX
opmills-at-mtu.edu





From: images1-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu (Michael Stanley)
Date: Tue, 9 Jan 1996 11:51:34 -0600
Subject: tektronix 340+

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Message-Id: {v01510101ad185b820fc0-at-[128.206.15.185]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Hello All,

We are thinking about a new printer and are looking at the Tektronix 340+
Phaser. The quote that we received lists costs associated with printing as
"20% fill of color is $0.13 per page". Does anyone know the actual costs
per page? Is this the maximum if "1% of color is $0.01 per page"? How
much does it vary with size/color of image? What does this really mean?
Anyone tried this machine yet?

Any/all help will be greatly appreciated. TIA.

C. Michael Stanley, Ph.D.
Coordinator, Associate Director
Molecular Cytology Core Facility
Molecular Biology Program
2 Tucker Hall
University of Missouri-Columbia
Columbia, MO. 65211
(314) 882-4895
fax= 314-882-0123






From: oliver-at-ipas4.afip.mil (William R Oliver)
Date: Tue, 9 Jan 1996 13:46:19 -0500
Subject: Where to get free file conversion routines

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After my reply about file formats, I got a bunch of requests
about this mysterious pbmplus/netpbm library routine package.

Here's the story:

Way back when, there was this truly great dude by the name of
Jef Poskanzer, who decided to write a little library to
convert between formats. He decided to create his own
simple, easily editable and readable ascii format for
greyscale, binary, and color images. The idea was to
concentrate on making the format simple to poke around
in rather than being space-efficient since any image would
be in the simple format only "in transit". This would make
it easier for folk to write specific routines to convert their
pet formats to and from these simple forms rather than
worrying about trying to figure out every possible combination.

These simple formats were called Portable GreyMap, Portable
BitMap,and Portable PixMap images respectively, or pgm, pbm, and
ppm images. He and his buddies then wrote a ton of routines to
go to and from these simple formats. Thus, for instance, to
convert from GIF to TIFF, one would go from GIF to ppm using the
routine giftoppm, and then from ppm to TIFF by the routine ppmtotiff.

A number of simple manipulation routines were
added (rotation, scaling, smoothing, etc.) as well as some
other sophisticated and useful things. In addition, a number
of routines attempted to make the distinction between pgm, ppm,
and pbm transparent, and rolled them into the "Portable aNyMap"
or pnm format. Thus, one could also go from GIF to TIFF by
using giftopnm and pnmtotiff routines without having to
know if the image was greyscale or palette-based color. The pnm
format wasn't really a new format, but was used to denote those
routines which could accept pgm, pbm, and ppm format images and figure out
which "real" conversion routine to call.

This work of public service, called the "pbmplus" library
became too much of a time sink, and Jef Pokanzer stopped
putting out updates in 1991. It nonetheless represents a
public service effort right up there with GNU and the Fish disks.
All Hail these folk.

After this work, a number of other community-minded authors
added newer formats and other routines to the library. Since
these sometimes did not conform to Pokanzer's structural and
stylistic conventions and verification requirements, they
represented a superset over the pbmplus library rather than
an extension of it. This was labeled the netpbm library.
Thus, new stuff like SGI formats, are found in the netpbm
libraries, but not the pbmplus libraries.

I am including the beginning of the README file from the last
distribution I have installed on my system. I am sure that
things have been added since.

There are some formats, particularly the vector-based things,
that are not handled. If you are using Wavefront, 3DS, DXF,
and other CAD-type formats, you might want to look elsewhere.
One such place is the old Avalon site. The Avalon site was
a repository of 3D format convertors, models, etc. for 3D and
VR software. This site, originally maintained at a US Government
military base, was discontinued and was picked up by Viewpoint,
a company which makes 3D model datasets. It can be found at
http://www.viewpoint.com. Viewpoint has gotten mixed reviews for
its stewardship; some have attempted to set up alternate
repositories and others have applauded Viewpoint's effort if
not it's accomplishment. I neither endorse nor criticise Viewpoint or
the Viewpoint site, but simply state that it is still currently
the most complete site for finding public domain 3D format
conversion routines. If you are interested in the alternate sites,
I suggest you look at the 3D news groups and mailing lists. It
is a common topic of conversation on the Autodesk 3D studio
newsgroup and list.

Sites for these and other routines can also be found in the
FAQs for the graphics newsgroups.


One final note: Some of these routines are in turn dependent
on other library distributions. For isntance, the tiff routines
are dependent on the libtiff libraries which are a separate
distribution. A libtiff library *is* included in the standard
netpbm distribution, but the libtiff development history is
rather independent. Thus, you will want to keep these
libraries current if you want to be able to read and write
newer flavors of tiff.

Now, here's the start of the netpbm README, which gives
the sites as of early 1994 for the packages:

This README is dated 1993, but was current as of MARCH 1994.


N E T P B M
Release 7 December 1993

Netpbm is a toolkit for conversion of images between a variety of
different formats, as well as to allow a few basic image operations.
The package is intended to be portable to many platforms. It has been
tested under UNIX (BSD and SYSV, e.g. SGI, Sun4, Sun386i, DEC and
Apollo DN 3500), VMS and Amiga OS. There are also compiler directives
in it for MS-DOS.

You'll find the latest release of Netpbm at the following sites:
* wuarchive.wustl.edu (128.252.135.4),
directory /graphics/graphics/packages/NetPBM
* ikaros.fysik4.kth.se (130.237.35.2), directory /pub/netpbm.
* ftp.informatik.uni-oldenburg.de (134.106.1.9). This site also carries
binaries for the Amiga.
* peipa.essex.ac.uk (155.245.115.161), directory ipa/src/manip
* ftp.rahul.net (192.160.13.1), directory /pub/davidsen/source
* ftp.cs.ubc.ca, directory /ftp/archive/netpbm

You'll also find a mirror site at the BBS:
* sixhub.tmr.com, phone +1 518 3468033, in the "source" area.


Hope you find this useful.

billo

Any opinions are mine, and not necessarily those of Uncle Sam, or any
of his kith, kin, minions, or functionaries.






From: Peters-at-BSAC.UCHC.EDU (Klaus-Ruediger Peters)
Date: Tue, 9 Jan 1996 12:22:31 -0500
Subject: Re: Image transfer and re-use

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Message-Id: {v01520d02ad18506a6502-at-[155.37.2.10]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="============_-1390914345==_============"



--============_-1390914345==_============
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Hi Bill,

you recently replyed on the MSA-Listserver

that format is almost
} irrelevant, except for a couple of points. The reason for this is
} that there are numerous utilities for moving between formats, both
} public domain (such as the pbmplus and netpbm libs) and commercial.


} 1) Make sure you can save your images with enough depth. I generally
} use 24-, 32- and 48-bit images. Thus, formats which do not support
} at least 24 bit "truecolor" representation are useless for me.

and relatively few formats will easily allow
} you go move to 32-bits (Targa supports it well).
}
} 2) Make sure you use lossless compression

Thanks, that you came forward and stressed the same points I try to emphasis.


A quick question to you: I started to do my digtal DH imaging on a Silicon
Graphics workstation and of cause there is Tara File Format at home.
However, most of my PC and Mac based image acquisition is still in
MSA-Standard TIFF. You mentioned free software for file conversion. Could
you please provide a source for me?


Thanks, best regards Klaus.



--============_-1390914345==_============
Content-Type: application/mac-binhex40; name="Attachement1.doc"
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="Attachement1.doc"

(This file must be converted with BinHex 4.0)



--============_-1390914345==_============
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

******************************************************************************
* : *
* Klaus-Ruediger Peters, Ph.D. : WWW Home Page: *
* Director, Molecular Imaging Laboratgory : *
* Biomolecular Structure Analysis Center : Molecular Imaging Laboratory *
* University of Connecticut Health Center : http://panda.uchc.edu/ *
* 263 Farmington Ave. : htklaus/index.html *
* Farmington, CT 06030-2017; U.S.A : Differential Hysteresis *
* : Processing Demo at http:// *
* Tel: (203) 679-3977; Fax: (203) 679-1989 : panda.uchc.edu./htbit/indiv/ *
* e-mail: Peters-at-BSAC.UCHC.EDU : /software_docs/dhp.html *
* : *
****************************************************************************
**



--============_-1390914345==_============--





From: James S MArtin :      James.S.Martin-at-williams.edu
Date: Tue, 9 Jan 1996 15:38:39 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Epi-fluorescence attachments for PLMs

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I'm preparing a presentation on polarized light microscopes that are
equipped for epi-fluorescence illumination, and need information from
microscope manufacturers regarding instruments purchased thus equipped
and retro-fitted with vertical fluorescence attachments.

I'm assuming that microscope manufacturers monitor this list. Please
reply directly to me. Thanks.

James Martin
Director of Analytical Services and Research
Williamstown Art Conservation Center
Williamstown, MA




From: bsgphy3-at-uconnvm.uconn.edu (JIM ROMANOW)
Date: Tue, 9 Jan 1996 17:40:09 -0500
Subject: Peldri

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Message-Id: {v01510101ad189ee1b092-at-[137.99.40.87]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

We have used critical point drying for many years in our laboratory to dry
biological samples for SEM. Recently I decided to purchase some Peldri II
to test as an alternative to critical point drying, however when I
contacted Ted Pella they informed me that they are no longer selling it.
Instead they are selling two substitutes: tetramethylsilane and
hexamethyldisilazane. Does anyone have any experience with these yet? How
do they compare to Peldri and critical point drying? Why was Peldri
discontinued?

Jim Romanow
Electron Microscopy Facility
Physiology and Neurobiogy Department
The University Of Connecticut
Storrs
bsgphy3-at-uconnvm.uconn.edu






From: Andy Gilicinski :      giliciag-at-ttown.apci.com
Date: Tue, 9 Jan 1996 18:28:11 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Workshop: Industrial Applications of SPM

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______________________________________________
Preliminary Announcement:
THIRD WORKSHOP ON INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF
SCANNED PROBE MICROSCOPY
May 2-3 1996
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY
Gaithersburg MD 20899
______________________________________________

A third Workshop on Industrial Applications of Scanned Probe
Microscopy (IASPM) will be held at NIST on May 2-3 1996.
The purpose is to continue exploring SPM standardization
and development needs anticipated for the next decade, with
a focus on industrial SPM users and hurdles that limit
broader use of SPM for industrial problem solving.

For more information, contact:
Dr. John Dagata
National Insitute of Standards and Technology
220-A117
Gaithersburg MD 20899
301-975-3597 voice
301-869-0822 fax
john.dagata-at-nist.gov






From: Gargent-at-aol.com
Date: Tue, 9 Jan 1996 18:13:32 -0500
Subject: Image Analysis

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Message-ID: {n1390904714.68273-at-mse.engin.umich.edu}

Are there any EM people heavy into Image processing and analysis. Currently
I am using a Kontron IBAS (version 2.0) and a KS400 Image analysis system.
Soon we will be incorporating a Telepathology system for communications
between the US, Switzerland, and Japan. Current Image imput for our routine
analysis come from EM micrographs, stored images, Kodak digital camera, from
the light microscope, and any source that allows us to capture, store, and
process images. We have several video camera, including a Sony 960 color
camera, B&W camera. We currently use PAL and NTSC formats.

I would be interested in knowing how people use computerized Image Analysis
for Stereology and Morphometry. Would be interested in knowing how to get
around point counting techniques with Electron Micrographs.

I would be willing to share IBAS macros with interested parties.
Gregory Argentieri
Sandoz Electron Microscopy lab
East Hanover, NJ 07936
201-503-8617
Greg2NJ-at-AOL.COM



Would welcome interested parties to exchange macros, ideas, image processing
tips etc.




From: Gargent-at-aol.com
Date: Tue, 9 Jan 1996 18:13:32 -0500
Subject: Image Analysis

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html


Are there any EM people heavy into Image processing and analysis. Currently
I am using a Kontron IBAS (version 2.0) and a KS400 Image analysis system.
Soon we will be incorporating a Telepathology system for communications
between the US, Switzerland, and Japan. Current Image imput for our routine
analysis come from EM micrographs, stored images, Kodak digital camera, from
the light microscope, and any source that allows us to capture, store, and
process images. We have several video camera, including a Sony 960 color
camera, B&W camera. We currently use PAL and NTSC formats.

I would be interested in knowing how people use computerized Image Analysis
for Stereology and Morphometry. Would be interested in knowing how to get
around point counting techniques with Electron Micrographs.

I would be willing to share IBAS macros with interested parties.
Gregory Argentieri
Sandoz Electron Microscopy lab
East Hanover, NJ 07936
201-503-8617
Greg2NJ-at-AOL.COM



Would welcome interested parties to exchange macros, ideas, image processing
tips etc.




From: Tony Bruton :      bruton-at-emu.unp.ac.za (by way of zaluzec-at-Microscopy.Com (Nestor J. Zaluzec))
Date: Wed, 10 Jan 1996 08:02:48 -0600
Subject: Old TEM available

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G'day world

We have a Hitachi HU-11E (~1968) which has to make way for new
developments. It was in regular use until about 2 years ago, now needs
reference batteries and a kick-start. If anyone has a use for spares or
the complete unit then please make contact with us ASAP. No
reasonable offer refused !! It has to be cleared by March.

Tony Bruton
Electron Microscope Unit
University of Natal
Pietermaritzburg
Kwa-Zulu Natal
South Africa
Phone 0331 2605155 or fax 0331 2605776








From: davilla-at-4pi.com (Scott D. Davilla)
Date: Wed, 10 Jan 1996 09:38:10 -0600
Subject: Increased LN2 usage of EDS detector?

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Message-Id: {199601101419.GAA08413-at-holonet.net}

If you are in need of vaccum pumping of an EDS detector, you might
give contact;

Doug Conners
TN Analyzer Service
608-798-2005

Scott D. Davilla Phone: 919 489-1757 (tel)
4pi Analysis, Inc. Fax: 919 489-1487 (fax)
3500 Westgate Drive, Suite 403 email: davilla-at-4pi.com
Durham, North Carolina 27707







From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Wed, 10 Jan 1996 11:00:58 -0600
Subject: Re: "Antique" microscopes

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Message-Id: {199601101604.KAA28262-at-BCM.TMC.EDU}
X-Sender: joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
X-Mailer: Windows Eudora Version 2.1.1
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Bob -

There is, or was, a wonderful shop called Historical Technology in
Marblehead, Mass. that buys and sells old microscopes as well as other
pieces of technology. I haven't delt with them in a long time, and they may
no longer be in business. But it would be worth the effort to contact them
just to get one of their catalogs. They are:

Historical Technology
6 Mugford St.
Marblehead, Massachusetts 01945
(617) 631-2275

Sorry that this reply is so late, but I had to go mining in a closet to find
the catalog.

Joiner
************************************

At 02:07 PM 1/4/96 +0000, you wrote:
} Our department has about a dozen old Spencer light microscopes--monoccular,
} black laquer with lots of brass, probably pre-WWII. Does anyone know if
} there is a market for such things out there? Are there 'antique'
} microscope dealers who might be interested in these? They are not very
} functional but too nice to throw away.
}
} Bob
}
}
} Robert R. Wise, PhD
} Department of Biology
} University of Wisconsin Oshkosh
} Oshkosh, WI 54901
} (414) 424-3404 tel
} (414) 424-1101 fax
} wise-at-vaxa.cis.uwosh.edu
}
}
}
}





From: bozzola-at-siu.edu (John. J. Bozzola)
Date: Wed, 10 Jan 1996 11:58:36 -0600
Subject: Re: Peldri

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X-Sender: bozzola-at-saluki-mail.fiber2.siu.edu
Message-Id: {v02130501ad19ad3d832e-at-[131.230.97.68]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Jim Romanow asked:
} We have used critical point drying for many years in our laboratory to dry
} biological samples for SEM. Recently I decided to purchase some Peldri II
} to test as an alternative to critical point drying, however when I
} contacted Ted Pella they informed me that they are no longer selling it.
} Instead they are selling two substitutes: tetramethylsilane and
} hexamethyldisilazane. Does anyone have any experience with these yet? How
} do they compare to Peldri and critical point drying? Why was Peldri
} discontinued?
}

Peldri II was dropped because it is a Freon - restrictions are becoming
tighter - and because Pelco is an environmentally conscious company (I have
no financial or emotional connection to Pelco). In our facility, we have
used HMDS and it gives similar results as Peldri and CPD. Since your
results will be highly dependent upon the type of specimen and processing
(fixation, dehydration, etc) it is best to run a comparative trial using
HMDS, TMS and CPD. I suspect that HMDS will be fine.
Contact me if you need more info.

#############################################################################
John J. Bozzola, Director
Center for Electron Microscopy
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale, IL 62901-4402
U.S.A.
Phone: 618-453-3730
Fax: 618-453-2665
Email: bozzola-at-siu.edu
Web: http://www.siu.edu/departments/shops/cem.html
#############################################################################






From: Fermin, Cesar :      fermin-at-TMC.Tulane.Edu
Date: 10 Jan 1996 12:20:35 -0500
Subject: EM Fixative

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Message-Id: {n1390845623.57279-at-msmail.tmc.tulane.edu}

I posted this some time ago and got not a single response. Someone here
approached me about a fixative called K11 that I never used. Please let me
know what you know about it or give a reference for starter. Thanks.
******************************************************************
*Cesar D. Fermin, Ph.D \|T|/ Fax (504) 587-7389 *
*Tulane Medical School /|M|\ Voice Mail (504) 584-2618 *
*Pathology/SL79 \|C|/ Secretary (504) 584-2436 *
*New Orleans La 70112-2699 /|*|\ Lab/Techn. (504) 584-2521 *
* {Fermin-at-tmc.tulane.edu} Prof. Pathology & Otolaryngology *
* http://www1.omi.tulane.edu/departments/pathology/fermin/cdftop.html *
******************************************************************






From: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu (Greg Erdos)
Date: Wed, 10 Jan 1996 09:10:08 GMT
Subject: Re: Peldri

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} We have used critical point drying for many years in our laboratory to dry
} biological samples for SEM. Recently I decided to purchase some Peldri II
} to test as an alternative to critical point drying, however when I
} contacted Ted Pella they informed me that they are no longer selling it.
} Instead they are selling two substitutes: tetramethylsilane and
} hexamethyldisilazane. Does anyone have any experience with these yet? How
} do they compare to Peldri and critical point drying? Why was Peldri
} discontinued?
}
} Jim Romanow
} Electron Microscopy Facility
} Physiology and Neurobiogy Department
} The University Of Connecticut
} Storrs
} bsgphy3-at-uconnvm.uconn.edu
}
}
} } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } }

We frequently use HMDS instead of critical point(CPD) It does not work well
on all samples. Plants generally require CPD. Many microbes, insects,
cells cultures and animal tissues can be successfully dried via HMDS. We
only briefly tested Peldri and were not impressed. It showed no advantage
over HMDS and was more tedious to use. We have not tried the
Tetramethylsilane, but I suspect it would perform much the same as HMDS.
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-
Greg Erdos Phone: 352-392-1295
Scientific Director,
ICBR Electron Microscopy Core Lab
218 Carr Hall Fax: 352-846-0251
University of Florida E-mail: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu
Gainesville, FL 32611
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-





From: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu (Greg Erdos)
Date: Wed, 10 Jan 1996 09:10:08 GMT
Subject: Re: Peldri

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} We have used critical point drying for many years in our laboratory to dry
} biological samples for SEM. Recently I decided to purchase some Peldri II
} to test as an alternative to critical point drying, however when I
} contacted Ted Pella they informed me that they are no longer selling it.
} Instead they are selling two substitutes: tetramethylsilane and
} hexamethyldisilazane. Does anyone have any experience with these yet? How
} do they compare to Peldri and critical point drying? Why was Peldri
} discontinued?
}
} Jim Romanow
} Electron Microscopy Facility
} Physiology and Neurobiogy Department
} The University Of Connecticut
} Storrs
} bsgphy3-at-uconnvm.uconn.edu
}
}
} } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } }

We frequently use HMDS instead of critical point(CPD) It does not work well
on all samples. Plants generally require CPD. Many microbes, insects,
cells cultures and animal tissues can be successfully dried via HMDS. We
only briefly tested Peldri and were not impressed. It showed no advantage
over HMDS and was more tedious to use. We have not tried the
Tetramethylsilane, but I suspect it would perform much the same as HMDS.
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-
Greg Erdos Phone: 352-392-1295
Scientific Director,
ICBR Electron Microscopy Core Lab
218 Carr Hall Fax: 352-846-0251
University of Florida E-mail: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu
Gainesville, FL 32611
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-





From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Wed, 10 Jan 1996 11:08:58 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: tissue water content

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} A colleague needs to accurately determine the water content of very small
} tissue samples (fish embryos at various stages of development). What would
} be the best way to do this? Thanks for any suggestions. Grace

Dear Grace,
Can your colleague measure the weights and/or volumes of both the
hydrated and lyophylized embryos? ESEM could give you the hydrated volumes,
and coating the residue and using SEM might be adequate for the dehydrated
volume as long as the residue packs with no voids. It might be easier simply
to weigh both specimens. I realize, of course, that volatile salts will be
lost during lyophylization, so that may not give accurate enough results.
On another tack, is there a measure--such as osmotic activity--
which could be used? If so, one could put the embryos in a solution of PEG
or some other macromolecular or impermient solute and note the concentration
at which the embryos neither swell nor shrink. That might give enough infor-
mation to determine the water content if there are a series of tissue samples
of differing contents to use as standards. Good luck.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: Dr P. Echlin :      pe13-at-cus.cam.ac.uk
Date: Wed, 10 Jan 1996 20:16:52 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: Re: SCANNING 96

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Message-ID: {199601101405.JAA22696-at-IndyNet.indy.net}
To: SPM List {spm-at-di.com} , Microscopy list {microscopy-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com}

Dear Lynn:

I got your round robin e-mail about Scanning 96. I am submitting two
papers but find there is an ambiguity in the instructions for preparing
the abstracts.
Please advise ASAP tp pe13-at-cus.cam.ac.uk whether the abstract should be
only about 750 words long OR whether I can write an abstract which nearly
fills the two pages on the Instructions to Authors. I would prefer the
latter as I have a lot I want to cram in. Rest assured the two abstracts
will be wih you by the end of the month OR when you have dug your self
out of the snow drifts

Best wishes

Patrick Echlin

On Wed, 10 Jan 1996, Lynn Savino wrote:

} To all those interested in participating in SCANNING 96
}
} Deadline for abstracts is February 1, 1996.
}




From: Stephanie Evans :      stevans-at-bgsm.edu
Date: Wed, 10 Jan 1996 15:31:30 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Peldri

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On Tue, 9 Jan 1996, JIM ROMANOW wrote:

} We have used critical point drying for many years in our laboratory to dry
} biological samples for SEM. Recently I decided to purchase some Peldri II
} to test as an alternative to critical point drying, however when I
} contacted Ted Pella they informed me that they are no longer selling it.
} Instead they are selling two substitutes: tetramethylsilane and
} hexamethyldisilazane. Does anyone have any experience with these yet? How
} do they compare to Peldri and critical point drying? Why was Peldri
} discontinued?
}
} Jim Romanow
} Electron Microscopy Facility
} Physiology and Neurobiogy Department
} The University Of Connecticut
} Storrs
} bsgphy3-at-uconnvm.uconn.edu
}
}
}
Jim,
We have used HMDS(hexamethyldisilazane) in the past with good result. I
still like to CPD the non-repeateble samples but have found HMDS to be
suitable for most samples.
Hope this helps



-------------
Stephanie Evans
WFU/BGSM
W-S,N.C.27157









From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Wed, 10 Jan 1996 16:54:43 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Increased LN2 usage of EDS detector?

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} It seems that one of our EDS detectors consumption of LN2 has
} increased as of late. I am making the assumption that possibly the vacuum
} needs regeneration in the dewar. Does anyone know where one might acquire
} the fitting to interface a vacuum system to the dewar of a Kevex detector?
} Thank you in advance,

Dear Randy,
When this occurred with our Kevex, after a few times sending the
whole thing back for regeneration, I had our shop make a back plate with
a 1/2" copper tube attached. A swagelok fitting and valve allowed me to
attach to the column vacuum, and I've been able to use that for the rege-
neration ever since. The resolution is still reasonable after } 10 years--
155 ev, as I remember--so this method works for us. If you have a very
clean column vacuum, you can attach a turbo or ion pump (possibly a cold-
trapped DP will do, but ask Kevex) to the tubing and not foul up the column.
~10^-6 or so will regenerate the cryosorbant. Good luck.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: HAHNP-at-JEFLIN.TJU.EDU
Date: Thu, 11 Jan 1996 0:50:46 -0500 (EST)
Subject: color image processing

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hello fellow digital microscopists.
from snow bound Philly comes a query for advice on color image processing of
images. does anyone use a package that can quantify/image process color data
instead of just greyscale?


please post replies directy and I will share summary with all.



._____________________
| Peter J. Hahn
| -------------
| Thomas Jefferson University
3401 Spring Garden Street
Philadelphia, PA. 19104
tel : 215-349-0099 |
fax : 610-356-3451 |
peter.hahn-at-mail.tju.edu |
-------------+-----------------+----+------+





From: dremsen-at-mbl.edu (David Remsen)
Date: Thu, 11 Jan 1996 10:05:21 -0500
Subject: COURSE ANNOUCEMENT: Cell and Molecular Imaging Using Cryotechniques

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Message-Id: {v01530505ad1ad69e913c-at-[128.128.172.251]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
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The Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA has announced the
following course. More information and applications can be obtained at
http://www.mbl.edu/html/guide/guide.home.html or by writing admissions-at-mbl.edu


Cell and Molecular Imaging Using Cryotechniques

Courses Dates: May 28-June 5, 1996

Course Description: An eight-day comprehensive course/workshop on
cryotechniques for cell and molecular imaging and analysis. Lecture and
special discussion sessions in the mornings and hands-on lab sessions in
the afternoons and evenings will form the heart of the course. Limited to
24 participants.

Topics will include freezing methods (including high pressure freezing),
freeze-substitution, cryosectioning, immunogold localization,
freeze-fracture, Low Temperature SEM, cryo microscopy (TEM), image
processing and X-ray microanalysis. Lectures and labs will be conducted by
experts in the field from universities and industry.

Attendees will be expected to have a basic knowledge of electron
microscopy. The class will attend common lecture sessions and will divide
into groups for lab sessions and discussions on special topics. Attendees
will be encouraged to consult with the course director about bringing their
own specimens for use during lab sessions.

Director: M.V. Parthasarathy, Cornell University.

Faculty: Frank Booy, National Institutes of Health; Patrick Echlin,
Cambridge University, UK; Kent McDonald, University of California,
Berkeley; Martin Mueller, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland; Klaus-Ruediger Peters,
University of Connecticut Health Center; E. B. Prestridge, Princeton
Gamma-Tech, Inc.; John Rash, Colorado State University; Daniel Studer,
University of Bern, Switzerland; William Wergin, ARS-USDA; Karl Zierold,
Max-Planck Institute for Molecular Physiology, Germany; and others to be
named.


=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-
David Remsen
Marine Biological Laboratory






From: dremsen-at-mbl.edu (David Remsen)
Date: Thu, 11 Jan 1996 10:40:24 -0500
Subject: URL revision for COURSE ANNOUNCEMENT

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Message-Id: {v01530508ad1adf5d9f49-at-[128.128.172.251]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

To my chagrin I have posted an incorrect URL for more information on the
Cryotechniques course at the Marine Biological Laboratory.

The correct URL is

http://www.mbl.edu/html/GUIDE/guide.home.html

Thank you,


=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-
David Remsen
Marine Biological Laboratory






From: William R Oliver :      oliver-at-ipas4.afip.mil
Date: Thu, 11 Jan 1996 12:20:51 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: color image processing

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Once again, my opinions only:


You need to be a bit more specific. When some folk talk about
"image processing," they mean the kind of things you do to get
an image ready for presentation or publication -- annotation,
a little contrast buffing, etc. Other folk mean playing with
point spread functions and such for image regularization. Still
others mean doing image manipulation for data extraction -- segmentation,
object recognition, metrics of various sorts, etc. Finally, 2D and 3D
products are rather different.

The type of package you might want depends upon the specific task and
the platform you like. For instance, in my work with forensic image
processing, I use AVS (Advanced Visualization Systems) as a programming
environment, and incorporate libraries and code from a number of
academic insititutions (for instance, DIAL and /usr/image from
University of North Carolina and the University of Utrecht). AVS, and
its big brother AVS Express, use a dataflow paradigm which takes the UNIX
pipe to extremes. In this paradigm, you program little modules, say fft,
and then plunk an icon for that module on the screen. You then connect
other modules to it (say, a "read image" module) using little pipes.
You can then build up larger applications by linking these little modules
in networks. AVS comes with a set of supported modules, and there is a
large set of community-donated public domain modules.

This is specific to UNIX-based systems, however. Most specific platforms
have their own image processing libraries that you can buy. I know that
Sun has something, SunVision, I think, and SGI also has its image
processing toolbox. SGI also incorporates some image processing into its
Explorer package, which uses the same kind of dataflow paradigm as AVS.

Excellent public domain Unix image processing packages which include
advanced routines include Khoros from U. New Mexico, and IRAF. Khoros is
both a toolbox and/or development environment which incorporates a
dataflow paradigm much like AVS and Explorer. The AVS-like front end for
Khoros is called Cantata. IRAF, which is the common platform for academic
astronomical image processing, has some very nice tools for deconvolution
and image restoration, but it is geared heavily towards astronomical models
and is a true bear to install.

NIH has a package called, I think, NIH Image, but I have never used it. I
have heard good things, but I think it is specific to Macs, is for
greyscale only, and is 8-bit only.

For some of the cellular morphometric stuff, we tend to use PC-based
software such as Optimas. There are, however, two or three other
relatively good systems for doing metrics and more advanced image
processing such as ImagePro and there's this French program by Noesis
called, I think, Visilog. Each of these have routines for most common
simple, intermediate and advanced image processing and 2D measurement
tasks. I like the programming interface for Optimas. Visilog has, as
far as I can see, a larger set of ready-to-use tools for mathematical
morphologic manipulation, which you would expect from the French, I
suppose. All of these systems allow, in one way or another, incorporation
of home-brewed routines either as a link to compiled code or by using a
macro language.

For annotation and aesthetic stuff, I prefer Picture Publisher by
Micrografx. Many like Photoshop, and I have used it occasionally, but I
still prefer Picture Publisher. Photostyler (Aldus) and Corel are also
good products. I find Picture Publisher to be more intuitive and easier
to use. It has a harder time successfully importing images, however. Our
PCs are on a network with Unix boxes, and the images get to the PCs via
nfs. My installation of Picture Publisher has problems often with reading
large images over the network and with decoding large or compressed
images. I often read an image from the network in using Photostyler, save
it locally, and then manipulate it using Picture Publisher. I have found
the Corel product a memory hog, and gets really slow with big (40 Mbyte)
images.

Aside from the memory and importing hassles, the biggest differences with
these artistic manipulators from that point on involve specific tools --
how you want to set brush sizes, how you want to play with overlays, how
the gui is set up (whether you prefer type-in widgets, etc.). For
instance, Picture Publisher has a slider transparency control on a toolbar
for interactively playing with overlays, and allows you to play with
overlay parameter during a paste. Other programs require multilevel menu
selection to set transparency, which is not as easy. The (rather old)
version of Photostyler I have used has a pretty primitive file requestor
for loading images. Picture Publisher has a requestor that does
thumbprints. This is a mixed blessing with a heterogeneous network -- it
makes browsing easier, but the thumbprints can eat up disk space, they can
"get lost" when the unix directories get mapped to DOS names, etc. Which
set of widgets and approaches is most intuitive or easiest to learn is a
matter of personal taste. Fractal Paint and associated tools have really
nice interfaces for doing true "artistic" manipulation in the sense of
having results that look like true artistic media (charcoal, oils, etc.)
and "natural" textures. There is another package called {something - I
forget} Matisse, which also attempts the "true" artistic approach. The
{something} Matisse product, however, can get really slow with larger images.
I have found it useless for work but a gas to play with.

There are a number of public domain systems which do limited image
manipulation -- scaling, rotating, cropping, etc. Some of these have
their own little areas of surprise. I have already discussed the
pbmplus/netpbm libraries. There are others, such as ImageMagick, Utah
Raster Toolkit, etc. which provide similar routines.

For integration of images into presentations and some buffing for
publication (cropping, playing with backgrounds, etc.) I use
Corel, though many also like Harvard Graphics. I just happened to have
Corel at home, and never wanted to bother with the learning curve for
Harvard Graphics or PowerPoint. My wife uses Harvard Graphics and I have
helped her on occasion -- it is fairly intuitive.

For 3D modeling work, I have worked with AutoCAD, 3d Studio, and Lightwave
3D. Each has specific strengths and weaknesses, but I bet you aren't
interested in these, so I will spare you reviews. For high-end production
on UNIX boxes, there are Wavefront, Alias, SoftImage, and ElectroGig. I
have worked with Wavefront and Gig, if you want reviews.

Finally, there are specific tools for such things as texture generation,
3D painting, titling, etc. For PCs, for instance, Kai's Power Tools is
an excellent product. For UNIX boxes, Xaos has recently released a
number of good tools.

3D visualization tools for medical images which incorporate some
measurement capability include some commercial products which have been
discussed ad-nauseum on the confocal list, so I won't discuss them here.
There is a pseudo-commercial product out of Mayo called Analyze which is
primarily a 3D visualization tool with some measurement capability. Last I
heard, Rich Robb was charging about 5000 bucks for it. There is a
relatively cheap tool from UPenn (Jay Udupa's lab) called 3DViewnix which
runs about a thousand bucks which again is primarily a visualization tool
with some measurement capability. There is a free tool out of Arie
Kaufmann's lab at SUNY called VolVis which is, again, primarily a
visualization tool with some measurement capability. I have heard good
things about a program called Confocal Assistant, but have never seen or
tried it. I believe it is freely distributable, but I am not sure.


hope this helps,

billo


All opinions are my own and do not necessarily reflect those of the US
Govt, Army, Uncle Sam, yada, yada, yada.

On Thu, 11 Jan 1996 HAHNP-at-JEFLIN.TJU.EDU wrote:

} hello fellow digital microscopists.
} from snow bound Philly comes a query for advice on color image processing of
} images. does anyone use a package that can quantify/image process color data
} instead of just greyscale?
}
}
} please post replies directy and I will share summary with all.
}
}
}
} ._____________________
} | Peter J. Hahn
} | -------------
} | Thomas Jefferson University
} 3401 Spring Garden Street
} Philadelphia, PA. 19104
} tel : 215-349-0099 |
} fax : 610-356-3451 |
} peter.hahn-at-mail.tju.edu |
} -------------+-----------------+----+------+
}
}




From: Annette M. Andrews :      AANDREWS-at-NCTR.FDA.GOV
Date: Thu, 11 Jan 1996 12:15:06 CDT
Subject: SEM Examination of Graphite

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Our facility has been requested to examine a series of artificial
heart valves made of high-tech graphite utilizing the SEM. We will
need to initially examine the valves prior to the first test to
establish a baseline of the surface. They will be returned to the
testing site for further testing for wear then returned to us for
re-examination. We will be unable to sputter coat the valves with
any type of conducting material.

I would like any suggestions for proper examination of graphite.
Since this is my first experinece with graphite, my first choice
would be to examine the valves at a low Kv (5, 10, or 15) and at a
long working distance of 39. My instrument is a JEOL JSM-35 SEM.

Any suggestions and/or comments may be forwarded to my direct e-mail
address: aandrews-at-fdant.nctr.fda.gov
Thank you.




From: Gary Login on Wed, Jan 10, 1996 3:46 PM
Date: 11 Jan 1996 12:16:41 -0500
Subject: Re: EM Fixative

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Message-Id: {n1390759410.38417-at-msmail.tmc.tulane.edu}

Thanks to all who responded.
_______________________________________________________________________________

Cesar, I use an aldehyde-based fixative called 'KII'. It is a dilute
Karnovsky's
fixative containing: 2% formaldehyde, 2.5% glutaraldehyde, 0.025% calcium
chloride in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate buffer, pH 7.4.

Gary Login


In message {n1390845623.57279-at-msmail.tmc.tulane.edu} "Fermin, Cesar" writes:
} I posted this some time ago and got not a single response. Someone here
} approached me about a fixative called K11 that I never used. Please let me
} know what you know about it or give a reference for starter. Thanks.
} ******************************************************************
} *Cesar D. Fermin, Ph.D \|T|/ Fax (504) 587-7389 *
} *Tulane Medical School /|M|\ Voice Mail (504) 584-2618 *
} *Pathology/SL79 \|C|/ Secretary (504) 584-2436 *
} *New Orleans La 70112-2699 /|*|\ Lab/Techn. (504) 584-2521 *
} * {Fermin-at-tmc.tulane.edu} Prof. Pathology & Otolaryngology *
} * http://www1.omi.tulane.edu/departments/pathology/fermin/cdftop.html
*
} ******************************************************************
}


Gary R. Login, D.M.D., D.M.Sc.
Assistant Professor of Oral Pathology
Beth Israel Hospital
Department of Pathology
330 Brookline Avenue
Boston, Massachusetts, 02215

glogin-at- bih.harvard.edu
Telephone: 617-667-2034
Fax: 617-667-8676







From: Joyce Palmer, ECE Marcus 20 413-545-4647 :      PALMER-at-ecs.umass.edu
Date: Thu, 11 Jan 1996 15:50:48 -0500
Subject: Optical microscopes

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Dear Colleagues,
I recall recently people "advertizing" used optical microscopes on this
list. I didn't need one at the time, so I did not save the messages, but I now
find myself in need of a optical microscope. I specifically need one
that has a calibrated focus knob so that I can make thickness meaurements in
the 1-50 micron range by focusing on the front and back surfaces of our
(transparent) samples.
Please contact me if you know where I might find an inexpensive (used
is fine, especially if it's inexpensive) microscope for the above task.

Thanks in advance
Joyce Palmer




From: slakmon-at-scottscientific.com (P. Slakmon)
Date: Thu, 11 Jan 1996 18:25:11 -0500
Subject: sputter coater

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If anybody in Canada has a used sputter coater, no more than five year old
to sell, please send me details.


Thank you,

Philip Slakmon
____________________________________________________________________
Scott Scientific Telephone: (514) 485-2309
P.O. Box 66552, Station Cavendish Facsimile: (514) 485-9931
Montreal, Quebec Voice Mail:(514) 888-6509
H4W 3J6, Canada e-mail:
Slakmon-at-ScottScientific.com
URL:
http://www.ScottScientific.com
____________________________________________________________________





From: jmkrupp-at-cats.ucsc.edu (Jon Krupp)
Date: Thu, 11 Jan 1996 17:19:31 -0800
Subject: dye sub gray scale

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Has anyone run into a problem printing grayscale images on a Kodak/Codonics
printer?

Ours have started looking tinged with green/yellow right out of the
printer. I have read that the formulation of the ribbons may have changed
and that the result is this sick green color.

I would like to avoid swapping color/grayscale ribbons if possible but my
users don't like the color cast to their pictures. Any ideas for a
solution?


Jonathan Krupp
Microscopy and Imaging Lab
University of California
Santa Cruz, CA 95064
(408) 459-2477
jmkrupp-at-cats.ucsc.edu






From: krogers-at-ecn.purdue.edu (Kirk Rogers)
Date: Thu, 11 Jan 1996 23:11:17 -0500
Subject: Re: Scanners

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I was leafing through Macworld the other day and realized that they had
reviewed several scanners in the last 6 months. The recommendes ones were
(4 or more stars out of 5):

Flatbed scanners:

HP Scanjet 3c
30 bit dynamic range, 600 dpi optical resolution, list $1179,
street ~$700
208-323-2551

PixelCraft Pro Imager 8000
30 bit, 1200 dpi optical, list $13k
510-562-2480


35 mm negative scanner:

Polaroid SprintScan 35
30 bit, interpolated 2700 dpi, list $2495, street ~$1600


-Kirk
_____________________________________________
Kirk Rogers krogers-at-materials.ecn.purdue.edu
OR
kirk.a.rogers.1-at-purdue.edu
Purdue University, School of Materials Science and Engineering,
1289 MSEE building, W. Lafayette, IN 47907-1289
OFFICE: 317-494-8751 FAX: 317-494-1204
http://materials.ecn.purdue.edu/~krogers






From: krogers-at-ecn.purdue.edu (Kirk Rogers)
Date: Thu, 11 Jan 1996 22:40:57 -0500
Subject: Re: color image processing

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Message-Id: {v01530501ad1b79f24a9f-at-[128.46.155.222]}
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} NIH has a package called, I think, NIH Image, but I have never used it. I
} have heard good things, but I think it is specific to Macs, is for
} greyscale only, and is 8-bit only.

I believe NIH Image supports 4, 8 and 16 bit TIFF (as well as PICT, pics,
macpaint) images in both color and grayscale and 24 bit color images.
Image will also open, edit, compare frames, average frames, etc. on
captured video or quicktime movies. NIH Image now (v. 1.59) includes
several built-in fast fourier transforms, although these run rather slowly
on 68k Macintoshes. And heck, it's free!!

{ftp://zippy.nimh.nih.gov/pub/nih-image/}

The 8-bit part is in the way Image handles adjacent pixels. In other
words, all contiguous pixels are counted during operations, not just the 4
pixels (4-bit) that share a side with the pixel in question. In doing
microstructural analysis of some acicular structures we found our $50k
workstation-based image analysis system was not able to analyze the
microstructure as well as NIH Image because it was a 4-bit system.

For those interested in doing 2D image analysis and reconstruction, The
National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at UIUC, has a
program called NCSA Image. I just visited their web site,

{http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/NCSAHome.html}

and found that Image is now called Collage, and is available for Macintosh
and X-Windows for FREE. Collage uses a proprietary data format, HDF, but
you can get Import2HDF, which will convert FITS, TIFF, GIFF, Pict, ascii
and rastor files to HDF. NCSA Collage also supports real time interaction
between scientists working on the same data sets at remote locations
according to the readme file.

NCSA GelReader, which automates the measurement of DNA length using
digitized electrophoretic gels is also available for free from NCSA, and is
only available for the Macintosh.

(Insert standard disclaimer about not being intimately involved with these
products here.)


-Kirk
_____________________________________________
Kirk Rogers krogers-at-materials.ecn.purdue.edu
OR
kirk.a.rogers.1-at-purdue.edu
Purdue University, School of Materials Science and Engineering,
1289 MSEE building, W. Lafayette, IN 47907-1289
OFFICE: 317-494-8751 FAX: 317-494-1204
http://materials.ecn.purdue.edu/~krogers






From: Nancy K. R. Smith :      SMITHN-at-UTHSCSA.EDU
Date: Thu, 11 Jan 1996 20:40:57 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: Free: Image Analysis Software for Windows95

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In response to recent discussion on this listserver regarding image
analysis, I am forwarding description of newly available, FREE image
analysis software, that was specifically designed to do for Windows users
what NIH Image does for Mac users, and much more. I recently saw a
demonstration of it and was impressed. Most impressive is that it is
available absolutely FREE. It can be downloaded on the web from the Dental
Diagnostic Science Dept of the University of Texas Health Science Center at
San Antonio (ddxds.uthscsa.edu). This program was released the same day as
Windows95 & has already been distributed worldwide.
(This is not a commercial message. Even the creators of the software are
not benefitting financially from its distribution).
Soon to be released is a portion of the program that will make possible
quantitation of the gels that molecular biologists love to run. =20
}
} Date: Thu, 11 Jan 1996 16:03:08 -0500 (CDT)
} From: "S. Brent Dove" {dove-at-uthscsa.edu}
} Subject: Re: Image Analysis
} To: "Nancy K.R. Smith" {smithn-at-uthscsa.edu}
}
} Hello Nancy,
}
} Here is a basic description of UTHSCSA ImageTool. Feel free to distribute
this to any colleagues in the microscopy world.
}
} UTHSCSA
} IMAGETOOL
}
} OVERVIEW
}
} UTHSCSA ImageTool (IT) is a free image processing and analysis program for
Microsoft Windows 95=81 or Windows NT=81. IT can acquire, display, edit,
analyze, process, compress, save and print gray scale and color images. IT
can read and write over 22 common file formats including BMP, PCX, TIF, GIF
and JPEG. Image analysis functions include dimensional (distance, angle,
perimeter, area) and gray scale measurements (point, line and area histogram
with statistics). ImageTool supports standard image processing functions
such as contrast manipulation, sharpening, smoothing, edge detection, median
filtering and spatial convolutions with user-defined convolution masks. IT
also has built-in macro capabilities that allow the user to record
repetitive tasks and playback saved macros to automate image analysis.
}
} ImageTool was designed with an open architecture that provides extensiblity
via a variety of plug-ins. Support for image acquisition using either Adobe
Photoshop plug-ins or Twain scanners is built-in. Custom analysis and
processing plug-ins can be developed using the software development kit
(SDK) provided (with source code). This approach makes it possible to solve
almost any data acquisition or analysis problem with IT.
}
} ImageTool provides for geometric transformations such as rotate, flip
vertical, flip horizontal and magnification up to four levels. All analysis
and processing functions are available at any magnification factor. The
program is a multiple document interface (MDI) application supporting any
number of windows (images) simultaneously. =20
}
} Spatial calibration is available to indicate real world dimensional
measurements such as millimeters, microns, feet, miles, etc. for linear and
area. Density or gray scale calibration can be done relative to radiation
or optical density (OD) standards.
}
} IT version 1.1 now provides for object analysis and classification with
over 20 morphological descriptors such as: area/perimeter, roundness, ferret
diameter, compactness, major/minor axis length, centroid and many others.
Any of these factors can be used automatically categorized and count objects
within the image.
}
} ImageTool ver 1.1 supports the Data Translation DT3155 frame grabber for
Windows NT. Other frame grabber board will be added in the coming months.=
=20
}
} ImageTool was written using Borland's C++ version 4.5 and the source code
for the executable is available free of charge. IT was developed in the
Department of Dental Diagnostic Science at The University of Texas Health
Science Center, San Antonio, Texas. The program was developed by C. Donald
Wilcox, S. Brent Dove, W. Doss McDavid and David B. Greer.
}
}
}
}
} S. Brent Dove Voice: (210) 567-3333
} Diagnostic Sciences Fax: (210) 567-3334
} University of Texas Email: dove-at-uthscsa.edu
} Health Science Center Web: ddxds.uthscsa.edu
} San Antonio, TX USA ftp: maxrad6.uthscsa.edu
}
}





From: zqliu-at-pccms.pku.edu.cn (zhenquan Liu)
Date: 11 Jan 1996 12:16:41 -0500
Subject: Re: color image processing

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HAHNP-at-JEFLIN.TJU.EDU
Once again, my opinions only:


You need to be a bit more specific. When some folk talk about
"image processing," they mean the kind of things you do to get
an image ready for presentation or publication -- annotation,
a little contrast buffing, etc. Other folk mean playing with
point spread functions and such for image regularization. Still
others mean doing image manipulation for data extraction -- segmentation,
object recognition, metrics of various sorts, etc. Finally, 2D and 3D
products are rather different.

The type of package you might want depends upon the specific task and
the platform you like. For instance, in my work with forensic image
processing, I use AVS (Advanced Visualization Systems) as a programming
environment, and incorporate libraries and code from a number of
academic insititutions (for instance, DIAL and /usr/image from
University of North Carolina and the University of Utrecht). AVS, and
its big brother AVS Express, use a dataflow paradigm which takes the UNIX
pipe to extremes. In this paradigm, you program little modules, say fft,
and then plunk an icon for that module on the screen. You then connect
other modules to it (say, a "read image" module) using little pipes.
You can then build up larger applications by linking these little modules
in networks. AVS comes with a set of supported modules, and there is a
large set of community-donated public domain modules.

This is specific to UNIX-based systems, however. Most specific platforms
have their own image processing libraries that you can buy. I know that
Sun has something, SunVision, I think, and SGI also has its image
processing toolbox. SGI also incorporates some image processing into its
Explorer package, which uses the same kind of dataflow paradigm as AVS.

Excellent public domain Unix image processing packages which include
advanced routines include Khoros from U. New Mexico, and IRAF. Khoros is
both a toolbox and/or development environment which incorporates a
dataflow paradigm much like AVS and Explorer. The AVS-like front end for
Khoros is called Cantata. IRAF, which is the common platform for academic
astronomical image processing, has some very nice tools for deconvolution
and image restoration, but it is geared heavily towards astronomical models
and is a true bear to install.

NIH has a package called, I think, NIH Image, but I have never used it. I
have heard good things, but I think it is specific to Macs, is for
greyscale only, and is 8-bit only.

For some of the cellular morphometric stuff, we tend to use PC-based
software such as Optimas. There are, however, two or three other
relatively good systems for doing metrics and more advanced image
processing such as ImagePro and there's this French program by Noesis
called, I think, Visilog. Each of these have routines for most common
simple, intermediate and advanced image processing and 2D measurement
tasks. I like the programming interface for Optimas. Visilog has, as
far as I can see, a larger set of ready-to-use tools for mathematical
morphologic manipulation, which you would expect from the French, I
suppose. All of these systems allow, in one way or another, incorporation
of home-brewed routines either as a link to compiled code or by using a
macro language.

For annotation and aesthetic stuff, I prefer Picture Publisher by
Micrografx. Many like Photoshop, and I have used it occasionally, but I
still prefer Picture Publisher. Photostyler (Aldus) and Corel are also
good products. I find Picture Publisher to be more intuitive and easier
to use. It has a harder time successfully importing images, however. Our
PCs are on a network with Unix boxes, and the images get to the PCs via
nfs. My installation of Picture Publisher has problems often with reading
large images over the network and with decoding large or compressed
images. I often read an image from the network in using Photostyler, save
it locally, and then manipulate it using Picture Publisher. I have found
the Corel product a memory hog, and gets really slow with big (40 Mbyte)
images.

Aside from the memory and importing hassles, the biggest differences with
these artistic manipulators from that point on involve specific tools --
how you want to set brush sizes, how you want to play with overlays, how
the gui is set up (whether you prefer type-in widgets, etc.). For
instance, Picture Publisher has a slider transparency control on a toolbar
for interactively playing with overlays, and allows you to play with
overlay parameter during a paste. Other programs require multilevel menu
selection to set transparency, which is not as easy. The (rather old)
version of Photostyler I have used has a pretty primitive file requestor
for loading images. Picture Publisher has a requestor that does
thumbprints. This is a mixed blessing with a heterogeneous network -- it
makes browsing easier, but the thumbprints can eat up disk space, they can
"get lost" when the unix directories get mapped to DOS names, etc. Which
set of widgets and approaches is most intuitive or easiest to learn is a
matter of personal taste. Fractal Paint and associated tools have really
nice interfaces for doing true "artistic" manipulation in the sense of
having results that look like true artistic media (charcoal, oils, etc.)
and "natural" textures. There is another package called {something - I
forget} Matisse, which also attempts the "true" artistic approach. The
{something} Matisse product, however, can get really slow with larger images.
I have found it useless for work but a gas to play with.

There are a number of public domain systems which do limited image
manipulation -- scaling, rotating, cropping, etc. Some of these have
their own little areas of surprise. I have already discussed the
pbmplus/netpbm libraries. There are others, such as ImageMagick, Utah
Raster Toolkit, etc. which provide similar routines.

For integration of images into presentations and some buffing for
publication (cropping, playing with backgrounds, etc.) I use
Corel, though many also like Harvard Graphics. I just happened to have
Corel at home, and never wanted to bother with the learning curve for
Harvard Graphics or PowerPoint. My wife uses Harvard Graphics and I have
helped her on occasion -- it is fairly intuitive.

For 3D modeling work, I have worked with AutoCAD, 3d Studio, and Lightwave
3D. Each has specific strengths and weaknesses, but I bet you aren't
interested in these, so I will spare you reviews. For high-end production
on UNIX boxes, there are Wavefront, Alias, SoftImage, and ElectroGig. I
have worked with Wavefront and Gig, if you want reviews.

Finally, there are specific tools for such things as texture generation,
3D painting, titling, etc. For PCs, for instance, Kai's Power Tools is
an excellent product. For UNIX boxes, Xaos has recently released a
number of good tools.

3D visualization tools for medical images which incorporate some
measurement capability include some commercial products which have been
discussed ad-nauseum on the confocal list, so I won't discuss them here.
There is a pseudo-commercial product out of Mayo called Analyze which is
primarily a 3D visualization tool with some measurement capability. Last I
heard, Rich Robb was charging about 5000 bucks for it. There is a
relatively cheap tool from UPenn (Jay Udupa's lab) called 3DViewnix which
runs about a thousand bucks which again is primarily a visualization tool
with some measurement capability. There is a free tool out of Arie
Kaufmann's lab at SUNY called VolVis which is, again, primarily a
visualization tool with some measurement capability. I have heard good
things about a program called Confocal Assistant, but have never seen or
tried it. I believe it is freely distributable, but I am not sure.


hope this helps,

billo


All opinions are my own and do not necessarily reflect those of the US
Govt, Army, Uncle Sam, yada, yada, yada.

On Thu, 11 Jan 1996 HAHNP-at-JEFLIN.TJU.EDU wrote:

} hello fellow digital microscopists.
} from snow bound Philly comes a query for advice on color image processing of
} images. does anyone use a package that can quantify/image process color data
} instead of just greyscale?
}
}
} please post replies directy and I will share summary with all.
}
}
}
} ._____________________
} | Peter J. Hahn
} | -------------
} | Thomas Jefferson University
} 3401 Spring Garden Street
} Philadelphia, PA. 19104
} tel : 215-349-0099 |
} fax : 610-356-3451 |
} peter.hahn-at-mail.tju.edu |
} -------------+-----------------+----+------+
}
}


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**** Very Important !!!!
My Telphone and Fax Numbers have been changed recently !!!

Zhen Quan Liu, Director, Ph.D Tel (86) 10 275 1427 (Office)
Physics Building Tel (86) 10 275 3727 (Home)
Electron Microscope Laboratory Fax (86) 10 275 1615 (Office)
Peking University
Beijing 100871, China E-mail(Office): zqliu-at-pku.edu.cn
Email (Home) wl-at-ibmstone.pku.edu.cn





From: Francisco J. Hernandez :      fjhblasq-at-biomed.icb2.usp.br
Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 09:24:20 -0200 (EDT)
Subject: Re: EM Fixative

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"Zaluzec, Nestor" {ZALUZEC-at-aaem.amc.anl.gov}
In-Reply-To: {n1390845623.57279-at-msmail.tmc.tulane.edu}
Message-ID: {Pine.3.87.9601120920.A26254-0100000-at-biomed}
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What exactly you want to know?
_____________________________________________________________________________
Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez * Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1524
Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia * 05508-900 Sao Paulo
Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas * e-mail fjhblazq-at-spider.usp.br
Universidade de Sao Paulo * fjhblasq-at-biomed.icb2.usp.br
______________________________________________________________________________






From: ghanem-solvay-at-e-mail.com
Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 06:36:40 EST
Subject: SEM : magnification

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Hello,

I am looking for references which contain detailed information about how the
magnification changes with working distance, spot size and voltage. On our
Cambridge Stereoscan II, I have noticed a "curious" behaviour, that is, for a
given set of microscope conditions, if we plot the real magnification as a
function of nominal magnification, we get maxima and minima which seem
reproducible. The range of magnification investigated is 100x to 10000x, no
sample tilt, secondary electrons signal, linear micrometer with 10 micron
spacings.

Thank you in advance for your help.

Antoine Ghanem
e-mail address : ghanem-solvay-at-e-mail.com

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From: Richard E. Edelmann :      edelmare-at-CASMAIL.MUOHIO.EDU
Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 08:30:50 -500
Subject: 3x4 grey scale printers?

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Any suggestions?

I am looking for a small format (3-4" x 4-5" images, i.e. Polaroid
size) grey scale printer, that is NOT restricted to screen dumps or
Video dumps, but will function like a 'normal' printer output
device. It can be parallel port, serial port or SCSI.



Richard E. Edelmann
Electron Microscopy Facility Supervisor
352 Pearson Hall
Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056
Ph: 513-529-5712 Fax: 513-529-4243
E-mail: edelmare-at-muohio.edu

int.




From: jlibert-at-cpcug.org (John M. Libert)
Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 07:17:04 -0500
Subject: Re: color image processing

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William R Oliver {oliver-at-ipas4.afip.mil}

At 10:40 PM 1/11/96 -0500, Kirk Rogers wrote:
} } NIH has a package called, I think, NIH Image, but I have never used it. I
} } have heard good things, but I think it is specific to Macs, is for
} } greyscale only, and is 8-bit only.
}
} I believe NIH Image supports 4, 8 and 16 bit TIFF (as well as PICT, pics,
} macpaint) images in both color and grayscale and 24 bit color images.
} Image will also open, edit, compare frames, average frames, etc. on
} captured video or quicktime movies. NIH Image now (v. 1.59) includes
} several built-in fast fourier transforms, although these run rather slowly
} on 68k Macintoshes. And heck, it's free!!
}
} {ftp://zippy.nimh.nih.gov/pub/nih-image/}
-----------------------------------------------------
Response:
** Actually, I believe that NIH Image currently cannot process color images
and cannot acquire color images except as single 8-bit channels. Possible
that someone has written some color extensions, but I am not aware of it.
Check before buying a new computer.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
} The 8-bit part is in the way Image handles adjacent pixels. In other
} words, all contiguous pixels are counted during operations, not just the 4
} pixels (4-bit) that share a side with the pixel in question. In doing
} microstructural analysis of some acicular structures we found our $50k
} workstation-based image analysis system was not able to analyze the
} microstructure as well as NIH Image because it was a 4-bit system.
----------------------------------------------------------------}
Response:
**This is not correct. The 4, 8, 24 bit designation describes the number of
bits the program uses to represent the intensity value of each pixel, and
has nothing to do with how the pixel neighborhoods are processed. The number
of bits used to represent a numerical value in the computer is important to
how well the system can represent the image information and derived
information. The number of bits determine the range of values possible and
specifies the power of 2 topping the range. For example, with 4 bits one can
only represent 2^4 or 16 different values. With 8 bits the system can
represent 2^8 or 256 values. Generally, color images are represented as
three channels, each using 8-bits to quantize each pixel. Your old
workstation may have also had algorithm deficiencies in doing neighborhood
operations on images -- probably to save computation cost, but the main
problem may have been in allowing only 4 bits to represent the entire
dynamic range of your data.

** A second, but related, problem would arise if the system limits the bits
assigned to represent derived images. The best systems will use floating
point, or at least long integer, to represent intermediate values before the
derived image. If you wanted to average images or do some transformation,
you could run into serious problems if the values could be stored using 4 or
even 8 bits. Once truncated, the image information is lost.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
} For those interested in doing 2D image analysis and reconstruction, The
} National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at UIUC, has a
} program called NCSA Image. I just visited their web site,
}
} {http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/NCSAHome.html}
}
} and found that Image is now called Collage, and is available for Macintosh
} and X-Windows for FREE. Collage uses a proprietary data format, HDF, but
} you can get Import2HDF, which will convert FITS, TIFF, GIFF, Pict, ascii
} and rastor files to HDF. NCSA Collage also supports real time interaction
} between scientists working on the same data sets at remote locations
} according to the readme file.
}
} NCSA GelReader, which automates the measurement of DNA length using
} digitized electrophoretic gels is also available for free from NCSA, and is
} only available for the Macintosh.
}
} (Insert standard disclaimer about not being intimately involved with these
} products here.)
}
}
} -Kirk
} _____________________________________________
} Kirk Rogers krogers-at-materials.ecn.purdue.edu
} OR
} kirk.a.rogers.1-at-purdue.edu
} Purdue University, School of Materials Science and Engineering,
} 1289 MSEE building, W. Lafayette, IN 47907-1289
} OFFICE: 317-494-8751 FAX: 317-494-1204
} http://materials.ecn.purdue.edu/~krogers
}
}
}
}





From: dan-at-clark.isrv.com (Dan Focht)
Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 10:38:22 -0500
Subject: Subscribe

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From: Gisele Larocque :      LAROCQUEG-at-em.agr.ca
Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 09:58:33 -0500
Subject: Used Microscope

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** High Priority **

Hi,
We are looking to purchase a used scanning microscope such as
an AMR100 on which we can install a cold stage. We must take
delivery and pay for the microscope by the end of March 1996. If
anyone can tell us who could supply us with such a microscope
this quickly please reply to me directly. We are located in
Ottawa Canada. Thank you.
Gisele Larocque
larocqueg-at-em.agr.ca






From: Serita Frey :      serita-at-NREL.ColoState.EDU
Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 11:15:14 -0700
Subject: Used Microscope

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subscribe microscopy Serita Frey




From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 10:06:35 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Optical microscopes

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} I specifically need one
} that has a calibrated focus knob so that I can make thickness meaurements in
} the 1-50 micron range by focusing on the front and back surfaces of our
} (transparent) samples.

Dear Joyce,
There are also thickness gauges which can do the job, if the samples
are flat and the thickness uniform (some can also measure samples of non-
uniform thickness). These may or may not be more expensive than used micro-
scopes.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: GREG VAUGHN MARTIN :      gmartin-at-welchlink.welch.jhu.edu
Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 10:19:38 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Image Analysis

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Greg --
I have been using a PC based image analysis package from Imaging
Research Inc.(no relation)to do morphometry and automated gold particle
counting on digitized EM negs for a couple of years. The use of digital
image analysis (IA) vs. point counting is highly dependant on your images
and what information you want to extract from them. If the structures of
interest can be easily segmented from the rest of the image, then IA is
the way to go. But if the measurement involves structures which need a
human eye and brain (still the best image analysis system avaliable) to
pick them out then point counting may be a much more efficient method.
An example of the latter would be measuring lengths of plasma
membrane sub-domains or the limiting membrane of non-descript
organelles. While you can trace the membranes using the cursor of an IA
system and get good data, its VERY tedious. You can do alot more
sampling with point counting techniques. If the specimen was immuno-gold
labeled, then IA would work well to count the gold particles along those
membranes since the computer can recognize the particles quite well
because they are very dense and have a very circular profile. But I
would still count them manually if there weren't too many.
There are IA systems out there that allow you to use point
counting methods on digital images. Imaging Reserch has an add-on to
their systems that does stereology, but I haven't had a chance to try it
out yet. I suspect that the ability to segment out the structures of
interest will still be crucial, at least for automated measurements. But as
long as you can manually define "hits" of the sampling grid on the
specimen these systems may be pretty useful.
Sorry for being long-winded, I'm alone in a snow-bound lab.

Greg Martin
Dept. Cell Biology and Anatomy
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
gmartin-at-welchlink.welch.jhu.edu
On Tue, 9 Jan
1996 Gargent-at-aol.com wrote:

} Are there any EM people heavy into Image processing and analysis. Currently
} I am using a Kontron IBAS (version 2.0) and a KS400 Image analysis system.
} Soon we will be incorporating a Telepathology system for communications
} between the US, Switzerland, and Japan. Current Image imput for our routine
} analysis come from EM micrographs, stored images, Kodak digital camera, from
} the light microscope, and any source that allows us to capture, store, and
} process images. We have several video camera, including a Sony 960 color
} camera, B&W camera. We currently use PAL and NTSC formats.
}
} I would be interested in knowing how people use computerized Image Analysis
} for Stereology and Morphometry. Would be interested in knowing how to get
} around point counting techniques with Electron Micrographs.
}
} I would be willing to share IBAS macros with interested parties.
} Gregory Argentieri
} Sandoz Electron Microscopy lab
} East Hanover, NJ 07936
} 201-503-8617
} Greg2NJ-at-AOL.COM
}
}
}
} Would welcome interested parties to exchange macros, ideas, image processing
} tips etc.
}




From: GREG VAUGHN MARTIN :      gmartin-at-welchlink.welch.jhu.edu
Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 10:19:38 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Image Analysis

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html


Greg --
I have been using a PC based image analysis package from Imaging
Research Inc.(no relation)to do morphometry and automated gold particle
counting on digitized EM negs for a couple of years. The use of digital
image analysis (IA) vs. point counting is highly dependant on your images
and what information you want to extract from them. If the structures of
interest can be easily segmented from the rest of the image, then IA is
the way to go. But if the measurement involves structures which need a
human eye and brain (still the best image analysis system avaliable) to
pick them out then point counting may be a much more efficient method.
An example of the latter would be measuring lengths of plasma
membrane sub-domains or the limiting membrane of non-descript
organelles. While you can trace the membranes using the cursor of an IA
system and get good data, its VERY tedious. You can do alot more
sampling with point counting techniques. If the specimen was immuno-gold
labeled, then IA would work well to count the gold particles along those
membranes since the computer can recognize the particles quite well
because they are very dense and have a very circular profile. But I
would still count them manually if there weren't too many.
There are IA systems out there that allow you to use point
counting methods on digital images. Imaging Reserch has an add-on to
their systems that does stereology, but I haven't had a chance to try it
out yet. I suspect that the ability to segment out the structures of
interest will still be crucial, at least for automated measurements. But as
long as you can manually define "hits" of the sampling grid on the
specimen these systems may be pretty useful.
Sorry for being long-winded, I'm alone in a snow-bound lab.

Greg Martin
Dept. Cell Biology and Anatomy
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
gmartin-at-welchlink.welch.jhu.edu
On Tue, 9 Jan
1996 Gargent-at-aol.com wrote:

} Are there any EM people heavy into Image processing and analysis. Currently
} I am using a Kontron IBAS (version 2.0) and a KS400 Image analysis system.
} Soon we will be incorporating a Telepathology system for communications
} between the US, Switzerland, and Japan. Current Image imput for our routine
} analysis come from EM micrographs, stored images, Kodak digital camera, from
} the light microscope, and any source that allows us to capture, store, and
} process images. We have several video camera, including a Sony 960 color
} camera, B&W camera. We currently use PAL and NTSC formats.
}
} I would be interested in knowing how people use computerized Image Analysis
} for Stereology and Morphometry. Would be interested in knowing how to get
} around point counting techniques with Electron Micrographs.
}
} I would be willing to share IBAS macros with interested parties.
} Gregory Argentieri
} Sandoz Electron Microscopy lab
} East Hanover, NJ 07936
} 201-503-8617
} Greg2NJ-at-AOL.COM
}
}
}
} Would welcome interested parties to exchange macros, ideas, image processing
} tips etc.
}




From: Warshall-at-aol.com
Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 18:00:10 -0500
Subject: SUBSCRIBE

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subscribe Chery Husack




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From: CASORIA-at-odin.ssec.honeywell.com
Date: Mon, 15 Jan 1996 10:50:52 -0600 (CST)
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From: dan-at-clark.isrv.com (Dan Focht)
Date: Mon, 15 Jan 1996 00:55:58 -0500
Subject: Re: Subscribe

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I am interested in subscribing to this list. Will someone advise me as to
what I have to do to subscribe. Thanks in advance!

Daniel Focht
Bioptechs, Inc.
3560 Beck Road
Butler, PA 16001
dan-at-bioptechs.com
Web page for Live-Cell Microscopy products
http://www.bioptechs.com






From: kbart-at-itsmail1.hamilton.edu (Ken Bart)
Date: Mon, 15 Jan 1996 11:14:05 +0100
Subject: Re: Subscribe

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subscribe microscopy kbart-at-hamilton.edu

Kenneth M. Bart
Director, Electron Microscopy Facility
Hamilton College
Clinton, New York 13323 USA
kbart-at-hamilton.edu
(315) 859-4715






From: H.BRINKIES -SE108/TEL.8657 :      HANS-at-mechman.mm.swin.edu.au
Date: Mon, 15 Jan 1996 12:05:51 EST+10
Subject: cataracts

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Message-Id: {199601151420.IAA18934-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com}

I have tried various reflectors to receive some answers to the
following question but to date without any success. Here it is again:

Is there any evidence available that the extensive use of TEM's
and/or SEM's may lead to the development of cataracts ?

Thanking in advance for any reply.

Hans Brinkies




From: Brett W. Cockman :      bcockman-at-uniwa.uwa.edu.au
Date: Mon, 15 Jan 1996 12:13:04 +0700 (WAST)
Subject: Low viscosity nitrocellulose

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Gooday all!
I am seeking some help with locating a source of 'low viscosity
nitrocellulose (LVN)'. I have used it some years ago to embed large
specimens (approx. 10cm x 12cm x 10cm) for histology. LVN was obtainable
from BDH but apparently they stopped selling it in 1991. I wish to find an
alternative source of LVN or a suitable alternative embedding material.
Any help would be appreciated.
Thanks in advance.

Brett Cockman
Brett W. Cockman
Technologist in Charge
School of Dentistry
University of Western Australia
179 Wellington st., Perth, W.A. 6000
Voice: (619-2205834)
Fax: (619-2213829)
e-mail; bcockman-at-uniwa.uwa.edu.au




From: philf-at-NEWTON.UMSL.EDU (Phil Fraundorf)
Date: Mon, 15 Jan 1996 08:48:54 -0600
Subject: a few remarkable TEM facts

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Lonely electrons: I think it was John Armstrong of Caltech who once
pointed out to me that the number of microscope beam electrons in your TEM
specimen at any one time is so small that the odds of such electrons
interfering with each other to form diffraction patterns is quite small.
Under some illumination conditions there may be no more than 1 beam electron
in the column at a time! Hence diffraction patterns in the TEM are
basically formed by individual electrons interfering with themselves! As
you know, such interference will occur only if we don't take steps to
determine the path of individual electrons through the specimen! If we look
too closely at these paths, the diffraction patterns would disappear (cf. a
Sci. Amer. ariticle in the past year or so on quantum erasure).

Fat electrons: The transverse coherence widths of electrons which make
possible electron phase contrast (HREM) lattice imaging and probably
electron holography might also be seen as lateral broadening of individual
electron wave-packets via the uncertainty principle, which results because
we know too much about their transverse momentum! My intuition tells we
that we're talking about lateral wave-function spreads of say 15 Angstroms
in a LAB6 HREM to more than 100 Angstroms in field emission gun system. Are
these numbers reasonable? By increasing the spread of electron angles in
the incident beam, this transverse coherence width can presumably be
decreased (e.g. you want it small for Z-contrast imaging, I think), or
varied as in the variable coherence-width strategies of Murray Gibson at U.
of I.

Long electrons: The tight tolerences on high voltage stability and the
emitted spread in electron energies means that our uncertainty in the
longitudinal momentum of TEM electrons is quite small, and hence again by
the uncertainty principle that the wave-packet spread in the direction of
motion for TEM electrons can be quite large. Distances of say 1000
Angstroms come to mind! The associated tight distribution of incident
electron energies decreases chromatic and instability damping of fine
details in CTEM and HREM images, so that for most applications you may want
your electrons "as long as possible". An exception might be in
variable-coherence strategies (mentioned above), where shorter electrons
might provide sensitivity to shorter-range vertical correlations.

Fast electrons: a back of the envelope calculation for 300 keV electrons
gives gamma = (300+511)/511 = 1.587, so that they travel at w = c
Sqr[1-(1/gamma)^2] = 0.777 c or [lightyears per inertial year] of elapsed
time. However, if we consider traveler (i.e. electron or proper) time for
such a speeding electron, this would give that they travel u = gamma*w =
1.232 [lightyears per traveler year] of elapsed time! With this spatial
4-vector velocity well over c, we're dealing with relativity in action! I
wonder how many g's of acceleration they experience in the electron gun in
order to get up to speed? For more on this subject, you might want to check
our browser-interactive relativistic Accel-One problem solver at
{http://newton.umsl.edu/~run/index.html} , and the theory pages attached.

The foregoing thoughts on lonely, fat, long and fast electrons are not
really things I've had time to think much about, but they are interesting,
and hence I would enjoy other perspectives on them, as well as suggestions
for other "remarkable TEM facts" to add to the list!

Cheers. /philf :)


//\/\/\/\---}
// Phil Fraundorf Physics & Astronomy/CME 314+5165044 philf-at-newton.umsl.edu
\\ B503 U.Missouri-SL St.Louis MO 63121 USA http://newton.umsl.edu/~philf
\\/\/\/\/\/\/\/---}





From: zqliu-at-pccms.pku.edu.cn (zhenquan Liu)
Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 18:12:05 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: Image Analysis

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html


Greg --
I have been using a PC based image analysis package from Imaging
Research Inc.(no relation)to do morphometry and automated gold particle
counting on digitized EM negs for a couple of years. The use of digital
image analysis (IA) vs. point counting is highly dependant on your images
and what information you want to extract from them. If the structures of
interest can be easily segmented from the rest of the image, then IA is
the way to go. But if the measurement involves structures which need a
human eye and brain (still the best image analysis system avaliable) to
pick them out then point counting may be a much more efficient method.
An example of the latter would be measuring lengths of plasma
membrane sub-domains or the limiting membrane of non-descript
organelles. While you can trace the membranes using the cursor of an IA
system and get good data, its VERY tedious. You can do alot more
sampling with point counting techniques. If the specimen was immuno-gold
labeled, then IA would work well to count the gold particles along those
membranes since the computer can recognize the particles quite well
because they are very dense and have a very circular profile. But I
would still count them manually if there weren't too many.
There are IA systems out there that allow you to use point
counting methods on digital images. Imaging Reserch has an add-on to
their systems that does stereology, but I haven't had a chance to try it
out yet. I suspect that the ability to segment out the structures of
interest will still be crucial, at least for automated measurements. But as
long as you can manually define "hits" of the sampling grid on the
specimen these systems may be pretty useful.
Sorry for being long-winded, I'm alone in a snow-bound lab.

Greg Martin
Dept. Cell Biology and Anatomy
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
gmartin-at-welchlink.welch.jhu.edu
On Tue, 9 Jan
1996 Gargent-at-aol.com wrote:

} Are there any EM people heavy into Image processing and analysis. Currently
} I am using a Kontron IBAS (version 2.0) and a KS400 Image analysis system.
} Soon we will be incorporating a Telepathology system for communications
} between the US, Switzerland, and Japan. Current Image imput for our routine
} analysis come from EM micrographs, stored images, Kodak digital camera, from
} the light microscope, and any source that allows us to capture, store, and
} process images. We have several video camera, including a Sony 960 color
} camera, B&W camera. We currently use PAL and NTSC formats.
}
} I would be interested in knowing how people use computerized Image Analysis
} for Stereology and Morphometry. Would be interested in knowing how to get
} around point counting techniques with Electron Micrographs.
}
} I would be willing to share IBAS macros with interested parties.
} Gregory Argentieri
} Sandoz Electron Microscopy lab
} East Hanover, NJ 07936
} 201-503-8617
} Greg2NJ-at-AOL.COM
}
}
}
} Would welcome interested parties to exchange macros, ideas, image processing
} tips etc.
}


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**** Very Important !!!!
My Telphone and Fax Numbers have been changed recently !!!

Zhen Quan Liu, Director, Ph.D Tel (86) 10 275 1427 (Office)
Physics Building Tel (86) 10 275 3727 (Home)
Electron Microscope Laboratory Fax (86) 10 275 1615 (Office)
Peking University
Beijing 100871, China E-mail(Office): zqliu-at-pku.edu.cn
Email (Home) wl-at-ibmstone.pku.edu.cn





From: jbpawley-at-facstaff.wisc.edu (Jim Pawley)
Date: Mon, 15 Jan 1996 12:20:52 -0600
Subject: Re: SEM magnification

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Antoine,

If you haven't received many replies to your magnification problem, it may
be because there are many sources of possible error in SEM magnification.
What the mag circuit does is define the current through the scan coils and
these establish a maximum scan ANGLE that raster will have as it leaves the
final lens. How big an AREA this raster will cover on the specimen depends
on how far the specimen is below the lens (the working distance, WD) and
the square-root of the energy of the electrons in the beam.

Old SEMs where designed to only work at one working distance to eliminate
the WD variable. Later it was found that one could get a measure of the WD
(at a given beam energy and assuming no hysteresis in the magnetic circuit
of the objective lens) by measuring the current in the final lens and later
instruments used this information internally to compensate the scan
current. Likewise the scan-currents were normalized to provide the same
scan angles first at a few, and then later at a large variety of beam
voltages.

To make all of this compensation work, there are a number of potentiometers
in the scanning amplifier to allow the magnification to be adjusted in x
and y under a number of standard conditions (certain Mags, WDs and kVs).
It would seem at first glance that these pots may not be prperly adjusted
on your instrument.

Normally SEMs are adjusted so that the magnification refers to the ratio of
the length of a feature on a photograph (usually a Polaroid) produced by
the microscopy divided by the length of the same feature in real life on
the specimen. You have added the additional complication of a video
printer. These can be useful but often only operate at video-scan-rate
where SEM image distortion is high and where the printer makes specific
assumptions aboutthe dimensions of the TV raster (number of lines, ration
of H to V) that the SEM Manufacturer does not fulfill (and this is
particularly true if you use a mixture of PAL (625 line) and NTSC (525
lines) equipment). You may also be using a computer-based image capture
system that has a video-rate display which you print with your printer. On
the assumption that this image-capture system is active (generates the
scanning signals) rather than passive (listens to the scan signals
generated by the microscope electronics) it seems likely that the
misadjustments are in the scan-generation software of your image capture
system rather than in the potentiometers noted above.

A lot of this information can be found a good basic SEM text.

Good LUck,

Jim Pawley

****************************************
Prof. James B. Pawley, Ph. 608-263-3147
Room 1235, Engineering Research Building, FAX 608-265-5315
1500 Johnson Dr., Madison, WI, 53706 JBPAWLEY-at-FACSTAFF.WISC.EDU






From: ghanem-solvay-at-e-mail.com
Date: Mon, 15 Jan 1996 03:33:36 EST
Subject: SEM magnigication

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Hello,

I realized that my first message about maxima and minima in SEM magnification
might have been misleading, so I would like to provide some details. What we
plot is the ratio of measured and nominal magnifications as a function of
nominal magnification. The measured values come from black and white
videoprints (Sony UP-850). The ratio ranges betwwen 0.75 and 0.94, depending on
the microscope setting. The average and standard deviation of 73 ratios are
0.83 and 0.05, respectively. The curves exhibit the following behaviour :
increase to a maximum about 200x, followed by a decrease to a mimium about
1000x, then an increase to about 3000x followed by a decrease down to 10000x.
Please note that the resolution of the curve is rather low (8 data points in
total), and it's not always easy to measure the magnification below 200x with a
10 micron spacing micrometer (which means the maximum at 200x is only observed
when there are data points below 200x).

I hope this rings a bell to somebody...

Regards,

Antoine Ghanem
ghanem-solvay-at-e-mail.com

Extra X400 information begins:
Originator
Name: Antoine (AGM) GHANEM
Org Units: AC
: NOH
: LC-AN001
Organisation: NOHX400DEC
Domain: BE/RTT/SOLVAY
Node.Userid: IBMX400.184470

Message Id: 65239051106991/91343 MHS
Importance: Normal
Sent by
Name: Antoine (AGM) GHANEM
Org Units: AC
: NOH
: LC-AN001
Organisation: NOHX400DEC
Domain: BE/RTT/SOLVAY
Node.Userid: IBMX400.184470
Free Fmt Name: Antoine GHANEM
Phone Number: 3422
Subject: SEM magnigication
Recipients
Name: INTERNET INTERNET
Domain: GB/IBMX400/IBMMAIL
Node.Userid: IBMMAIL.INTERNET
Free Fmt Name: INTERNET INTERNET




From: ghanem-solvay-at-e-mail.com
Date: Mon, 15 Jan 1996 08:10:31 EST
Subject: SEM magnification

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Hello,

I realized that my first message about maxima and minima in SEM magnification
might have been misleading, so I would like to provide some details. What we
plot is the ratio of measured and nominal magnifications as a function of
nominal magnification. The measured values come from black and white
videoprints (Sony UP-850). The ratio ranges betwwen 0.75 and 0.94, depending on
the microscope setting. The average and standard deviation of 73 ratios are
0.83 and 0.05, respectively. The curves exhibit the following behaviour :
increase to a maximum about 200x, followed by a decrease to a mimium about
1000x, then an increase to about 3000x followed by a decrease down to 10000x.
Please note that the resolution of the curve is rather low (8 data points in
total), and it's not always easy to measure the magnification below 200x with a
10 micron spacing micrometer (which means the maximum at 200x is only observed
when there are data points below 200x).

I hope this rings a bell to somebody...

Regards,

Antoine Ghanem
ghanem-solvay-at-e-mail.com

Extra X400 information begins:
Originator
Name: Antoine (AGM) GHANEM
Org Units: AC
: NOH
: LC-AN001
Organisation: NOHX400DEC
Domain: BE/RTT/SOLVAY
Node.Userid: IBMX400.184470

Message Id: 50704151106991/92175 MHS
Importance: Normal
Sent by
Name: Antoine (AGM) GHANEM
Org Units: AC
: NOH
: LC-AN001
Organisation: NOHX400DEC
Domain: BE/RTT/SOLVAY
Node.Userid: IBMX400.184470
Free Fmt Name: Antoine GHANEM
Phone Number: 3422
Subject: SEM magnification
Recipients
Name: INTERNET INTERNET
Domain: GB/IBMX400/IBMMAIL
Node.Userid: IBMMAIL.INTERNET
Free Fmt Name: INTERNET INTERNET




From: jaakko-at-butler.cc.tut.fi (Jaakko Ker\dnen)
Date: Mon, 15 Jan 1996 09:06:37 +0200
Subject: subscribe

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Microscopy ListServ {microscopy-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com}
Message-id: {01I01501O90I95RFNU-at-MAIL-CLUSTER.PCY.MCI.NET}
X-Mailer: e-mailMCI v2.3
Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT

-- [ From: Scott Ireland * EMC.Ver #2.3 ] --

Nancy - There is an error in the Web address listed - it should be
ddsdx.uthscsa.edu, not ddxds.uthscsa.edu. It took me almost an hour to
find it, then I realized what was wrong. Hope everyone else finds it ok -

BTW - I have tried to subsribe to the ,mail list for IT as listed on the
Web page, but I keep getting error messages back - Any ideas?

Scott Ireland
Oncor Imaging

-------- REPLY, Original message follows --------


sumscribe jaakko-at-butler.cc.tut.fi





From: houpt-at-worldaccess.nl (houpt)
Date: Sat, 13 Jan 1996 13:41:09 +0100
Subject: microscopy list

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subscribe microscopy






From: zqliu-at-pccms.pku.edu.cn (zhenquan Liu)
Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 18:12:05 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: Image Analysis

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html


Greg --
I have been using a PC based image analysis package from Imaging
Research Inc.(no relation)to do morphometry and automated gold particle
counting on digitized EM negs for a couple of years. The use of digital
image analysis (IA) vs. point counting is highly dependant on your images
and what information you want to extract from them. If the structures of
interest can be easily segmented from the rest of the image, then IA is
the way to go. But if the measurement involves structures which need a
human eye and brain (still the best image analysis system avaliable) to
pick them out then point counting may be a much more efficient method.
An example of the latter would be measuring lengths of plasma
membrane sub-domains or the limiting membrane of non-descript
organelles. While you can trace the membranes using the cursor of an IA
system and get good data, its VERY tedious. You can do alot more
sampling with point counting techniques. If the specimen was immuno-gold
labeled, then IA would work well to count the gold particles along those
membranes since the computer can recognize the particles quite well
because they are very dense and have a very circular profile. But I
would still count them manually if there weren't too many.
There are IA systems out there that allow you to use point
counting methods on digital images. Imaging Reserch has an add-on to
their systems that does stereology, but I haven't had a chance to try it
out yet. I suspect that the ability to segment out the structures of
interest will still be crucial, at least for automated measurements. But as
long as you can manually define "hits" of the sampling grid on the
specimen these systems may be pretty useful.
Sorry for being long-winded, I'm alone in a snow-bound lab.

Greg Martin
Dept. Cell Biology and Anatomy
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
gmartin-at-welchlink.welch.jhu.edu
On Tue, 9 Jan
1996 Gargent-at-aol.com wrote:

} Are there any EM people heavy into Image processing and analysis. Currently
} I am using a Kontron IBAS (version 2.0) and a KS400 Image analysis system.
} Soon we will be incorporating a Telepathology system for communications
} between the US, Switzerland, and Japan. Current Image imput for our routine
} analysis come from EM micrographs, stored images, Kodak digital camera, from
} the light microscope, and any source that allows us to capture, store, and
} process images. We have several video camera, including a Sony 960 color
} camera, B&W camera. We currently use PAL and NTSC formats.
}
} I would be interested in knowing how people use computerized Image Analysis
} for Stereology and Morphometry. Would be interested in knowing how to get
} around point counting techniques with Electron Micrographs.
}
} I would be willing to share IBAS macros with interested parties.
} Gregory Argentieri
} Sandoz Electron Microscopy lab
} East Hanover, NJ 07936
} 201-503-8617
} Greg2NJ-at-AOL.COM
}
}
}
} Would welcome interested parties to exchange macros, ideas, image processing
} tips etc.
}


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**** Very Important !!!!
My Telphone and Fax Numbers have been changed recently !!!

Zhen Quan Liu, Director, Ph.D Tel (86) 10 275 1427 (Office)
Physics Building Tel (86) 10 275 3727 (Home)
Electron Microscope Laboratory Fax (86) 10 275 1615 (Office)
Peking University
Beijing 100871, China E-mail(Office): zqliu-at-pku.edu.cn
Email (Home) wl-at-ibmstone.pku.edu.cn





From: Larry Maser :      lmaser-at-mbl.edu
Date: Sun, 14 Jan 1996 00:08:56 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Microscopy & Microanalysis '96, Minneapolis

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Microscopy & Microanalysis '96, the joint 54th Annual Meeting of
the Microscopy Society of America, 30th of the Microbeam Analysis
Society and the 23rd of the Microscopical Society of Canada /
Societe de Microscopie du Canada, will be held August 11-15,
1996, in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

The deadline for receipt of papers (extended abstracts) is March
15, 1996. The Registration Bulletin / Call for Papers will be
mailed automatically to members of the three Societies by the end
of January.

For information contact:

Microscopy & Microanalysis '96
4 Barlows Landing Rd., Suite 8
Pocasset, MA 02644

toll free 800-538-3672
phone 508-563-1155
fax 508-563-1211
email BusinessOffice-at-MSA.Microscopy.Com




From: krogers-at-ecn.purdue.edu (Kirk Rogers)
Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 15:18:03 -0500
Subject: Re: Import/processing questions

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John and List Members-

I posed the following questions to the nih-image mailing list to clear up
some of the current discussion. More info on the mailing list can be found
at the bottom of the page. The response is from wayne Rasband, the author
of NIH Image.

} Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 13:03:30 -0600 (CST)
} Reply-To: nih-image-at-Soils.Umn.EDU
} Originator: nih-image-at-soils.umn.edu
} Sender: nih-image-at-Soils.Umn.EDU
} Precedence: bulk
} From: wayne-at-helix.nih.gov (Wayne Rasband)
} To: Multiple recipients of list {nih-image-at-Soils.Umn.EDU}
} Subject: Re: Import/processing questions
} X-Comment: NIH Image Distribution List
} Mime-Version: 1.0
} Status: O
}
} } Hey-
} }
} } On the microscopy list server (Microscopy-at-MSA.Microscopy.Com) we are
} } currently having a discussion about Image's capabilities. They are as
} } follows.
} }
} } 1. NIH Image supports 4, 8 and 16 bit TIFF (as well as PICT, pics,
} } macpaint) images in both color and grayscale and 24 bit color images. Is
} } that right?
}
} NIH Image can read 4, 8 and 16 bit grayscale TIFF files as well as 24 bit
} color TIFF files. It can't read compressed TIFF fles.
}
} } has any one written macros for importing 30 bit (or more) color
} } (or Greyscale) TIFF images?
}
} Not that I know of. Do such TIFF files exist?
}
} } I looked in the macros file on zippy, but none
} } of them seem to do just this?
}
} } 2. Image processes 8 pixel neighborhoods surrounding the central pixel.
}
} The built-in filters process 3x3 (8 pixel) neighborhoods. The Convolve
} command supports user defined kernels up to 63x63 (3968 pixel
} neighborhoods).
}
} }
} } 3. Image uses either 8 or 16 bit integers, depending on the input image,
} } when doing image math, yes or no?
}
} The Image Math command uses real operations but scales the result to
} 8-bits. V1.59 adds the ability to process 32-bit real images.
}
} } 4. UTHSCSA ImageTool for Windows sounds very much like Image, does it use
} } NIH Image source code?
}
} I doubt it uses any nih-image source code since it's written in C++
} (nih-image is written in Pascal) and it doesn't look much like nih-image.
} It does, however, appear to be in the spirit of nih-image. There is a link
} to the Image Tool home page on the nih-image home page
} (http://rsb.info.nih.gov/nih-image/).
}
} --wayne

Join the NIH-Image mailing list. by sending a message to
listproc-at-soils.umn.edu with subscribe nih-image {first name} {last name} in
the message body.

archived email (since 09/93) is available at the following:

Searchable index:
{gopher://gopher.soils.umn.edu:7151/77/wais-sources/nih-image-archive}

Browse messages by date:
{ftp://ftp.soils.umn.edu:pub/info/email-lists/nih-image/}
{gopher://gopher.soils.umn.edu:10082/11/email-lists/nih-image}


-Kirk
_____________________________________________
Kirk Rogers krogers-at-materials.ecn.purdue.edu
OR
kirk.a.rogers.1-at-purdue.edu
Purdue University, School of Materials Science and Engineering,
1289 MSEE building, W. Lafayette, IN 47907-1289
OFFICE: 317-494-8751 FAX: 317-494-1204
http://materials.ecn.purdue.edu/~krogers






From: Nancy K. R. Smith :      SMITHN-at-UTHSCSA.EDU
Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 15:46:02 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: IMAGETOOL

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Hopefully the attached message from Brent Dove will clarify instructions for
downloading Image Tool (IT), free image analysis software for Windows 95 and
Windows NT....nkrs

} Return-path: {DOVE-at-uthscsa.edu}
} Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 11:03:30 -0500 (CDT)
} Date-warning: Date header was inserted by uthscsa.edu
} From: "S. Brent Dove" {dove-at-uthscsa.edu}
} Subject: IMAGETOOL
} To: Nancy Smith {smithn-at-uthscsa.edu}
}
} Hello Nancy,
}
} I am being inundated with email. Please update your listserver with the
following information. About how to get UTHSCSA ImageTool IT is available
via anonymous ftp at=20
}
} ftp://maxrad6.uthscsa.edu
}
} Please do not send email to dove-at-uthscsa.edu
}
} I have enclosed the original write up including the ftp address at the
bottom. Sorry that was my fault for not including the ftp address. Thank
you for getting the information to other microscopist.
}
} UTHSCSA
} IMAGETOOL
}
} OVERVIEW
}
} UTHSCSA ImageTool (IT) is a free image processing and analysis program for
Microsoft Windows 95=81 or Windows NT=81. IT can acquire, display, edit,
analyze, process, compress, save and print gray scale and color images. IT
can read and write over 22 common file formats including BMP, PCX, TIF, GIF
and JPEG. Image analysis functions include dimensional (distance, angle,
perimeter, area) and gray scale measurements (point, line and area histogram
with statistics). ImageTool supports standard image processing functions
such as contrast manipulation, sharpening, smoothing, edge detection, median
filtering and spatial convolutions with user-defined convolution masks. IT
also has built-in macro capabilities that allow the user to record
repetitive tasks and playback saved macros to automate image analysis.
}
} ImageTool was designed with an open architecture that provides extensiblity
via a variety of plug-ins. Support for image acquisition using either Adobe
Photoshop plug-ins or Twain scanners is built-in. Custom analysis and
processing plug-ins can be developed using the software development kit
(SDK) provided (with source code). This approach makes it possible to solve
almost any data acquisition or analysis problem with IT.
}
} ImageTool provides for geometric transformations such as rotate, flip
vertical, flip horizontal and magnification up to four levels. All analysis
and processing functions are available at any magnification factor. The
program is a multiple document interface (MDI) application supporting any
number of windows (images) simultaneously. =20
}
} Spatial calibration is available to indicate real world dimensional
measurements such as millimeters, microns, feet, miles, etc. for linear and
area. Density or gray scale calibration can be done relative to radiation
or optical density (OD) standards.
}
} IT version 1.1 now provides for object analysis and classification with
over 20 morphological descriptors such as: area/perimeter, roundness, ferret
diameter, compactness, major/minor axis length, centroid and many others.
Any of these factors can be used automatically categorized and count objects
within the image.
}
} ImageTool ver 1.1 supports the Data Translation DT3155 frame grabber for
Windows NT. Other frame grabber board will be added in the coming months.=
=20
}
} ImageTool was written using Borland's C++ version 4.5 and the source code
for the executable is available free of charge. IT was developed in the
Department of Dental Diagnostic Science at The University of Texas Health
Science Center, San Antonio, Texas. The program was developed by C. Donald
Wilcox, S. Brent Dove, W. Doss McDavid and David B. Greer.
}
} UTHSCSA ImageTool is availabel via anonymous ftp at=
ftp://maxrad6.uthscsa.edu
}
} S. Brent Dove Voice: (210) 567-3333
} Diagnostic Sciences Fax: (210) 567-3334
} University of Texas Email: dove-at-uthscsa.edu
} Health Science Center Web: ddxds.uthscsa.edu
} San Antonio, TX USA ftp: maxrad6.uthscsa.edu
}
}





From: Eric A. Rosen :      earosen-at-indirect.com
Date: Mon, 15 Jan 1996 20:25:48 +0000
Subject: Re: Things not to do while defending your Thesis (Humor)

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Message-Id: {199601160327.UAA00999-at-ns1.indirect.com}
Comments: Authenticated sender is {earosen-at-indirect.com}



Hi! Our graduate assistant had this floating around the school, not sure where
he found it. I thought you might appreciate this considering you're working
on your thesis.

150 THINGS (NOT) TO DO OR SAY AT OR FOR YOUR THESIS DEFENSE
}
1) "Ladies and Gentlemen, please rise for the singing of our National
Anthem..."
2) Charge 25 cents a cup for coffee.
3) "Charge the mound" when a professor beans you with a high fast question.
4) Describe parts of your thesis using interpretive dance.
5) "Musical accompaniment provided by..."
6) Stage your own death/suicide.
7) Lead the specators in a Wave.
8) Have a sing-a-long.
9) "You call THAT a question? How the hell did they make you a professor?"
10) "Ladies and Gentlemen, as I dim the lights, please hold hands and
concentrate so that we may channel the spirit of Lord Kelvin..."
11) Have bodyguards outside the room to "discourage" certain professors
from sitting in.
12) Puppet show.
13) Group prayer.
14) Animal sacrifice to the god of the Underworld.
15) Sell T-shirts to recoup the cost of copying, binding, etc.
16) "I'm sorry, I can't hear you - there's a banana in my ear!"
17) Imitate Groucho Marx.
18) Mime.
19) Hold a Tupperware party.
20) Have a bikini-clad model be in charge of changing the overheads.
21) "Everybody rhumba!!"
22) "And it would have worked if it weren't for those meddling kids..."
23) Charge a cover and check for ID.
24) "In protest of our government's systematic and brutal opression of
minorities..."
25) "Anybody else as drunk as I am?"
26) Smoke machines, dramatic lighting, pyrotechnics...
27) Use a Super Soaker to point at people.
28) Surreptitioulsy fill the room with laughing gas.
29) Door prizes and a raffle.
30) "Please phrase your question in the form of an answer..."
31) "And now, a word from our sponsor..."
32) Present your entire talk in iambic pentameter.
33) Whine piteously, beg, cry...
34) Switch halfway through your talk to Pig Latin. Or Finnish Pig Latin.
35) The Emperor's New Slides ("only fools can't see the writing...")
36) Table dance (you or an exotic dancer).
37) Fashion show.
38) "Yo, a smooth shout out to my homies..."
39) "I'd like to thank the Academy..."
40) Minstrel show (blackface, etc.).
41) Previews, cartoons, and the Jimmy Fund.
42) Pass the collection basket.
43) Two-drink minimum.
44) Black tie only.
45) "Which reminds me of a story - A Black guy, a Chinese guy, and a
Jew walked into a bar..."
46) Incite a revolt.
47) Hire the Goodyear Blimp to circle the building.
48) Release a flock of doves.
49) Defense by proxy.
50) "And now a reading from the Book of Mormon..."
51) Leave Jehovah's Witness pamphlets scattered about.
52) "There will be a short quiz after my presentation..."
53) "Professor Walcerz, will you marry me?"
54) Bring your pet boa.
55) Tell ghost stories.
56) Do a "show and tell".
57) Food fight.
58) Challenge a professor to a duel. Slapping him with a glove is optional.
59) Halftime show.
60) "Duck, duck, duck, duck... GOOSE!"
61) "OK - which one of you farted?"
62) Rimshot.
63) Sell those big foam "We're number #1" (sic) hands.
64) Pass out souvenir matchbooks.
65) 3-ring defense.
66) "Tag - you're it!"
67) Circulate a vicious rumor that the Dead will be opening, making sure that
it gets on the radio stations, and escape during all the commotion.
68) Post signs: "Due to a computer error at the Registrar's Office, the
original room is not available, and the defense has been relocated to
(Made-up non-existent room number)"
69) Hang a pinata over the table and have a strolling mariachi band.
70) Make each professor remove an item of clothing for each question he asks.
71) Rent a billboard on the highway proclaiming "Thanks for passing me
Professors X,Y, and Z" - BEFORE your defense happens.
72) Have a make-your-own-sundae table during the defense.
73) Make committee members wear silly hats.
74) Simulate your experiment with a virtual reality system for the
spectators.
75) Do a soft-shoe routine.
76) Throw a masquerade defense, complete with bobbing for apples and
pin-the-tail-on-the-donkey.
77) Use a Greek Chorus to highlight important points.
78) "The responsorial psalm can be found on page 124 of the thesis..."
79) Tap dance.
80) Vaudeville.
81) "I'm sorry Professor Smith, I didn't say 'SIMON SAYS any questions?'.
You're out."
82) Flex and show off those massive pecs.
83) Dress in top hat and tails.
84) Hold a pre-defense pep rally, complete with cheerleaders, pep band, and
a bonfire.
85) Detonate a small nuclear device in the room. Or threaten to.
86) Shadow puppets.
87) Show slides of your last vacation.
88) Put your overheads on a film strip. Designate a professor to be in
charge of turning the strip when the tape recording beeps.
89) Same as #88, but instead of a tape recorder, go around the room
making a different person read the pre-written text for each picture.
90) "OK, everybody - heads down on the desk until you show me you can behave."
91) Call your advisor "sweetie".
92) Have everyone pose for a group photo.
93) Instant replay.
94) Laugh maniacally.
95) Talk with your mouth full.
96) Start speaking in tongues.
97) Explode.
98) Implode.
99) Spontaneously combust.
100) Answer every question with a question.
101) Moon everyone in the room after you are done.
102) "Laugh, will you? Well, they laughed at Galileo, they laughed at
Einstein..."
103) Hand out 3-D glasses.
104) "I'm rubber, you're glue..."
105) Go into labor (especially for men).
106) Give your entire speech in a "Marvin Martian" accent.
107) "I don't know - I didn't write this."
108) Before your defense, build trapdoors underneath all the seats.
109) Swing in through the window, yelling a la Tarzan.
110) Lock the department head and his secretary out of the defense room. And
the coffee lounge, the department office, the copy room, and the mail
room. Heck, lock them out of the building. And refuse to sell them
stamps (NOTE: This is an inside gripe, based on conditions that
existed in the ME department at WPI while we were there. Sorry.)
111) Roll credits at the end. Include a "key grip", and a "best boy".
112) Hang a disco ball in the center of the room. John Travolta pose optional.
113) Invite the homeless.
114) "I could answer that, but then I'd have to kill you"
115) Hide.
116) Get a friend to ask the first question. Draw a blank-loaded gun and
"shoot" him. Have him make a great scene of dying (fake blood helps).
Turn to the stunned audience and ask "any other wise-ass remarks?"
117) Same as #116, except use real bullets.
118) "Well, I saw it on the Internet, so I figured it might be a good idea..."
119) Wear clown makeup, a clown wig, clown shoes, and a clown nose. And
nothing else.
120) Use the words "marginalized", "empowerment", and "patriarchy".
121) Play Thesis Mad Libs.
122) Try to use normal printed paper on the overhead projector.
123) Do your entire defense operatically.
124) Invite your parents. Especially if they are fond of fawning over you.
("We always knew he was such an intelligent child")
125) Flash "APPLAUSE" and "LAUGHTER" signs.
126) Mosh pit.
127) Have cheerleaders. ("Gimme an 'A'!!")
128) Bring Howard Cosell out of retirement to do color commentary.
(NOTE: Because of recent events, this has to be changed to "Bring
Howard Cosell back from the dead to do color commentary.")
129) "I say Hallelujah, brothers and sisters!"
130) Claim political asylum.
131) Traffic reports every 10 minutes on the 1's.
132) Introduce the "Eyewitness Thesis Team". Near the end of your talk, cut
to Jim with sports and Alison with the weather.
133) Live radio and TV coverage.
134) Hang a sign that says "Thank you for not asking questions"
135) Bring a microphone. Point it at the questioner, talk-show style.
136) Use a TelePrompTer
137) "Take my wife - please!"
138) Refuse to answer questions unless they phrase the question as a limerick.
139) Have everyone bring wine glasses. When they clink the glasses with a
spoon, you have to kiss your thesis. Or your advisor.
140) Offer a toast.
141) Firewalk.
142) Start giving your presentation 15 minutes early.
143) Play drinking thesis games. Drink for each overhead. Drink for each
question. Chug for each awkward pause. This goes for the audience
as well.
144) Swoop in with a cape and tights, Superman style.
145) "By the power of Greyskull..."
146) Use any past or present Saturday Night Live catchphrase. Not.
147) Stand on the table.
148) Sell commercial time for your talk and ad space on your overheads.
149) Hold a raffle.
150) "You think this defense was bad? Let me read this list to show you
what I COULD have done..."
}
(FINAL NOTE: Depending on the subject of your thesis, some of these
things, such as tap dance, virtual reality, or reading from the Book
of Mormon might be entirely appropriate, of course.)
}

Cheers ;o) :o) %o)
Eric





From: Lijie Zhao :      lijie-at-junction.ucsb.edu
Date: Mon, 15 Jan 1996 20:57:03 -0800
Subject: Re: Things not to do while defending your Thesis (Humor)

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subscribe lijie-at-junction.ucsb.edu




From: Lijie Zhao :      lijie-at-junction.ucsb.edu
Date: Mon, 15 Jan 1996 22:43:06 -0800
Subject: Re: Things not to do while defending your Thesis (Humor)

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subscribe Lijie Zhao




From: tphillips-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu (Tom Phillips)
Date: Tue, 16 Jan 1996 09:07:20 -0500
Subject: Re: cataracts

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To: microscopy-at-aaem.amc.anl.gov

} On 15 Jan 1996 Hans Brinkies wrote:
}
} } Is there any evidence available that the extensive use of TEM's
} } and/or SEM's may lead to the development of cataracts ?
} }
} }
} } Hans Brinkies
}
} This is an interesting point. Some time ago someone asked a similar
} question but I cannot remember seeing any discussion on the issue. Does
} anyone know about the long term health effects of EM usage? Have any studies
} been done on any aspect of this (eyesight, radiation exposure, anything else
} I haven't thought of)?
}
} Ian MacLaren,


EMSA (now MSA) published a "Handbook of X-ray safety for Electron
Microscopists" by D.F} Parsons, V.A. Phillips, and J.S. Lally in 1973. Its
a short pamphlet and I don't know if it is still available. A few points
from the handbook:

In regards to the need to perform an annual survey for x-ray leaks: "It
should be noted that about 50% of those monitoring their microscopes found
detectable leaks once or more". They reccomend film badges but I have
never been at an institution that did this for their EM people.

Under the Health Checks chapter: "An annual eye exam is desirable. Vision
defects should be recorded and the lenses checked for opacities
(cataracts)". No references or data supporting this statement are given.


Thomas E. Phillips, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Biological Sciences
Director, Molecular Cytology Core Facility
3 Tucker Hall
University of Missouri
Columbia, MO 65211
(314)-882-4712 (voice)
(314)-882-0123 (fax)






From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Tue, 16 Jan 1996 09:58:31 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: a few remarkable TEM facts

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Dear Phil,
}
} Lonely electrons:
[snip]
} Under some illumination conditions there may be no more than 1 beam electron
} in the column at a time!

With our HVEM (1.2 MV) and its ~3m column this turns out to be cor-
rect--especially since we use low-dose conditions for ED work.

} Hence diffraction patterns in the TEM are
} basically formed by individual electrons interfering with themselves!

But wait; there's more! The electrons are boiled off our W filament
as particles, interfere with themselves as waves when scattering off the
crystal, then strike a film grain as particles. ED is the quintessential
demonstration of the particle-wave duality.

} Fat electrons: The transverse coherence widths of electrons which make
} possible electron phase contrast (HREM) lattice imaging and probably
} electron holography might also be seen as lateral broadening of individual
} electron wave-packets via the uncertainty principle, which results because
} we know too much about their transverse momentum! [snip]

What are the predictions for hollow-cone illumination where we know
the magnitude of the transverse momentum, but not its direction?

} [snip]
} Fast electrons: a back of the envelope calculation for 300 keV electrons
} gives gamma = (300+511)/511 = 1.587, so that they travel at w = c
} Sqr[1-(1/gamma)^2] = 0.777 c or [lightyears per inertial year] of elapsed
} time.

Of course, for 1.2 MeV electrons the speed is even closer to c.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: akracher-at-iastate.edu (Alfred Kracher)
Date: Tue, 16 Jan 1996 10:41:42 -0600
Subject: Image file conversion

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X-Sender: akracher-at-pop-1.iastate.edu
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Sorry for bugging once again all those helpful people who have given advice
on the conversion of image file formats. I specifically have a question
about AUTOCAD drawings. If anyone knows how to convert these to more common
image files, please get in touch with me directly.
Thanks, Alfred

Alfred Kracher
akracher-at-iastate.edu
http://www.public.iastate.edu/~akracher






From: Michael Cammer :      cammer-at-aecom.yu.edu
Date: Tue, 16 Jan 1996 11:43:56 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: dye sub gray scale

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Yes, the ribbons have changed. If you complain enough and to the right
person at Kodak, Kodak will send you a disk with new color look uop
tables that can be downloaded to the printer. Your b/w prints will come
out with a slight blue tint instead of the green tint, but the blue tint
is less objectionable.
-Michael Cammer
{null signature file}

On Thu, 11 Jan 1996, Jon Krupp wrote:

} Hi:
}
} Has anyone run into a problem printing grayscale images on a Kodak/Codonics
} printer?
}
} Ours have started looking tinged with green/yellow right out of the
} printer. I have read that the formulation of the ribbons may have changed
} and that the result is this sick green color.
}
} I would like to avoid swapping color/grayscale ribbons if possible but my
} users don't like the color cast to their pictures. Any ideas for a
} solution?
}
}
} Jonathan Krupp
} Microscopy and Imaging Lab
} University of California
} Santa Cruz, CA 95064
} (408) 459-2477
} jmkrupp-at-cats.ucsc.edu
}
}
}




From: Michael Cammer :      cammer-at-aecom.yu.edu
Date: Tue, 16 Jan 1996 11:43:56 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: dye sub gray scale

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Yes, the ribbons have changed. If you complain enough and to the right
person at Kodak, Kodak will send you a disk with new color look uop
tables that can be downloaded to the printer. Your b/w prints will come
out with a slight blue tint instead of the green tint, but the blue tint
is less objectionable.
-Michael Cammer
{null signature file}

On Thu, 11 Jan 1996, Jon Krupp wrote:

} Hi:
}
} Has anyone run into a problem printing grayscale images on a Kodak/Codonics
} printer?
}
} Ours have started looking tinged with green/yellow right out of the
} printer. I have read that the formulation of the ribbons may have changed
} and that the result is this sick green color.
}
} I would like to avoid swapping color/grayscale ribbons if possible but my
} users don't like the color cast to their pictures. Any ideas for a
} solution?
}
}
} Jonathan Krupp
} Microscopy and Imaging Lab
} University of California
} Santa Cruz, CA 95064
} (408) 459-2477
} jmkrupp-at-cats.ucsc.edu
}
}
}




From: howard-at-CSHL.org (Tamara Howard in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)
Date: Tue, 16 Jan 1996 14:02:16 -0500
Subject: LM - Technovit resin

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Does anyone have any experience with Technovit resin? Someone here has
heard about it, but we don't have any "real" info from users. They want to
use it for LM immuno...enzyme-based, as the tissue is massively
autofluorescent.
Thanks for the help!
Tamara Howard






From: Thomas P Schuck :      schuck-at-csd.uwm.edu
Date: Tue, 16 Jan 1996 13:16:46 -0600 (CST)
Subject: VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT

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VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT

UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MILWAUKEE

DIRECTOR OF ELECTRON MICROSCOPY FACILITY


The Department of Biological Sciences is seeking applications for
Director of the Electron Microscope (EM) Facility as an academic staff
appointment. Broad experience with a diversity of biological systems and
EM techniques and Ph.D. in the Biological Sciences required, postdoctoral
experience preferred. Responsibilities include: 1) management of the
Biological Science EM facility, 2) research support for and collaboration
with university faculty, 3) instruction of faculty and students in the use
of EM. An independent funded research program is desirable. The
Biological Sciences Electron Microscopy Facility consists of two
laboratories totaling 2000+ square feet, SEM and TEM scopes and support
equipment.

Applicants should submit a curriculum vitae, statement of professional
interests, and three letters of reference to:

Chairperson, EM Director Search Committee
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Wisconsin--Milwaukee
P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201.

The deadline for receipt of applications is February 16,1996.

Additional information about the Biological Sciences Department is
available at http:\www.uwm.edu\Dept\Biology\. The University of
Wisconsin-Milwaukee is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.
Women and minority scientists are encouraged to apply for these positions.
The names of those nominees and applicants who have notrequested that
their identities be withheld and the names of finalists will be released
upon request.







From: Eric A. Rosen :      earosen-at-indirect.com
Date: Tue, 16 Jan 1996 13:36:50 +0000
Subject: disregard Forrest Gump Humor ;o)

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Message-Id: {199601162037.NAA08585-at-ns1.indirect.com}
Comments: Authenticated sender is {earosen-at-indirect.com}

Disregard the forrest gump humor I was supposed to send it to a
single person and not to the whole group} } }

Cheers ;o) :o) %o)
Eric





From: suecheng-at-codon.nih.gov (Susan Cheng)
Date: Tue, 16 Jan 1996 16:41:11 -0500
Subject: subscribe

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subscribe suecheng-at-codon.nih.gov



Susan J.-H. Tao Cheng
NIH, Bldg 36, Rm 2A-29
Bethesda, MD 20892
Tel: (301) 496 0579
Fax: (301) 402 6875





From: Thomas P Schuck :      schuck-at-csd.uwm.edu
Date: Tue, 16 Jan 1996 13:16:46 -0600 (CST)
Subject: VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT

UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MILWAUKEE

DIRECTOR OF ELECTRON MICROSCOPY FACILITY


The Department of Biological Sciences is seeking applications for
Director of the Electron Microscope (EM) Facility as an academic staff
appointment. Broad experience with a diversity of biological systems and
EM techniques and Ph.D. in the Biological Sciences required, postdoctoral
experience preferred. Responsibilities include: 1) management of the
Biological Science EM facility, 2) research support for and collaboration
with university faculty, 3) instruction of faculty and students in the use
of EM. An independent funded research program is desirable. The
Biological Sciences Electron Microscopy Facility consists of two
laboratories totaling 2000+ square feet, SEM and TEM scopes and support
equipment.

Applicants should submit a curriculum vitae, statement of professional
interests, and three letters of reference to:

Chairperson, EM Director Search Committee
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Wisconsin--Milwaukee
P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201.

The deadline for receipt of applications is February 16,1996.

Additional information about the Biological Sciences Department is
available at http:\www.uwm.edu\Dept\Biology\. The University of
Wisconsin-Milwaukee is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.
Women and minority scientists are encouraged to apply for these positions.
The names of those nominees and applicants who have notrequested that
their identities be withheld and the names of finalists will be released
upon request.







From: bozzola-at-siu.edu (John. J. Bozzola)
Date: Tue, 16 Jan 1996 14:07:16 -0600
Subject: Re: cataracts

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MSA published an updated verion of the Safety Handbook edited by Joe
Mascorro and Vernon Barber in 1994. It is available from San Francisco
Press, Inc. Box 426800, CA 94142-6800. I believe it costs $17.00.

In our central facility, all of our electron microscopes are evaluated by
radiological professionals annually (as mandated by state law) who use
extremely sensitive detection devices. They have never detected x-rays
above background levels. Nonetheless, best to be safe and cautious.


} } On 15 Jan 1996 Hans Brinkies wrote:
} }
} } } Is there any evidence available that the extensive use of TEM's
} } } and/or SEM's may lead to the development of cataracts ?
} } }
} } }
} } } Hans Brinkies
} }
} } This is an interesting point. Some time ago someone asked a similar
} } question but I cannot remember seeing any discussion on the issue. Does
} } anyone know about the long term health effects of EM usage? Have any studies
} } been done on any aspect of this (eyesight, radiation exposure, anything else
} } I haven't thought of)?
} }
} } Ian MacLaren,
}
}
} EMSA (now MSA) published a "Handbook of X-ray safety for Electron
} Microscopists" by D.F} Parsons, V.A. Phillips, and J.S. Lally in 1973. Its
} a short pamphlet and I don't know if it is still available. A few points
} from the handbook:
}
} In regards to the need to perform an annual survey for x-ray leaks: "It
} should be noted that about 50% of those monitoring their microscopes found
} detectable leaks once or more". They reccomend film badges but I have
} never been at an institution that did this for their EM people.
}
} Under the Health Checks chapter: "An annual eye exam is desirable. Vision
} defects should be recorded and the lenses checked for opacities
} (cataracts)". No references or data supporting this statement are given.

#############################################################################
John J. Bozzola, Director
Center for Electron Microscopy
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale, IL 62901-4402
U.S.A.
Phone: 618-453-3730
Fax: 618-453-2665
Email: bozzola-at-siu.edu
Web: http://www.siu.edu/departments/shops/cem.html
#############################################################################






From: Ted Boden -at-MR.SEMATECH.Org
Date: Thu, 11 Jan 1996 15:03:00 CST
Subject: here it is...

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MR-Received: by mta GATEV3; Relayed; Tue, 16 Jan 1996 11:37:37 -0600
Alternate-recipient: prohibited
Disclose-recipients: prohibited
Murphy-at-ms.sjdccd.cc.ca.us, MikeTSR-at-TXNetcom.Com
Cc: Philippe Maillot {Philippe.Maillot-at-SEMATECH.Org} ,
Carolyn Gondran {Carolyn.Gondran-at-SEMATECH.Org}
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--Boundary (ID kU5thsFKm6o0UW844dcHaQ)
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SEMATECH
2706 Montopolis Drive
Austin TX 78741


JOB TITLE: TEM Lab Technician
REQ. #: SHIFT: 21601046A/Shift 1
PAY RANGE: Tech 5-6
FLSA: Non-Exempt
DEPT. NAME: Internal Technical Support
MANAGER: Carolyn Gondran.
Tel. 512 356 3149


JOB DESCRIPTION:
Sample preparation of semiconductor materials and devices, both
plan view and cross-section, for TEM. Develop improved methods of
sample preparation. TEM operation to facilitate this development
will be encouraged. Photographic processing and filing of TEM
negatives and prints. Maintenance of sample preparation and dark
room equipment and supplies


JOB REQUIREMENTS:
2+ years experience in TEM sample preparation and photographic
processing required. Familiarity with tripod, dimpling and FIB
techniques desired. This position requires strong organizational
skills, and in particular, the ability to work on multiple tasks
while maintaining precise records and tracking procedure.
Experience in microelectronics industry a plus.

Associate degree in physics, chemistry or related subject.

--Boundary (ID kU5thsFKm6o0UW844dcHaQ)--




From: jmkrupp-at-cats.ucsc.edu (Jon Krupp)
Date: Tue, 16 Jan 1996 16:18:12 -0800
Subject: CD-R Drives

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Message-Id: {199601170016.QAA21578-at-cats.ucsc.edu}
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Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Hi again,

We are considering establishing an image archiving proceedure based on
CD's. In addition the CD burner would be used by an electronic publishing
class for prototype CD's.

The choices in hardware seem to have increased a lot recently and prices
have really fallen.

If you have any sage advice concerning general guidelines or specific
choices, I would like to hear from you.

Thanks,

Jonathan Krupp
Microscopy and Imaging Lab
University of California
Santa Cruz, CA 95064
(408) 459-2477
jmkrupp-at-cats.ucsc.edu






From: Eric A. Rosen :      earosen-at-indirect.com
Date: Tue, 16 Jan 1996 11:11:13 +0000
Subject: Forrest Gump Humor ;o)

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Message-Id: {199601161813.LAA18691-at-ns2.indirect.com}
Comments: Authenticated sender is {earosen-at-indirect.com}

To the list Here is something else for you to peruse through if you
are not busy and are interested in a laugh

How do you like this?? A friend mailed it to me. Its long.



FORREST in EVERYONE'S LIFE

Forrest Gump Life is like a Box of chocolates...
Forrest Dahmer People are like a box of chocolate, YUM!
Forrest Simpson Mmmmm, choolate
Forrest the Hun Chocolate all mine!
Forrest Simmons Chocolate is bad!, EXERCISE EXERCISE!
Forrest Rivera People who like Chocolate..Next on 'Forrest'
Forrest Jackson Little kids like my box of chocolates
Forrest Hefner Keep the chocolate, lose the box.
Forrest Shakespeare Chocolate, or no chocolate that's the question
Forrest Of Borg All chocolates must be assimilated
Forrest Presley Hunk a hunk of milk chocolate
Forrest Zen I am one with the chocolate
Forrest McClain I used to be a box of Chocolates
Forrest Ventura Chocolates..Alll-Riighty then...
Forrest Lauper People just wanna have chocolate
Forrest Turner What's chocolate gotta do, gotta do with it?
DR.Forrest McCoy Dammit jim, I'm a Dr., not a box of chocolate
Forrest Spock Logically speaking, we are all chocolate
Forrest Scotty The box, she's breaking apart Capt'n
Forrest Christ Let he without sin, eat the first chocolate
Forrest Rooney Why is it, that we are all chocolates?
Forrest Butler Frankly Scarlett, I don't like chocolate
Forrest O'Hara Tommorrow, is another box of chocolates.
Forrest Lee Fight with your inner chocolate
Forrest Clinton I didn't inhale the cream centers
Forrest Doo Roinks Raggy, Rocolates!
Forrest Pig Life is a box of chok-choa-che..candy
Forrest Marx That's the weirdest box of chocolates I've
ever seen....
Forrest Nicholson You want chocolate, you can't handle chocolate
Forrest Copperfield Poof, the chocolates are gone!
Forrest X We didn't land in the box of chocolate
The box of chocolate landed on us!
Forrest Hitler White Chocolates only!
Forrest the Frog Someday we'll find it,
The chocolate connections
The plain ones,
The cream filled....and me...
Forrest Eastwood I know what your thinking..
Did he eat five chocolates, or did he eat six
Well let me ask you...
Do you feel hungry PUNK?..well...DO YOU?
Forrest Barney I'm cream filled, your with nuts.
We're a box of chocoluts
Forrest Adam and Eve ADAM=Chocolates are forbidden
EVE=Just eat one....
Forrest Moses I command the chocolates to seperate!
Forrest Noah 2 creams, 2 nuts, 2 coconuts, 2 peanut butter
Forrest Ali I am the chocolate boxer!
Forrest on phonics Lief es lyk a boks uv chakolets
Forrest PsychicLine Yes, I knew you were a chocolate
1-900-FORREST oooh, can I suck your cream filled chocolates?
Forrest DatingGame Bacholer number two...
if I was a piece of chocolate..
What would you fill me with?
Forrest Alimony The Box is mine!
Forrest Adultry You just can't have just one chocolate.
The Forrest plague Ewww..these Chocolates are bad
Chief Justice Forrest Thomas I never touched her milk-duds!
Forrest Andrews The Hills are alive..like a box of chocolates
Forrest Allen Chocolate, huroof..
Forrest Costello Whose eating chocolates?
Forrest Abbot No, who is not eating chocolate
Forrest Vader Luke, I am your chocolate
Forrest Yoda There is a dark chocolate, and a light
chocolate..
Forrest Butthead Uh...life is like a box of um..chocolates
Forrest Beavis Heh heh, you said Box
Forrest Frued Is life really a box of chocolate..
or is it your mother you want?
Forrest SkeeLo I wish I had a box of Chocolates
Forrest Trebeck The answer:This is like a box of Chocolate
The Question:What is Life...
Forrest Hillary Hey Bill...those are my Chocolates!
Forrest Fudd Wife is wike a box uv chocowates
Forrest Calvin It's not a box of chocolates,
It's a transmorfgorizing ray!!
Forrest Tannen Chocolates...McFly
Dr. Forrest Ruth Chocolate is nice, but sex is better!
The Forrest Zone There is another dimension,
beyond that which is known to man,
It's a dimension of cream-filled bon-bons,
Or nutty carmel turtles,
and it lies in the white cardboard box,
in the pit of my lap.
It is a candy coated center of comparision,
And it is a place we call, The Forrest Zone.
Forrest Latin ifela sia a oxba foa hocolatesa
Forrest Lincoln Forescore and several chocolates ago,
Forrest Satan Life is a box of melted chocolates (Sign)
Forrest Churchlady Chocolates...well, isn't that special
Forrest Wayne Sh-yeah..and life is like a box of chocolates
as if...
Forrest Garth Hey mister chocolate man..whose trying to kill
you?...I don't know but her better not...
Forrest Bond Lifes a box of exploding chocolate
Forrest Smurf Smurf is a smurf of smurfs
Forrest '95 The box is the same,
The chocolates are upgraded....
Forrest Lennon Imagine there's no chocolate.
Forrest Hall Will you take the Box of Chocolates...
or what's behind CURTAIN NUMBER TWO?
Forrest Press your Luck Box of Chocolates! No Whammies...STOP!
Forrest of Fortune LIFE I_ LIKE _ __X _F CH_C_L_TE_
Forrest Popeye I yam a box of Chocolets...eg eg eg eg
Forrest Ice If you got a chocolate,
Yo I'll box it.
Check out my life,
As my D.J Rocks it!
Forrest Ross Life is a happy little box of chocolates
Forrest Bill and Ted Dude, Life's totally a box of Chocolate!
---EXCELLENT!----
___AIR GUITARS TRIUMPHANTLY_____
Forrest Fife This Box of Chocolates is a lethal weapons!
Forrest Stooges Look Chocolates....nyuk nyuk nyuk
Scram Wise guy **BOink**
Leave him ALone Moe!
Oh you want in on it too...**SLAP**/CRASH/
Forrest Reagan Life is a box of um.....
Forrest Bush This will not be another Box of Chocolates!
Forrest Limbaugh Life may be a box of Chocolates...
But the Democrats are all nuts...
Forrest COPS on location Bon bons-bon bons
whatcha going to do,
whatcha gonna do, when someone eats you!
Forrest Fued Life is like a?
Box of Chocolates...
Oh Good ANswer..Good Answer!
Box of chocolates...SURVEY SAYS?
XX|BOX OF CHOCOLATES|XX=} 54
Forrest Native Americans These chocolates are moving to a smaller box.




From: William R Oliver :      oliver-at-ipas4.afip.mil
Date: Tue, 16 Jan 1996 14:31:43 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Image file conversion

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It depends on what you have and what you want. If you have a
flat line drawing in AutoCAD and just want to get it in a form
you can print out, then you just need to choose Export from the
File menu (in R13 for Windows) and export it as an EPS (encapsulated
Postscript) file. This will print directly on most Postscript printers.
You can also save it as a BMP file.

If you have a flat line drawing in a DXF file, then you will need to
convert it from a geometry file (which is what DXF is) to an image. You
can do this by loading it into AutoCAD and then exporting it as above, you
can use a file conversion program such as HiJaak Pro, or you can use one
of the DXF utilities at the Viewpoint/Avalon site I mentioned before.

If you are in AutoCAD, have a 3D object, and want to save a rendering,
then you have a couple more options. You can render in AutoCAD, either
with the native renderer or with RenderMan (I can't remember whether or
not R13 comes with RenderMan bundled or not), and save it as a BMP or EPS.
You can export the geometry file into another geometry format, load that
file into a different renderer, render there, and save the file as an
image. I, for instance, do much of my modeling in AutoCAD, and render
using 3D Studio or Lightwave 3D. There are a number of fairly good public
domain renderers as well; the best known among the folk I travel with is
POV.

If you have a geometry saved as a DXF file and want a rendered image,
remember that DXF is a *geometry* not *image* file. While, for line
drawings, many convertors will just do a simple projection (which is how
HiJaak Pro and others work), if you really want an image with shaded
graphics, you will have to make a rendering and save the image as an image
from your renderer.


On Tue, 16 Jan 1996, Alfred Kracher wrote:

} Sorry for bugging once again all those helpful people who have given advice
} on the conversion of image file formats. I specifically have a question
} about AUTOCAD drawings. If anyone knows how to convert these to more common
} image files, please get in touch with me directly.
} Thanks, Alfred
}
} Alfred Kracher
} akracher-at-iastate.edu
} http://www.public.iastate.edu/~akracher
}
}
}




From: EDWARDS-at-ssmd.mrl.dsto.defence.gov.au (Edwards, Darren)
Date: 17 Jan 1996 13:01 +0100
Subject: unsubscribe

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Message-Id: {199601170203.MAA05715-at-fang.dsto.defence.gov.au}



Unsubscribe please
==========================================================
_--_|\ D.P. Edwards [Darren.Edwards-at-dsto.defence.gov.au]
/ DSTO Ship Structures and Materials Division
\_.--._/ Defence Science & Technology Organisation
v
===========================================================









From: Brett W. Cockman :      bcockman-at-uniwa.uwa.edu.au
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 12:11:02 +0700 (WAST)
Subject: Glass for Ralph knives

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X-NUPop-Charset: English

Has anybody using Ralph knives to cut resin sections, used ultramicrotome
-quality glass for making their knives? A sales person has tried to convince
me that using this quality of glass 'should' provide good knives as opposed
to 'histology - grade' glass. I pose this dilemma as I have found that
'ultramicrotome - grade' glass is locally cheaper.
Does anyone on the list have an opinion and/or advice as to a good source of
reliable glass for the Ralph knives.
Regards,

Brett Cockman




From: ENERGY BEAM SCIENCES, INC :      75767.640-at-CompuServe.COM
Date: 17 Jan 96 08:17:25 EST
Subject: Re: Glass for Ralph knives

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Brett-
I guess I qualify as a salesperson, since we manufacture Ralph Knife Makers, and
also sell glass for them. However, I am a professional manager, not a salesman,
and I am interested primarily in selling equipment, not consumables, and it is
important to me that the equipment we sell works properly.
With that "introduction," let me give you my opinion. "Ultramicrotome glass"
and "histology glass" are labels that any vendor can put on any glass- that is,
there are no rules governing how these terms are applied. According to
conventional wisdom, "ultramicrotome glass" should be the highest quality, since
cryoultramicrotomes are much more sensitive to glass quality than are the rotary
microtomes used in histology. In our catalog, the ultramicrotome glass is of
higher quality than the histology glass, although both begin life as "float
glass" and then are cut for use in microscopy.
That all being said, there can be tremendous quality differences between glass
obtained from different sources.If you are concerened, I would recommend that
you ask your salesperson for a sample piece of glass.
Steven Slap, Vice-President
Energy Beam Sciences, Inc.





From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 10:20:52 -0600
Subject: Re: disregard Forrest Gump Humor ;o)

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Message-Id: {199601171524.JAA19206-at-BCM.TMC.EDU}
X-Sender: joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
X-Mailer: Windows Eudora Version 2.1.1
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

At 01:36 PM 1/16/96 +0000, you wrote:
} Disregard the forrest gump humor I was supposed to send it to a
} single person and not to the whole group} } }
}
} Cheers ;o) :o) %o)
} Eric
}
************************
Oh, sure we're gonna disregard it now!





From: Corvos-at-aol.com
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 11:55:08 -0500
Subject: Re: disregard Forrest Gump Humor ;o)

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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In a message dated 96-01-17 11:51:32 EST, you write: Yea... It is too
late.. It is now around the world with your name on it......

Walter Protheroe
E-MAC

} microscopy-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com






From: Ruth Hughes :      RMH-at-CIDMV1.WUSTL.EDU
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 11:19:36 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: Macintosh-based software

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Hello,
I was wondering if anyone is using a Macintosh-based software for
image aquisition and manipulation that they are happy with? I have been
using Metamorph (Love it!) but now need something for the Mac.
Thanks in advance.

Ruth Hughes
Central Institute for the Deaf
818 S. Euclid
St. Louis, MO 63110
e-mail RMH-at-CIDMV1.WUSTL.EDU





From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 13:48:43 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Amorphous Ge grids

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Does anyone have a source for amorphous Ge grids at { { $100's?
If not, does anyone know a good source for Ge--not necessarily the ultra-
pure stuff? TIA.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: Richard Lee :      richard_lee-at-QMGATE.ANL.GOV
Date: 17 Jan 1996 13:23:28 -0600
Subject: Used stereo/scope

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Message-ID: {n1390237174.84641-at-qmgate.anl.gov}

1/17/96
1:20 PM
Used stereo/scope

A veterinarian friend of mine has a son who wants a good stereomicroscope for
examining insects. Any offers would be appreciated under $200, especially if
it is a zoom model.





From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 11:11:42 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: cataracts

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Dear Thomas,
}
} EMSA (now MSA) published a "Handbook of X-ray safety for Electron
} Microscopists" by D.F} Parsons, V.A. Phillips, and J.S. Lally in 1973. Its
} a short pamphlet and I don't know if it is still available.

It was still available about a year ago from San Francisco Press.

} A few points
} from the handbook:
}
} In regards to the need to perform an annual survey for x-ray leaks: "It
} should be noted that about 50% of those monitoring their microscopes found
} detectable leaks once or more". They reccomend film badges but I have
} never been at an institution that did this for their EM people.

We wear them routinely at the HVEM, and our users carry dosimeters
on themselves in the scope room. We have had only one incident where } ~1mr
was measured, and that was apparently not from the scope.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: Corvos-at-aol.com
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 11:52:09 -0500
Subject: Re: equipment surveys

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All,

The amount of radiation exposure from Probes, SEMs and all, is minimum, but
it still has to be monitored by certified individuals. Most states consider
the equipment as minimumal threat devices and do not require any testing...

You must be careful, in some states like Texas and Colorado, you must be a
RSO (radiation safety officer) for that specific piece of equipment (i.e.
Cameca, JEOL, ARL, ISI, .....) to do a survey or monitor the equipment. You
must have a minimum of 5 years in repair and calibration and take a course in
radiation safety and in certain cases you must take a test.

Some other states like California, they would like you to also have
Hazwoper/Hazmat certification also, but is not required by law. It is incase
their is a lawsuit. You could be taken to the cleaners without it.

Walter Protheroe
E-MAC




From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 14:12:41 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Forrest Gump Humor ;o)

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After coming back to work and seeing this on my email, it was a welcome
treat. There were bats in the belfry from staying in the house after all
the snow we had here in Baltimore. Yes, I do know there are people out there
who will get more snow in one month than we usually get all winter. So,
thanks for your mistake.

Peace,

Phil Rutledge 8-{)





From: Nancy Desmond :      nld-at-avery.med.virginia.edu
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 14:01:15 -0500
Subject: video signal averagers

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We are thinking about purchasing a Dage DSP-2000 processor for
image processing of light microscopic video images. Several
features seem useful for our images: averaging (particularly
useful), integration, and gating. It's about $6,000, and I'd
like to look at similar signal averagers for video before
ordering the Dage product. Any suggestions from readers of this
list? Thanks for your help.

--
Nancy L Desmond, Ph.D. nld-at-virginia.edu
Department of Neurosurgery 804.924.5607 (voice) 804.982.3829 (fax)
University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Box 420
Charlottesville, VA 22908




From: slakmon-at-soquelec.com (SOQUELEC Ltd.)
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 18:34:00 -0500
Subject: suscription

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Message-Id: {199601171649.RAA07123-at-gate.sbbio.be}

subscribe slakmon-at-soquelec.com
________________________________________________________________

Jean-Pierre Slakmon, Eng. Tel: (514) 482-6427
SOQUELEC Ltd. Fax: (514) 482-1929
5757 Cavendish Blvd., Suite 101
Montreal, Quebec e-mail: slakmon-at-soquelec.com
H4W 2W8, Canada http://www.cam.org/~telecom/
________________________________________________________________





From: Michael Shaffer :      mshaf-at-darkwing.uoregon.edu
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 15:25:45 -0800
Subject: EPMA standards' database standard

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I'm just about to put a work study student on a project to digitize our
standards' library. Once digitized, my libray might then be put on the web
(with other libraries ???? ) But, before I do I can well imagine at least a
hundred different formats for the database entry. Has this been done
before?? Can anyone suggest the most useful format for searching the database??

cheers, shaf
{\/} /\ {\/} /\ {\/} /\ {\/} cognito, ergo zZOooOM {\/} /\ {\/} /\ {\/} /\ {\/}
Michael Shaffer, R.A. - University of Oregon Electron Probe Facility
mshaf-at-oregon.uoregon.edu -or- mshaf-at-darkwing.uoregon.edu
http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~mshaf/epmahome/





From: jfmjfm-at-umich.edu (John F. Mansfield)
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 04:32:29 -0400
Subject: Re: disregard Forrest Gump Humor ;o) erroneous postings

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X-Sender: jfmjfm-at-srvr5.engin.umich.edu
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To those of you who are replying to people complaining about a post.
PLEASE PLEASE try and remember to post the reply to the sender and not to
the list.
Some mailers are dumb and assume the list IS the sender, but others are
not. Please check the configuration of your email software.

Many thanks.


John Mansfield
North Campus Electron Microbeam Analysis Laboratory
413 SRB, University of Michigan
2455 Hayward, Ann Arbor MI 48109-2143
Phone: (313)936-3352 FAX (313)936-3352
jfmjfm-at-engin.umich.edu, John.F.Mansfield-at-umich.edu
or jfmjfm-at-umich.edu they all reach me!
URL: http://wwwpersonal.engin.umich.edu/~jfmjfm/jfmjfm.html






From: waheeschen-at-dow.com (Bill Heeschen (517)636-4005 PMRC/ASL)
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 14:35:26 -0500
Subject: re: Macintosh-based software

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Message-Id: {199601171936.AA14297-at-na3.dow.com}

Ruth:

The best place to start for Macintosh imaging is NIH Image. It is public
domain software from NIH and is available by anonymous FTP from:

zippy.nimh.nih.gov

There is a WWW home page, as well:

http://rsb.info.nih.gov/nih-image/

It can inherently acquire images via frame grabbers (NTSC,PAL) as well as a
host of other video-type inputs if you have the appropriate Photoshop plug-
in modules (PIM). There are also SEM/EDS interfaces (4pi analysis) for
digital acquistion using PIMs. It is able to open TIFF and PICT files
directly, any 8- or 16-bit bitmap file and "many" other formats through
import PIMs. A wide range of spatial and intensity information extraction
is available as well as image processing functions. The software is
inherently very useful and becomes extremely useful with the built-in
Pascal-like macro language, PIMs and source level programming (the Pascal
source code is public domain, as well). The manual includes a fairly
comprehensive list of commercial imaging products as well. Best of all,
getting up and running is very straightforward, particularly for someone
who has already been using imaging software. Even better than best of all
is the worldwide support network available through the NIH Image listserver.

My personal rule-of-thumb commercial value of the software would be in the
$1000 to $2000 price range, based on the feature set of NIH Image and the
comparable feature set for commercial software (Mac,Wintel, etc).

Have fun.

Bill
==========================
Bill Heeschen/Analyt. Sci.- Mat. Char. -----
1897-F Building / The Dow Chemical Co. --- ---
Midland, MI 48667 U.S.A. --- D O W ---
phone: (517)636-4005 fax: (517)636-5453 --- ---
Email: waheeschen-at-dow.com -----
========================== R




From: wong-at-msg.ucsf.edu (Mei Lie Wong)
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 16:13:09 -0800
Subject: Position available

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I received this job description from someone who is not on the net. If any
one is interested all the pertinent facts are listed below.

Position description

A Research Assistant position is available in a research laboratory in the
Gerontology Division at the VA Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA. Studies
carried out in this laboratory focus on cell biology questions relating to
lipid pathways in cells and on age-related changes in cells. The position
will be available in April or May of 1996, and some overlap with the
retiring research assistant is desired. The position requires someone with
well grounded electron microscope (EM) skills with experience and an
interest in carrying out related morphological techniques including
immunocytochemistry (at the light microscope level and EM level using
cryoultramicrotomy), fluorescence microscopy, and in situ hybridization
methodology. Persons applying for this job must also have basic
biochemical skills, be adept at problem solving, flexible in working on
several projects simultaneously, and willing to learn new techniques and
use new equipment when necessary.

Employment will be through the Palo Alto Institute for Research and
Education (PRAIRIE). Salary and hours are negotiable and dependent on
training and experience. Please send resumes to Eve Reaven, PhD, VA
Medical Center, (GRECC, 182B), 3801 Miranda Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.
(FAX = (415) 855-9437; telephone = (415) 493-5000 x64144)

Mei Lie Wong
Department of Biochemistry
HHMI-UCSF
Ph. 415-476-4441 Fax 415-476-1902
email wong-at-msg.ucsf.edu






From: Donald P Robertson :      donald-at-csd.uwm.edu
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 21:44:27 -0600 (CST)
Subject: subscribe

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Subscribe microscopy Donald P. Robertson {donald-at-csd.uwm.edu}




From: carim-at-ems.psu.edu (Altaf H. Carim)
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 17:22:24 -0500 (EST)
Subject: TEM - staff position

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Hello all -

If you have questions about the opening described below, contact me
by e-mail, but all application letters and resumes should be sent as
hardcopy to be considered. Note that the position involves physical
sciences and that we do not intend to consider applicants with a biological
sciences background.

--------------------------------------

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY


The Materials Characterization Laboratory at Penn State is seeking
candidates for a staff position in transmission electron microscopy. The
successful applicant will take direct responsibility for use and support of
the laboratory's 200 kV field-emission instrument, which is equipped with
EDS and PEELS detectors and a SS-CCD camera for digital acquisition. The
person selected will be expected to work with users from a variety of
disciplines on a wide range of materials problems. In addition, candidates
should be prepared to give advice on and assistance with sample
preparation, technique selection, and analysis of images, diffraction
patterns, and spectra. The person hired will also be able to pursue
collaborative or independent research as other duties allow.

Requirements include a B.S. and preferably an M.S. in Materials Science or
a related field, and additional experience beyond the degree is preferred.
The position is not intended to be a postdoctoral appointment, although
this may be considered if other suitable candidates are not found.
Candidates should have extensive experience with transmission electron
microscopy and must be skilled in one or more of the following areas:
high-resolution imaging and simulation, quantitative EDS, PEELS, electron
holography, field-emission TEM operation.

The position will be filled initially on a two-year appointment, but it is
intended that the position will be made permanent if performance is
satisfactory. Respond to Prof. A. H. Carim, 118 Steidle Building, The
Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802.


------------------------------------------------------------------------
Prof. Altaf H. Carim tel.: (814) 863-4296
Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering fax: (814) 865-0016
118 Steidle Building e-mail: carim-at-ems.psu.edu
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802
------------------------------------------------------------------------






From: mager-at-unixg.ubc.ca (Mary Mager)
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 21:45:51 -0800
Subject: Re: cataracts

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Dear All,
As I understand it, the concern over cataracts in an EM lab was from the UV
radiation from the evaporator, not X-rays from the EMs. The Safety in the
EM Handbook has a discussion of various eye hazards from lasers and UV
sources, but we always use a pair of welders goggles when evaporating
carbon, since the arc is dangerous to the eyes, as is a welder's arc. A few
years ago I tested my sputter coater for UV light while it was operating
and was dismayed at how much UV was coming out of the thick glass. I advise
people not to stare intently at their samples while they are coating.

A few months ago several people on the Listserver tried to see if their
physical ailments were common to other microscopists, problems such as
shoulder joint and neck pains. There were many different ailments, but no
common threads. We're all just getting older, I guess.
Hope this helps,
Mary

Mary Mager
Electron Microscopist
Metals and Materials Eng, UBC
309 - 6350 Stores Rd.
Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4
CANADA
tel: 604-822-5648, fax: 604-822-3619
email: mager-at-unixg.ubc.ca






From: jlibert-at-cpcug.org (John M. Libert)
Date: Thu, 18 Jan 1996 07:35:43 -0500
Subject: Re: Macintosh-based software

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Yes. An excellent package for color image acquisition and analysis for the
Macintosh is made by Signal Analytics. I can send you a demo disk and
literature if you are interested. I represent Signal as well as several
other software companies.

John Libert

At 11:19 AM 1/17/96 -0500, Ruth Hughes wrote:
} Hello,
} I was wondering if anyone is using a Macintosh-based software for
} image aquisition and manipulation that they are happy with? I have been
} using Metamorph (Love it!) but now need something for the Mac.
} Thanks in advance.
}
} Ruth Hughes
} Central Institute for the Deaf
} 818 S. Euclid
} St. Louis, MO 63110
} e-mail RMH-at-CIDMV1.WUSTL.EDU
}
}
}





From: davilla-at-4pi.com (Scott D. Davilla)
Date: Thu, 18 Jan 1996 07:48:03 -0600
Subject: To 4pi product users

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X-Sender: davilla-at-mail.4pi.com
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4pi Analysis, Inc. now has direct internet access.

For information and access see:

Web Server: http://www.4pi.com/

FTP Server: ftp.4pi.com (for software upgrades)

email: eieio-at-4pi.com (for general information)
support-at-4pi.com (for technical support)
sales-at-4pi.com (for sales information)

The old email address ( go4pi-at-applelink.apple.com) is no longer valid.

Scott D. Davilla Phone: 919 489-1757 (tel)
4pi Analysis, Inc. Fax: 919 489-1487 (fax)
3500 Westgate Drive, Suite 403 email: davilla-at-4pi.com
Durham, North Carolina 27707-2534







From: waheeschen-at-dow.com (Bill Heeschen (517)636-4005 PMRC/ASL)
Date: Thu, 18 Jan 1996 09:53:37 -0500
Subject: Re: video signal averagers

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Message-Id: {199601181453.AA28403-at-na3.dow.com}

Nancy:

If you are willing to use a computer as part of your video averaging
scheme, there are a number of boards which will do video-rate signal
averaging (e.g., Scion 301-695-7870, D1887-at-applelink.apple.com for Mac and
probably Wintel "soon"; Matrox 800-804-6243, imaginginfo-at-matrox.com for
Wintel). You could also consider on-chip integration, but that is camera
specific.


Bill
==========================
Bill Heeschen/Analyt. Sci.- Mat. Char. -----
1897-F Building / The Dow Chemical Co. --- ---
Midland, MI 48667 U.S.A. --- D O W ---
phone: (517)636-4005 fax: (517)636-5453 --- ---
Email: waheeschen-at-dow.com -----
========================== R




From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Thu, 18 Jan 1996 10:22:30 -0600
Subject: Forrest Gump Humor

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Message-Id: {199601181525.JAA20754-at-BCM.TMC.EDU}
X-Sender: joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
X-Mailer: Windows Eudora Version 2.1.1
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

RE: Rosen's "mistake"

Let's lighten up on the guy. A little humor...OK, long humor...is OK.

Joiner





From: James R. Stets :      stetsjr-at-ttown.apci.com
Date: Thu, 18 Jan 1996 10:42:52 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Registration and Inspection of EM's

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Regarding the thread about radiation safety and electron microscopes:

Don't assume that your state doesn't require some type of registration and
periodic inspection of your electron microscope for radiation safety. It
could cost you a hefty fine from the government agency in your state
responsible for such matters if you don't register your instruments and
have a program in place to assure compliance with the regulations.

The instrument manufacturers generally don't mention anything about the
requirements to register their instruments when you purchase and install
them. It's your responsibility to find out what your state requires.

Hope this saves somebody some headaches and some money.

Jim Stets
Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
Allentown, PA
stetsjr-at-ttown.apci.com




From: Pal Baggethun :      MCLPALB-at-mh1.mcc.ac.uk
Date: Thu, 18 Jan 1996 20:08:13 GMT
Subject: TEM - SAD beam intensities

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TEM - SAD: Intensities of scattered beams

By measuring the intensity distribution around a Debye - ring over a
range of goniometer tilt positions I can produce a partial pole figure
of the selected specimen area. The diffracted intensity in a certain
direction is taken as the difference between the reading at the ring
and reading just inside it. The readings can be accurate to about 2
(azimuth angle).

Now, as the specimen is tilted through a decided range it becomes
necessary to make some corrections to the measured intensities since
the specimen thickness increase, as do the illuminated volume.
Absorption and extinction changes should be taken into account.

It is possible to estimate such a correction by some simple
experiments. However, what I would like to know is if there exist any
software that can calculate the needed corrections. If so, is this
calculation/software available free of charge?


Yours sincerely

P. Baggethun
Manchester Materials Science Centre
UMIST




From: philf-at-NEWTON.UMSL.EDU (Philip Fraundorf)
Date: Thu, 18 Jan 1996 14:28:25 -0600
Subject: Re[2]: some remarkable TEM facts

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Message-ID: {MAPI.Id.0016.00683536202020204437333230303030-at-MAPI.to.RFC822}
Read-Receipt-To: Jean-Louis Beek {ah56-at-solo.pipex.co.za}
Priority: Normal
To: microscopy-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com
MIME-Version: 1.0

Dear Bill,

You replied to:

[snip]
} } Under some illumination conditions there may be no more than 1 beam electron
} } in the column at a time!
} With our HVEM (1.2 MV) and its ~3m column this turns out to be cor-
} rect--especially since we use low-dose conditions for ED work.
Wow! The current of electrons hitting the specimen must be quite low.
How do you estimate it?

[snip]
} What are the predictions for hollow-cone illumination where we know
} the magnitude of the transverse momentum, but not its direction?
I haven't thought about it yet, but I think hollow-cone illumination was
being used by Dr. Murray Gibson's group at U. of I. (Champaign-Urbana) to
vary the coherence widths (and lengths?) of their electrons. Check with them.

I should add for listserver readers as well, that I am interested in
developing these informal observations on fast, lonely, fat and long
electrons a bit further, and of course to add new ones as well. Feedback is
invited! Some of you may see a bit more of this on paper in days ahead, but
in the meantime we're sponsoring a (hopefully ever-improving) version of the
list through our "relativity rap" web page at
{http://newton.umsl.edu/~run/rap.html} .

Cheers. /philf :)


//\/\/\/\---}
// Phil Fraundorf Physics & Astronomy/CME (314)5165044 philf-at-newton.umsl.edu
\\ B503 U.Missouri-SL St.Louis MO 63121 USA http://newton.umsl.edu/~philf
\\/\/\/\/\/\/\/---}





From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Thu, 18 Jan 1996 16:26:54 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Ge grids

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} we make diamond grids. We could make amorphous Ge grids if you want.
} What do you want them for? Is there a general demand for these grids?
}
Dear Richard,
I want the grid for measuring spherical aberration from the zeros of
the contrast transfer function by Krivanek's method. I saw this described
in Ultramicroscopy 38 (1991) 225-233--which was more easily obtained than
Krivanek's paper in Optik 45 (1976) 97ff. There may be some general demand
for these grids, but I cannot tell you how much.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: Pal Baggethun :      MCLPALB-at-mh1.mcc.ac.uk
Date: Thu, 18 Jan 1996 22:04:36 GMT
Subject: TEM - SAD beam intensities

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html


TEM - SAD: Intensities of scattered beams

By measuring the intensity distribution around a Debye - ring over a
range of goniometer tilt positions I can produce a partial pole
figure
of the selected specimen area. The diffracted intensity in a certain
direction is taken as the difference between the reading at the ring
and reading just inside it. The readings can be accurate to about 2
(azimuth angle).

Now, as the specimen is tilted through a decided range it becomes
necessary to make some corrections to the measured intensities since
the specimen thickness increase, as do the illuminated volume.
Absorption and extinction changes should be taken into account.

It is possible to estimate such a correction by some simple
experiments. However, what I would like to know is if there exist any
software that can calculate the needed corrections. Is it possible by
theoretical means to evaluate this quantitatively?



Yours sincerely

Paul Baggethun
Manchester Materials Science Centre
UMIST




From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Thu, 18 Jan 1996 16:39:51 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Re[2]: some remarkable TEM facts

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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} [snip]
} } } Under some illumination conditions there may be no more than 1 beam electron
} } } in the column at a time!
} } With our HVEM (1.2 MV) and its ~3m column this turns out to be cor-
} } rect--especially since we use low-dose conditions for ED work.
} Wow! The current of electrons hitting the specimen must be quite low.
} How do you estimate it?
}
Dear Philip,
For the 100 micrometer C2 aperture, we get ~10^-11 amps, for the 30
micrometer C2 aperture (which is better because the spot at crossover is
~350 nm--the size of the P1 aperture) the current is too low to show up on
the screen current meter or the second Faraday cage. We made a high-precision
Faraday cage which goes on the bottom of the column, and we measure the beam
current with an electrometer.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: t.bostrom-at-qut.edu.au (Thor Bostrom)
Date: Fri, 19 Jan 1996 18:06:54 +1000
Subject: Re: Macintosh-based software

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About Macintosh-based software for image capture and manipulation --
We use the Prism image analysis & measurement package (Analytical Vision,
Raleigh NC) together with a RasterOps graphics display & video image capture
board on our Macintosh Quadra. We acquire color images with Adobe Photoshop.
Works well and yes we're happy with it.
(Usual disclaimer...)

Thor Bostrom

At 11:19 AM 1/17/96 -0500, Ruth Hughes wrote:
} Hello,
} I was wondering if anyone is using a Macintosh-based software for
} image aquisition and manipulation that they are happy with? I have been
} using Metamorph (Love it!) but now need something for the Mac.
} Thanks in advance.
}
} Ruth Hughes
} Central Institute for the Deaf
} 818 S. Euclid
} St. Louis, MO 63110
} e-mail RMH-at-CIDMV1.WUSTL.EDU
}
}

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
Dr Thor Bostrom
Analytical EM Facility
Queensland University of Technology (QUT)
GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia
Ph: +61 7 3864-2351 FAX: +61 7 3864-5100
http://www.sci.qut.edu.au/aemf/
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=





From: Arthur Gillman :      ARGIL-at-delphi.com
Date: Fri, 19 Jan 1996 03:02:46 -0500 (EST)
Subject: video signal averagers

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Nancy Desmond asked about signal averagers similar to the Dage DSP-2000.
Our company has been making for many years a box called the OMNEX which
is a stand-alone real time processor in some ways similar to the Dage.

The OMNEX has a lot of features. It can average, and integrate video
frames. Integration comes in 4 flavors including some automatic modes.
A unique feature is that it can control integrating cameras
for long exposure in cases of low light. It can do background subtraction,
dynamic subtraction, psuedocolor. It has a measurement section for
linear measurements, area, path, counting, stopwatch. It has a built-in
clock calender which may be displayed on the screen. It can zoom, too.
4 labels may be put on the screen. The whole thing is mouse controlled
and extremely easy to use. There is even an onscreen help facility.

Very useful: complete digital contrast enhancement including histogram
equalization and 4 custom lookup tables.

A very powerful feature is that it can do matrix operations like sharpening,
gradient, edge detection, etc. Two color overlay is also possible.

It has a section to store 4 images and sequence them like a slide show (but
up to 30 times per second.)

I am sure that there are other features that I am forgetting.

The Dage unit does not do most of these things. It is designed more for
precise control of the video parameters like black level, etc.

The OMNEX costs $5350. It is also sold by Zeiss.

I can send you a brochure if you send along your address.
Please call or Email with any questions.

We also have a very powerful video marking and measuring system called
the XR-2000.

Regards,

Arthur Gillman
Princeton, NJ





From: akracher-at-iastate.edu (Alfred Kracher)
Date: Fri, 19 Jan 1996 08:53:10 -0600
Subject: Radiation Safety

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Further on the subject of radiation safety:

When I took my legally required training for radiation protection a few
decades ago, I learned the (approximate) formula

d.r. = (0.3*(U**2)*I*Z)/r**2

where:

d.r. dose rate in [r/h] (roentgen per hour)
U accelerating voltage in [kV]
I electron beam current in [mA]
Z (mean) atomic number of the target,
r distance from the target in [cm]

Since practically all electrons that come out of the source are accelerated
to U and hit something somewhere inside the instrument, setting I equal to
the emission current (for which there is a meter on most instruments) will
give you an upper limit on the electrons that produce x-rays. Most guns are
designed for emission in the 0.1 A range. What most electrons hit is made
out of stainless steel or brass, although some also hit Pt or W apertures,
so setting Z=40 or 50 should be high enough to overestimate x-ray
production by a bunch. Assuming that it takes, say, 8mm of steel to keep a
small electron beam instrument from imploding under its own vacuum, we can
calculate that under the worst case conditions no measurable x-rays can
escape for "low voltage" work typical of SEMs. Although there are a lot of
x-rays generated, the vacuum enclosure is necessarily a very efficient
shield.

The instrument I work with, an ARL SEMQ microprobe, actually has a
half-inch steel enclosure, and its 30kV power supply cannot be cranked up
high enough to measure x-rays outside the instrument. Since we, too, have a
law requiring annual inspections, we have verified by actual measurements
under different conditions that this is true. To be on the safe side, the
manufacturer has also specified that in the case of modifications no
enclosure parts are to be made from aluminum (shielding efficiency goes
with a high power of Z).

However, the above formula also tells you that the situation quickly
changes if you use higher voltages. X-ray generation goes with the square
of U, and I typically increases as well when the voltage increases, so that
the "net" dose rate increases with something around 2.5 to 3rd power of U,
and the shielding efficiency of metal decreases as the generated x-rays get
more energetic. With 100 or 200 keV instruments, i.e. most TEMs, I would
definitely start to worry about x-ray leakage, and require people to wear
film badges or (perhaps preferably) dosimeter rings.

P.S.: Mid-Iowa temperature minus 9, wind chill index minus 60.


Alfred Kracher
akracher-at-iastate.edu
http://www.public.iastate.edu/~akracher






From: Paul Webster :      Paul.Webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 19 Jan 1996 13:55:43 -0500
Subject: Re: cryomicrotomy

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Message :
I'm interested in suggestions for embedding media for polymeric thin films,
typically automotive coatings, which will be cryomicrotomed in the -60 to -90C
range. Most coatings will originate from a water based system.

I'm also interested in suggestions for cryomicrotomy courses which
would include bulk and embedded polymeric materials (elastomers, coatings,
alloys, and composites).

Thanks for your help.

Question :

How thin do you want the sections to be?

Paul Webster
Center for Cell imaging
Yale School of Medicine
333 Cedar Street
New Haven, CT 06520.





From: slakmon-at-soquelec.com (SOQUELEC Ltd.)
Date: Fri, 19 Jan 1996 14:57:46 -0500
Subject: ETEC SEM's service

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Would anybody know of an individual or service organization on the East
coast that services old ETEC SEM's?

Jean-Pierre Slakmon
Soquelec Limited
Montreal, Canada
________________________________________________________________

Jean-Pierre Slakmon, Eng. Tel: (514) 482-6427
SOQUELEC Ltd. Fax: (514) 482-1929
5757 Cavendish Blvd., Suite 101
Montreal, Quebec e-mail: slakmon-at-soquelec.com
H4W 2W8, Canada http://www.soquelec.com
________________________________________________________________





From: Serita Frey :      serita-at-NREL.ColoState.EDU
Date: Fri, 19 Jan 1996 14:20:59 -0700
Subject: image analysis

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I am interested in using image analysis to count bacteria, measure
fungal hyphal lengths, and estimate bacterial and fungal biovolumes in
soil samples. I am currently trying to use NIH-image for this purpose.
If you are using NIH-image or another software package for this or a
similar purpose, I would be interested in hearing from you. I am just
getting started and have a number of questions.

Thanks,

Serita Frey

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Serita Frey
Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory
Colorado State University
Ft. Collins, CO 80523
------------------------------------------------------------------------




From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Fri, 19 Jan 1996 16:40:28 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Ge grids

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} This may be a naive suggestion but, wouldn't amorphous C work as well?

Dear John,
It's not a naive suggestion; however, since I am applying the
method for a 1.2 MV scope, the contrast is too low with a C film. I'm
prepared for the possibility that even a Ge film might not be quite good
enough. What I will need to do is to take an optical or computer trans-
form of the image and find the zeros of the CTF, so the better the con-
trast, the more accurate the results.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: Bonnie Davis - Kennametal Inc. :      bld_kmt-at-prlc.org
Date: Fri, 19 Jan 1996 14:21:21 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Job Announcement

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January 18, 1996

As part of our action-oriented programs under our Affirmative
Action Plan, this letter serves as notification that we are seeking
minority and female candidates for the following open position, but all
qualified candidates will be considered:

Senior Engineer, Mechanical Properties

- This position will be located at our Corporate Technology Center
in Latrobe, PA, working in Research and Development.

- The Sr. Engineer position requires a Masters degree, with a Ph.D.
preferred, in engineering science or materials related discipline and 2-8
years experience, dependent on the applicants degree, in the study of
structure/property relationships. Effective communication, interactive
and supervisory skills are required to work with other research personnel
and the academic community on both short and long term R&D projects.

- This responsibilities for this position are:

Utilizing TEM (STEM), SEM, EDS, and related instrumentation, provides
microstructural, physical property and mechanical property expertise on
materials including but not limited to powder and sintered, carbide,
cermet, and superhard materials.

Conducts mechanical property testing including tensile, compressive,
fracture toughness, transverse rupture and wear at room and elevated
temperatures.

Liaisons with outside organizations, universities and other laboratories
involved in joint material related research programs.

Investigates and recommends purchase of new analytical instrumentation.

Conducts validation studies of testing procedures using SPC techniques
and recommend solutions to resolve discrepancies.

Documents new and existing testing methods with specific procedures.

Represents Kennametal through technical presentations/publications,
organizational memberships, serving on committees and elected offices.

- Kennametal Inc. offers an excellent relocation and benefits
package and a salary range for this position from $3,920 per month to
$5,880 per month dependent on the candidates qualifications and experience.

All candidates for whom resumes are submitted must acknowledge
their referral source. Resumes should be sent directly to:
Kennametal Inc.
Attn: Dennis B. Harr
Manager, Human Resource Services
P.O. Box 231
Latrobe, PA 15650-0231
(412) 539-5434

Please respond ONLY to the above. DO NOT respond to the originator of
this e-mail message.




From: jlibert-at-cpcug.org (John M. Libert)
Date: Sat, 20 Jan 1996 08:09:12 -0500
Subject: Re: image analysis

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Alternate-Recipient: allowed
Auto-Forwarded: prohibited
Content-Return: allowed
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Conversion: allowed
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Priority: normal
Sensitivity: Company-Confidential
Microscopy ListServer {Microscopy-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com}
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Serita,

Please ask your questions. I would be pleased to try to answer them as would
others on the listserve.

John Libert


At 02:20 PM 1/19/96 -0700, Serita Frey wrote:
}
} I am interested in using image analysis to count bacteria, measure
} fungal hyphal lengths, and estimate bacterial and fungal biovolumes in
} soil samples. I am currently trying to use NIH-image for this purpose.
} If you are using NIH-image or another software package for this or a
} similar purpose, I would be interested in hearing from you. I am just
} getting started and have a number of questions.
}
} Thanks,
}
} Serita Frey
}
} ------------------------------------------------------------------------
} Serita Frey
} Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory
} Colorado State University
} Ft. Collins, CO 80523
} ------------------------------------------------------------------------
}
}





From: Nancy K. R. Smith :      SMITHN-at-UTHSCSA.EDU
Date: Sat, 20 Jan 1996 18:47:26 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: Update, ImageTools for Windows 95

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} Hello ImageTool Users,
}
} First we would like to thank all of you for your patience and suggestions
} for improving ImageTool. The reception for a image analysis and
} processing package for Microsoft Windows has been great. We have
} distributed over 1,000 copies world wide to major research institution
} since our initial release on August 24, 1995.
}
} Extra! Extra! ImageTool NEW RELEASE Verion 1.1
}
} Version 1.1 of ImageTool is presently available from our ftp site
} ftp://maxrad6.uthscsa.edu The new version includes all bugs reported as
} of 12/22/95 and some really nice features. We have developed a complete
} object analysis and classification plug-in. This plug-in provides for
} automated object counting and analysis with over 20 unique measurements.
} These include: area, perimeter, x, y center, feret diameter, roundness,
} compactness, major/minor axis length, slope and endpoints. Also included
} are integrated density, binary and gray centroid. Using Objects
} Classification, objects can be categorized into sub groups based on any
} of the above object measurements.
}
} Also new in version 1.1 is support for the Data Translation DT3155
} High-Accuracy Monochrome PCI Bus Frame Grabber. The driver that is
} shipping presently supports Windows NT and not Windows 95. Data
} Translation will release the Win95 driver for this acquisition board in
} February 1996.
}
} We hope that this new version will help many of you do your research.
} Please keep those suggestions of new features and any bug reports coming.
} Also please send information about how you are using ImageTool in your
} research and what features you would like to see in the next release. We
} hope to have a new release sometime in February.
}
} Thank you again for your support.
}
} S. Brent Dove
} Diagnostic Sciences
} University of Texas
} Health Science Center
} San Antonio, TX USA
} Voice: (210) 567-3333
} Fax: (210) 567-3334
} Email: dove-at-uthscsa.edu
} Web: ddsdx.uthscsa.edu
} ftp: maxrad6.uthscsa.edu
}
}
} ----------
} From: nih-image
} To: Multiple recipients of list
} Subject: Windows version
} Date: Saturday, January 20, 1996 2:36AM
}
} Does anyone know if there is a Windows version of Image, or a program
} similar.
}
} Thanks
}
} Candy
}
}
}





From: shirley.turner-at-nist.gov (Shirley Turner)
Date: Sun, 21 Jan 1996 15:09:10 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Revised deadline for postdoctoral applications at NIST

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Due to the government furlough, the deadline for submitting applications to
NIST for postdoctoral positions has been revised as shown below.


POSTDOCTORAL POSITIONS AT NIST

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is interested in
receiving applicants for National Research Council (NRC) postdoctoral
positions. In particular, applicants with interests in electron microscopy
are welcomed for work in the Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory.
Projects can be proposed in the fields of material science, chemistry,
mineralogy or other related fields using a variety of techniques including
high-resolution TEM, EDS, PEELS, holography, and electron energy loss
imaging, etc.


INSTRUMENTATION AVAILABLE: A Philips CM300 FEG equipped with a Gatan
Imaging Filter and a Philips CM30 with a PEELS unit are the primary TEM
instruments. There are a variety of associated instruments available
including scanning electron microscopes, secondary ion microprobes, x-ray
diffraction units, etc.

SALARY: $45,500 per year (2 year appointments)

APPLICATION (WITH DRAFT OF PROPOSAL) DUE BY: February 1, 1996

SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS AND FINAL PROPOSAL DUE BY: February 15, 1996

EXPECTED STARTING DATE: Fall 1996 (PhD must be complete by this time)

FOR MORE INFORMATION: contact Eric Steel (301) 975-3902,
eric.steel-at-nist.gov or Shirley Turner (301) 975-3923, shirley.turner-at-nist.gov.

NOTE: US Citizenship is required.





From: Keith Moulding :      mcmouldk-at-uxmail.ust.hk
Date: Mon, 22 Jan 1996 09:24:33 +0800
Subject: TEM Cameras

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Hello,

I am looking for information on a company which I believe is called AMT. I
have been told they make interface flanges for cameras on TEMs. In
particular, I need to connect a camera to a 100CXII - either below the
camera chamber or on the 35 mm port, and to a CM20 below the camera chamber.

The cameras will not be used for high resolution work, but for training
purposes.

If anybody knows of the company or any other sources please let me know.

Keith Moulding.

Materials Characteristion Preparation Centre,
Hong Kong Univeristy of Science and Technology,

e-mail: mcmouldk-at-uxmail.ust.hk






From: Dr P. Echlin :      pe13-at-cus.cam.ac.uk
Date: Mon, 22 Jan 1996 08:10:55 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: Re: cryomicrotomy

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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In reply to Paul Webster from Yale about any Cryomicrotomy Courses.
Suggest contacting David Remsen on e-Mail address
dremsen-at-aaem.amc.anl.gov who is organizing a course on Cryomicroscopy
and related techniques at Woods Hole MBL May 29-June5 1996.

Patrick Echlion
Multi-Imaging Centre
Cambridge University

On 19 Jan 1996,
Paul Webster wrote:

} Message :
} I'm interested in suggestions for embedding media for polymeric thin films,
} typically automotive coatings, which will be cryomicrotomed in the -60 to -90C
} range. Most coatings will originate from a water based system.
}
} I'm also interested in suggestions for cryomicrotomy courses which
} would include bulk and embedded polymeric materials (elastomers, coatings,
} alloys, and composites).
}
} Thanks for your help.
}
} Question :
}
} How thin do you want the sections to be?
}
} Paul Webster
} Center for Cell imaging
} Yale School of Medicine
} 333 Cedar Street
} New Haven, CT 06520.
}
}




From: luciom-at-NEWTON.UMSL.EDU (lucio MuleStagno)
Date: Fri, 19 Jan 1996 18:00:18 -0600
Subject: Image analysis : Image-Pro Plus

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html


Hi all,
I am considering buying Image-Pro plus software to do some of the
things a lot of you have mentioned in the past : feature counting on
prints/images, digitalization of negatives, image enhancement and printing.

The system we are thinking of will be attached to a Nomarski
microscope for optical work ( defect counting of etched wafer surfaces ),
and to a seperate camera mounted on a light-box to digitalize negatives and
prints. We have not made a final decision on :
1. resolution of cameras to buy.
2. black and white vs. color.
3. type of printer/s to have available ( the company suggests a Kodak
for high quality work )

Anyone out there using a similar setup to count/size and digitalize ?
Anyone using Image Pro Plus ?

thanks

Lucio


***********************************************************************
Lucio Mule'Stagno
Physics Dept & Center for molecular electronics
Univ. of Missouri- St.Louis
tel 314 - 516 5933
fax : 314-516 6152
e- mail LUCIOM-at-NEWTON.UMSL.EDU

MEMC Electronic Materials Inc.,
Materials Technology Grp.,
St.Peters,MO
tel 314 279-5000 ext 2315
fax 314 279 5157
e-mail LMULESTAGNO-at-MEMC.COM

************************************************************************

" War is over.. If you want it " Give Peace a Chance, John Lennon


*************************************************************************





From: luciom-at-NEWTON.UMSL.EDU (lucio MuleStagno)
Date: Fri, 19 Jan 1996 18:00:18 -0600
Subject: Image analysis : Image-Pro Plus

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html


Hi all,
I am considering buying Image-Pro plus software to do some of the
things a lot of you have mentioned in the past : feature counting on
prints/images, digitalization of negatives, image enhancement and printing.

The system we are thinking of will be attached to a Nomarski
microscope for optical work ( defect counting of etched wafer surfaces ),
and to a seperate camera mounted on a light-box to digitalize negatives and
prints. We have not made a final decision on :
1. resolution of cameras to buy.
2. black and white vs. color.
3. type of printer/s to have available ( the company suggests a Kodak
for high quality work )

Anyone out there using a similar setup to count/size and digitalize ?
Anyone using Image Pro Plus ?

thanks

Lucio


***********************************************************************
Lucio Mule'Stagno
Physics Dept & Center for molecular electronics
Univ. of Missouri- St.Louis
tel 314 - 516 5933
fax : 314-516 6152
e- mail LUCIOM-at-NEWTON.UMSL.EDU

MEMC Electronic Materials Inc.,
Materials Technology Grp.,
St.Peters,MO
tel 314 279-5000 ext 2315
fax 314 279 5157
e-mail LMULESTAGNO-at-MEMC.COM

************************************************************************

" War is over.. If you want it " Give Peace a Chance, John Lennon


*************************************************************************





From: Katherine.S.Connolly-at-Dartmouth.EDU (Katherine S. Connolly)
Date: 22 Jan 96 11:01:27 EST
Subject: TEM Cameras

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Message-id: {23928743-at-dancer.Dartmouth.EDU}

It has been my experience that a camera mounted below the camera chamber
subjects the final image to a magnification of at least twenty (20)times that
of a film.If this is not desired I suggest you install the camera above the
camera chamber where the magnification is a more reasonable five (5) times.
Kate Connolly




From: Dr P. Echlin :      pe13-at-cus.cam.ac.uk
Date: Mon, 22 Jan 1996 08:10:55 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: Re: cryomicrotomy

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Message-Id: {199601221447.JAA04642-at-hoh.mbl.edu}

In reply to Paul Webster from Yale about any Cryomicrotomy Courses.
Suggest contacting David Remsen on e-Mail address
dremsen-at-aaem.amc.anl.gov who is organizing a course on Cryomicroscopy
and related techniques at Woods Hole MBL May 29-June5 1996.

Patrick Echlion
Multi-Imaging Centre
Cambridge University

On 19 Jan 1996,
Paul Webster wrote:

} Message :
} I'm interested in suggestions for embedding media for polymeric thin
films,
} typically automotive coatings, which will be cryomicrotomed in the -60
to -90C
} range. Most coatings will originate from a water based system.
}
} I'm also interested in suggestions for cryomicrotomy courses which
} would include bulk and embedded polymeric materials (elastomers,
coatings,
} alloys, and composites).
}
} Thanks for your help.
}
} Question :
}
} How thin do you want the sections to be?
}
} Paul Webster
} Center for Cell imaging
} Yale School of Medicine
} 333 Cedar Street
} New Haven, CT 06520.
}
}


------- End of Forwarded Message





From: Yves Maniette :      yves-at-giga.sct.ub.es
Date: Mon, 22 Jan 1996 18:20:49 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: EELS analyser makers

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Dear all,

I am looking for information about EELS analyser makers, for
implementation on a 300 KV TEM. I heard of Gatan analyser or image
filtering system, but would like to know if there are any other makers
providing this kind of apparatus.

Thank you in advance for providing any fax number or E-mail address,

Yves MANIETTE
Universitat de Barcelona
Serveis Cientifico Tecnics
Unitat ESCA TEM
Carrer Luis Sole i Sabaris
E-08028 BARCELONA

Tel +34 3 402 16 95
Fax +34 3 402 13 98




From: allardlfjr-at-ornl.gov (Larry Allard)
Date: Mon, 22 Jan 1996 13:41:20 -0500
Subject: TEM Cameras

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Regarding magnification: The Gatan camera mounted below our HF-2000 and
our 4000EX instruments has a magnification factor over the film of 1.44
times the width of the displayed image in inches (since the chip is about 1
inch on a side). For an image displayed on a hard-copy output that is say
7 inches wide, this give a final image magnification of 10 times the
microscope magnification.

Larry Allard






From: Paul Webster :      Paul.Webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 22 Jan 1996 15:04:33 -0500
Subject: Correction Re- cryomicrotom

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Message-Id: {n1389799217.90988-at-QuickMail.Yale.edu}

May I also add to this that I was not the one requesting information about
cryomicrotomy or courses. I was responding to an anonymous contributor from
Dupont (ratyrg-at-ESVAX.DNET.DUPONT.COM) including the original message with my
question.
Since then we have had a short discussion on the subject away from the BBS.







From: MELLIOTT-at-prl.pulmonary.ubc.ca
Date: Mon, 22 Jan 1996 10:16:26 +0800PST
Subject: NIH image and Mac

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Someone in our depeartment would like to know what type of Mac they are
using, or would recommend to use, to run NIH-Image?? They are typically
dealing with images that are 1kbx1kb 24 bit colour. They are
contemplating buying a new Mac to run Image and would like input as to
what people are using and how well they run Image before buying a new
computer. Any and all comments would be appreciated.

Mark Elliott
Research Associate
UBC-Pulmonary Research Lab





From: David.Rothbard-at-ipst.edu (David Rothbard)
Date: Mon, 22 Jan 1996 17:16:19 -0500
Subject: Re: Image analysis : Image-Pro Plus

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Detection of features in Nomarski (DIC) images can be tricky. Although
your eye will see them, thresholding may be difficult because of the
"shadowing effect" that DIC has. Even selection by color can be
difficult. I had poor results thresholding transmitted light DIC
(biological); better results with reflected light DIC (ceramics).

We use Optimas, an alternative to Image-Pro for Windows based image
processing (color and b/w). You should also do a serious evaluation of
frame grabber boards, including how well they work with your I.A. system.
Our first system has an Imaging Technology CFG board, which was pricey but
worked well. Our second system has a Coreco TCX, which has some timing
delays with Optimas.

No commercial endorsement should be implied.

David Rothbard

} Hi all,
} I am considering buying Image-Pro plus software to do some of the
} things a lot of you have mentioned in the past : feature counting on
} prints/images, digitalization of negatives, image enhancement and printing.
}
} The system we are thinking of will be attached to a Nomarski
} microscope for optical work ( defect counting of etched wafer surfaces ),
} and to a seperate camera mounted on a light-box to digitalize negatives and
} prints. We have not made a final decision on :
} 1. resolution of cameras to buy.
} 2. black and white vs. color.
} 3. type of printer/s to have available ( the company suggests a Kodak
} for high quality work )
}
} Anyone out there using a similar setup to count/size and digitalize ?
} Anyone using Image Pro Plus ?
}
} thanks
}
} Lucio
}

--
Institute of Paper Science and Technology






From: Xinyang Li :      xyl-at-uow.edu.au
Date: Tue, 23 Jan 1996 10:35:15 +1100 (EST)
Subject: subscribe

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subscribe




From: Silvia Moreno :      smoreno-at-kinase.uba.ar
Date: Mon, 22 Jan 1996 20:29:13 ARG
Subject: Help

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I'm at present trying to visualize through TEM an atypical form of growth
of a dimorphic fungus, Mucor rouxii, which under normal conditions grows
as mycelia and when cAMP analogs are added to the growth media grows iso-
diametrically; germ tube emission is impaired, but growth is not impaired.
Cells , under these growth conditions are very fragile, and even tend to explode
when being under a coverslip. The cell wall is several times wider than the
normal cell wall. The microscopic preparations for TEM are not good; the cell
looks completely collapsed and detached from the wall. We have already tried
adding sorbitol 0.5 M and KCl 0.6 M at the end of the growth period, before
isolating the cells, with no success. Can someone give me a suggestion, or
indicate me a reference . We obviously are no experts in electronic microscopic
observations.
Thank you very much.
--
Silvia Moreno
smoreno-at-kinase.uba.ar




From: shayashi-at-opt.olympus.co.jp (Shinichi Hayashi)
Date: Tue, 23 Jan 1996 19:48:06 +0900
Subject: Inquiry

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To all;

Does anyone in this list know the e-mail address or the FAX number of prof.
Ernst H. K. Stelzer at European Molecular Biology Lab?
Please reply to me directly. Thanks!

-------------------------------
Shinichi Hayashi (林 真市)
Optical R&D 2nd Group
Olympus Optical Co., Ltd.
2951 Ishikawa-cho
Hachioji, Tokyo 192
Tel: (81) 426-42-5007
Fax: (81) 426-42-2102
e-mail: shayashi-at-opt.olympus.co.jp





From: ROBIN CROSS :      EURC-at-giraffe.ru.ac.za
Date: Tue, 23 Jan 1996 12:41:37 GMT+0200
Subject: cataracts

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About a year ago, after using EM's for 27 years and having
developed cataracts in both eyes at an unusually early age
(49), I asked the question through this medium about eye damage
resulting from long-term use of electron microscopes. As in the
current discussion some interesting comments were made. There is
definitely evidence that radiation from a variety of sources
causes cataracts, typically in the posterior capsule of the lens
- not the nucleus where senile cataracts usually develop.
However, modern electron microscopes should be adequately
screened to prevent this. In my case the cataracts were
apparently typical of radiation-induced cataracts although when
and where the irradiation took place is anyone's guess. Someone
has mentioned UV radiation from vacuum evaporators. This could
be a possibility because I know of little in the way of
precautions which are routinely taken to prevent this.



Robin Cross
Director : EM Unit, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa
eurc-at-giraffe.ru.ac.za (tel: +27 461 318168 - fax: +27 461 24377)




From: King :      King-at-bioscience.biology.utah.edu
Date: 23 Jan 1996 07:50:34 U
Subject: Charging for Services

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Message-ID: {n1389739019.47591-at-bioscience.utah.edu}

Subject: Time: 7:20 AM
Charging for Services Date: 1/23/96

This request is made in the context of a U.S. university laboratory run as a
'recharge center' with a 'revolving account' where most of the users are
funded by NSF or NIH. The laboratory provides a range of services in light
and electron microscopy for researchers from several departments. Service
contract costs for the instruments are recovered through hourly usage
charges. Consumable supplies are charged at replacement cost or are replaced
'in kind' by the users. Other services are provided at cost. The university
requires that, over time, the account will not make a profit and will not
carry a continued balance greater than 10% of the operating costs of the
facility.

There has been increasing interest in devising a system whereby users could
be charged a fixed sum that would provide 'unlimited' access to one or more
instruments/services for a specified time. My understanding is that such a
system would violate granting agency prohibitions against prepayment for
services, and would similarly violate current university regulations
governing recharge centers.

I am interested, therefore, in hearing from anyone who has a system in place
that provides in some way for 'lump sum' payments for instrument
access/laboratory services. Since the university's recharge regulations will
be revised this year, I would also like to hear from anyone whose laboratory
appears to operate under less stringent university regulation.

Thank you.

Edward J. King
king-at-bioscience.utah.edu
Department of Biology
University of Utah






From: Joe D Geller :      geller-at-world.std.com
Date: Tue, 23 Jan 1996 10:22:31 +0001 (EST)
Subject: EDS algorithms

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We are looking for algorithms to process EDS spectra. The algorithms
should include background subtration and calculation of k-ratios from
unknown specimens (standardless analysis). Any information would be
very helpfull.

Joe Geller
Geller MicroAnalytical Lab.
426e Boston St.
Topsfield, Ma 01983-1212
508 887-7000
fax 887-6671




From: emccjb-at-ttuhsc.edu (Charles J. Butterick)
Date: Tue, 23 Jan 1996 09:58:41 -0600
Subject: EM Tech Position

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The Electron Microscopy Center at Texas Tech University Health Sciences
Center has an EM Technician II position open.
Basic requirements are a bachelor's degree and one year experience with
EM. The bachelor's degree can be substituted with an associate's degree
from a 2 year EM program or a MSA accreditation and 3 years of experience.
Any combination of experience in EDXA, morphometry, image analysis, light
microscopy, confocal, histology, and/or flow cytometry would be a plus.
Please reply before January 31, 1996 to: TTUHSC Office of Human
Resources, 3601 4th Street, Lubbock, Texas 79430
TTUHSC IS AN EEO/AA EMPLOYER



Charles J. Butterick (Chuck)
Electron Microscopy Center
Department of Cell Biology
and Biochemistry
Texas Tech University Health
Sciences Center
3601 4th Street
Lubbock, Texas 79430

vox (806) 743-1633
fax (806) 743-1219
email emccjb-at-ttuhsc.edu or
chuck-at-micron1.lubb.ttuhsc.edu






From: waheeschen-at-dow.com (Bill Heeschen 517-636-4005 Materials/ASL)
Date: Tue, 23 Jan 1996 10:47:34 -0500
Subject: Re: NIH image and Mac

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Message-Id: {199601231547.AA10606-at-na3.dow.com}


The PowerMacs (PPC601 or 604 based) are generically the best way to go for
running NIH Image. I have been using the 7500 (which is a PCI-bus based
system) and the PCI Scion LG-3 frame grabber (PAL version). The PCI
version is very fast for video capture, although it sounds like your user
has an alternate source of images. (Also, they need to be aware that NIH-
Image is not a true 24-bit color package - It handles the three color
planes as a stack of 8-bit images. They should consider something like IP-
lab Spectrum for true-color quantification or Photoshop for "graphic arts
type" image massaging and printing.) I have also used the built-in video
on the 7500. It is a reasonable image quality, but lacks the "scientific"
capabilities that the Scion has (grayscale quality, gain/level adjust,
analog out, digital I/O, etc.).

The 7500/8500/9500 PowerMacs all have high-speed internal SCSI, so disk I/O
is very good. The 7500 is probably the best "bang/buck" system right now.
It also uses a daughterboard processor card, so it can be upgraded to a PPC
604, in principal. If I had the budget and had to spend it right now, I
would look very hard at the 132 MHz 9500. Of course, this family has now
been out long enough that it is likely Apple will introduce a new even-
faster Mac family soon. My impression has been that the best value has
been on the model which is two steps back and within the same family as the
most-recent top model (Current model example: high end is the 9500, hence
the 7500 is the best value - i.e., affordable on tight budget, but
excellent performance. Most recent past example: the 950 high-end/650 best
buy). The clones have some VERY IMPRESSIVE specifications, (combination
PCI/NuBus, high processor speed, etc) but may require optional hardware
that is already in the Mac, depending on your use environment.

Hope this helps

Bill
==========================
Bill Heeschen/Analyt. Sci.- Mat. Char. -----
1897-F Building / The Dow Chemical Co. --- ---
Midland, MI 48667 U.S.A. --- D O W ---
phone: (517)636-4005 fax: (517)636-5453 --- ---
Email: waheeschen-at-dow.com -----
========================== R




From: Tina Carvalho :      tina-at-halia.pbrc.Hawaii.Edu
Date: Tue, 23 Jan 1996 08:55:14 -1000 (HST)
Subject: Re: Charging for Services

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As I am in one of the facilities who used to have a "pre-paid, lump-sum"
system in place that appeared to make everybody happy, only to have a
federal audit come in and SEVERLY penalize us for doing so, I would also
be interested in what other recharge facilities are doing. Please keep
this dialog going, or post a compilation of replies!

Mahalo,
Tina

*****************************************
Tina (Weatherby) Carvalho *
Biological Electron Microscope Facility *
University of Hawaii *
(808) 956-6251 *
tina-at-ahi.pbrc.hawaii.edu *
http://www.pbrc.hawaii.edu/bemf/ *
*****************************************





From: Wil Bigelow :      Wil_Bigelow-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 23 Jan 1996 14:18:17 -0400
Subject: RE-EDS Algorithms

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Message-ID: {n1389715487.38368-at-mse.engin.umich.edu}

Subject: Time: 2:09 PM
OFFICE MEMO RE:EDS Algorithms Date: 1/23/96

Years ago John Russ published a couple of dozen algorithms for carrying out
various tasks involved in processing EDS spectra in the "EDAX EDITor", a
publication of the EDAX Company. Although these are now several years old,
they still might be useful as a starting point, and are certainly of some
historical interest. If you are interested in them, John can probably help
you with this; otherwise, I still have copies of a number of issues of the
EDAX EDITor, and could let you borrow them.
W. C. Bigelow (bigelow-at-umich.edu)





From: huffe-at-pgL7.chem.nyu.edu (Edward J. Huff)
Date: Tue, 23 Jan 1996 16:46:06 -0500
Subject: Re: NIH image and Mac

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Look at the nih-image web site, http://rsb.info.nih.gov/nih-image/
which you can also find using "Net Search" for "nih image", in your
favorite web browser like Netscape.

This is an interesting web site even if you don't want to use NIH Image.

(NIH Image runs on power macs as well as the 68k macs).




From: GVKM07A-at-PRODIGY.COM (DR CHARLES A GARBER)
Date: Tue, 23 Jan 1996 10:47:55 EST
Subject: cryomicrotomy of polymer thin films

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-- [ From: Charles A. Garber, Ph. D. * EMC.Ver #2.10P ] --

Someone wrote recently:

"I'm interested in suggestions for embedding media for polymeric thin
films, typically automotive coatings, which will be cryomicrotomed in
the -60 to -90C range. Most coatings will originate from a water
based system"

Could you be more specific as to whether you are interested in the
dispersion of additives within the thin film (of which there are
typically high loadings in many "automotive" coatings) or if you are
interested in the air interface surface detail. In either case, you do
have to think about "passivating" the top (and bottom) surfaces in
order to keep the embedding resin, what ever it is you eventually use,
from possibly swelling or other wise changing in some subtle way the
polymer layer of interest. We have found that a thin film of
sputtered gold works fine, Pt slightly better. For the opposite size,
we like to coat with Al so that there is never any question as to which
side is which once in the TEM.

If interested primarily in the dispersion of additives in the layer,
then the best approach is to embed completely the now both-side
passivated film and section.

If interested primarily in the top layer, we "back embed" only (e.g.
the bottom surface but after Al coating), gold sputter the top surface
but do not embed the top surface. That way, by following the gold layer
one can fairly easily discriminate between fact and artifact, that is,
surface disruption that was there to begin with vs. surface disruption
caused by the knife. We find that additive particles tend to be more
likely to be pulled out of the section when using this variation of the
approach.

We have found overall several of the so-called "Epon substitutes" are
ideal for this particular application, such as our own "SPI-Pon 812"
resin. Since the hardness of the final block has to be made to reflect
the "hardness" of inorganic additives, if present, the "Epon 812" type
systems permit what we find to be the very widest latitude in terms of
hardness levels. The fact the system was once "water based" should not
make any difference in terms of your choice of embedding system since
by the time the resin "sees" the sample, any water has long since
disappeared. If your sections do not come out perfect that first time,
then varying the hardness of the block might be the first next thing
you would want to try. But don't lose confidence in the resin system.

And assuming you are the cost conscious type, the "Epon 812 substitute"
resins are about the lowest cost of any resin.

Chuck

======================================================
Charles A. Garber, Ph. D. Ph: 1-(610)-436-5400
President 1-(800)-2424-SPI
SPI SUPPLIES FAX: 1-(610)-436-5755
PO BOX 656 e-mail:
GVKM07A-at-prodigy.com
West Chester, PA 19381-0656 USA Customer Service:
SpiSupp-at-aol.com

########################################################
WWW: http://mail.cccbi.chester.pa.us/spi/spihome.html
########################################################
======================================================





From: richard.easingwood-at-stonebow.otago.ac.nz (Richard Easingwood)
Date: Wed, 24 Jan 1996 10:27:34 +1100
Subject: SEM - free ETEC filaments

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X-Sender: st004718-at-brandywine.otago.ac.nz
Message-Id: {v01530500ad2b1d5ff373-at-[139.80.120.183]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"


We have the following 23 filaments which were purchased for an ETEC
Autoscan, they are free to anyone who would like them for an ETEC or
similar instrument:
"EBTEC rebuilt filaments for ETEC, MR 73" (Probing and Structure) - 13 filaments
"VL-EO-R" (Energy Beam Sciences) - 10 filaments

Regards



Richard Easingwood
South Campus Electron Microscope Unit
Otago Medical School
PO Box 913
Dunedin
NEW ZEALAND

Telephone: 64-03-479 7301
Facsimile: 64-03-479 7254

SOUTHERNMOST E.M UNIT IN THE WORLD















From: H.BRINKIES -SE108/TEL.8657 :      hbrinkies-at-swin.edu.au
Date: Wed, 24 Jan 1996 10:39:29 EST+10
Subject: OrtecEEDS-II

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Message-Id: {199601232339.AA19555-at-lucy.swin.edu.au}
Comments: Authenticated sender is {hbrinkies-at-gpo.swin.edu.au}

This message might be mainly of interest to the Australian EM community,
however, I did not receive any reply to my advertisement in the latest
Australian EM Newsletter (48).

So let's try again:

For sale (very cheap). Preloved ED-System. Ortec EEDS-II (needs
attention). Consisting of Si(Li) horizontal detector (refurbished by
HNU Systems in 1993). Two consoles: Mark I (1981) + Mark II (1983).
Epson Printer. Software on 8" floppies, circuit diagrams, manuals,
spare 8" disk drives, several spare boards. Best offer accepted.

Hans G Brinkies
SWINBURNE, University of Technology
Mechnical and Manufacturing Engineering
P.O.Box 218 - HAWTHORN, 3122 - Australia
Phone: + 61 3 9214 8657 Fax: + 61 3 9214 8264




From: emccjb-at-ttuhsc.edu (Charles J. Butterick)
Date: Tue, 23 Jan 1996 13:39:20 -0600
Subject: EM Technician Position

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The Electron Microscopy Center at Texas Tech University Health Sciences
Center has an EM Technician II position open. Basic requirements are a
bachelor's degree and one years experience with EM. The bachelor's degree
can be substituted with an associate's degree from a 2 year EM program or a
MSA accreditation and 3 years of experience. Any combination of experience
in EDXA, morphometry, image analysis, light microscopy, histology, and/or
flow cytometry would be a plus. Please reply before January 31, 1996 to:
TTUHSC Office of Human Resources, 3601 4th Street, Lubbock, Texas 79430
TTUHSC IS AN EEO/AA EMPLOYER



Charles J. Butterick (Chuck)
Electron Microscopy Center
Department of Cell Biology
and Biochemistry
Texas Tech University Health
Sciences Center
3601 4th Street
Lubbock, Texas 79430

vox (806) 743-1633
fax (806) 743-1219
email emccjb-at-ttuhsc.edu or
chuck-at-micron1.lubb.ttuhsc.edu






From: dbd1-at-uclink4.berkeley.edu
Date: Tue, 23 Jan 1996 09:31:09 -0800
Subject: email address change

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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microscopy-at-aaem.amc.anl.gov, sbenson-at-darwin.sci.csuhayward.edu,
102700.1337-at-CompuServe.COM, bischof-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu,
susan_brady-at-maillink.berkeley.edu, view-at-nature.berkeley.edu,
tina-at-ahi.pbrc.hawaii.edu, csencits-at-aaem.amc.anl.gov,
sdangelo-at-cgl.ucsf.edu, DAVIS_JON/HP4700_M1-at-hpesf.cs.itc.hp.com,
mrdunlap-at-ucdavis.edu, richard.easingwood-at-stonebow.otago.ac.nz,
Paul.Feigenbaum-at-ncal.kaiperm.org, dougflyfsh-at-aol.com,
efujikawa-at-idec.com, garcar-at-nature.berkeley.edu,
jgilkey-at-ccit.arizona.edu, barbara-at-are.berkeley.edu,
lhalvson-at-nature.berkeley.edu, phamil-at-uclink2.berkeley.edu,
fahayes-at-ucdavis.edu, helena-at-nature.berkeley.edu,
trish-at-nature.berkeley.edu, holt-at-bmt.ca.boeing.com,
andyoj-at-uclink.berkeley.edu, labequip-at-aol.com,
ckeith-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu, erol-at-uclink2.berkeley.edu,
lkerr-at-mbl.edu, sgkcck-at-aol.com, knoff-at-lipovx.lbl.gov, jkolk-at-daystar.com,
emlab-at-ucsco.ucsc.edu, skurland-at-gatan.com, dlapidus-at-uclink.berkeley.edu,
mdlaws-at-cmsa.berkeley.edu, listserver-at-aaem.amc.anl.gov, mitch-at-meq.com,
murphy-at-ms.sjdccd.cc.ca.us, bnordhau-at-cvdls-e201.ucdavis.edu,
dpardoe-at-darwin.sci.csuhayward.edu, gpoinar-at-nature.berkeley.edu,
peiqi-at-mendel.berkeley.edu, lab_shatz-at-maillink.berkeley.edu,
stever-at-mendel.berkeley.edu, grogers-at-uclink4.berkeley.edu,
ruzin-at-nature.berkeley.edu, David_Sanan.GICD-at-quickmail.ucsf.edu,
blay-at-pondside.uchicago.edu, jerk-at-uclink.berkeley.edu,
schulzp-at-alm.usf.ca.edu, shima1-at-levi.com, shimeta-at-violet.berkeley.edu,
mwsiegel-at-gene.com, nsmith-at-darwin.sci.csuhayward.edu,
steiger-at-LCBVAX.cchem.berkeley.edu, tibbetts-at-uclink.berkeley.edu,
ltravis-at-semi.org, frits-at-cse.ucsc.edu, jeffv-at-dnai.com,
karenw-at-ucmp1.berkeley.edu, wilt-at-garnet.berkeley.edu, wong-at-msg.ucsf.edu,
dwray-at-indra.com, tyasumura-at-vines.colostate.edu

If you already have ben notified, ignore this.

If not, please update your e-mail address list with my new location:

dbd1-at-uclink4.berkeley.edu

Thank y'all.

Doug Davis
EML Berkeley


=F8=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=
=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=F8
=F8 Doug Davis =F8
=F8 Staff Research Associate =F8
=F8 Electron Microscope Facility =F8
=F8 University of California =F8
=F8 Berkeley, CA 94720 =F8
=F8 (510) 642-2085 =F8
=F8 dbd1-at-uclink4.berkeley.edu =F8
=F8=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=
=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=B5=F8






From: dbd1-at-uclink4.berkeley.edu
Date: Tue, 23 Jan 1996 14:40:07 -0800
Subject: email address change

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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microscopy-at-aaem.amc.anl.gov, sbenson-at-darwin.sci.csuhayward.edu,
102700.1337-at-CompuServe.COM, bischof-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu,
susan_brady-at-maillink.berkeley.edu, view-at-nature.berkeley.edu,
tina-at-ahi.pbrc.hawaii.edu, DAVIS_JON/HP4700_M1-at-hpesf.cs.itc.hp.com,
mrdunlap-at-ucdavis.edu, richard.easingwood-at-stonebow.otago.ac.nz,
Paul.Feigenbaum-at-ncal.kaiperm.org, dougflyfsh-at-aol.com,
efujikawa-at-idec.com, garcar-at-nature.berkeley.edu,
jgilkey-at-ccit.arizona.edu, barbara-at-are.berkeley.edu,
lhalvson-at-nature.berkeley.edu, phamil-at-uclink2.berkeley.edu,
fahayes-at-ucdavis.edu, helena-at-nature.berkeley.edu,
trish-at-nature.berkeley.edu, holt-at-bmt.ca.boeing.com,
andyoj-at-uclink.berkeley.edu, labequip-at-aol.com,
ckeith-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu, erol-at-uclink2.berkeley.edu,
lkerr-at-mbl.edu, sgkcck-at-aol.com, knoff-at-lipovx.lbl.gov, jkolk-at-daystar.com,
emlab-at-ucsco.ucsc.edu, skurland-at-gatan.com, dlapidus-at-uclink.berkeley.edu,
mdlaws-at-cmsa.berkeley.edu, listserver-at-aaem.amc.anl.gov, mitch-at-meq.com,
murphy-at-ms.sjdccd.cc.ca.us, bnordhau-at-cvdls-e201.ucdavis.edu,
dpardoe-at-darwin.sci.csuhayward.edu, gpoinar-at-nature.berkeley.edu,
peiqi-at-mendel.berkeley.edu, lab_shatz-at-maillink.berkeley.edu,
stever-at-mendel.berkeley.edu, grogers-at-uclink4.berkeley.edu,
ruzin-at-nature.berkeley.edu, David_Sanan.GICD-at-quickmail.ucsf.edu,
blay-at-pondside.uchicago.edu, jerk-at-uclink.berkeley.edu,
schulzp-at-alm.usf.ca.edu, shima1-at-levi.com, shimeta-at-violet.berkeley.edu,
mwsiegel-at-gene.com, nsmith-at-darwin.sci.csuhayward.edu,
steiger-at-LCBVAX.cchem.berkeley.edu, tibbetts-at-uclink.berkeley.edu,
ltravis-at-semi.org, frits-at-cse.ucsc.edu, jeffv-at-dnai.com,
karenw-at-ucmp1.berkeley.edu, wilt-at-garnet.berkeley.edu, wong-at-msg.ucsf.edu,
dwray-at-indra.com, tyasumura-at-vines.colostate.edu

If you already have ben notified, ignore this.

If not, please update your e-mail address list with my new location:

dbd1-at-uclink4.berkeley.edu

Thank y'all.

Doug Davis
EML Berkeley


=3DF8=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=
=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3D
=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DF8
=3DF8 Doug Davis =3DF8
=3DF8 Staff Research Associate =3DF8
=3DF8 Electron Microscope Facility =3DF8
=3DF8 University of California =3DF8
=3DF8 Berkeley, CA 94720 =3DF8
=3DF8 (510) 642-2085 =3DF8
=3DF8 dbd1-at-uclink4.berkeley.edu =3DF8
=3DF8=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=
=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3D
=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DB5=3DF8






From: zaluzec-at-Microscopy.Com (Nestor J. Zaluzec)
Date: Tue, 23 Jan 1996 22:52:54 -0600
Subject: Re: TEM - SAD beam intensities

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Pal & others

To do this experiment correctly you must energy filter
the diffraction pattern to correctly determine
the diffracted intensities. This filtering removes all the inelastic
scattering. It is not sufficient to simply measure the
intensity just inside the ring to correct for "background". You had best check
the literature before doing alot more work.

There are some very good papers by David Cockayne & Colleagues
at the University of Sydney. Circa late 1980's in Acta Crys.

I would suggest you look them up before continuing.


Nestor

Your Friendly Neighborhood SysOp.






From: philippe.buffat-at-cime.uhd.epfl.ch (Philippe-Andre Buffat)
Date: Wed, 24 Jan 1996 08:59:03 +0100
Subject: Winter School/Diffraction

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html

Message-ID: {MAPI.Id.0016.00683536202020204434454530303237-at-MAPI.to.RFC822}
Read-Receipt-To: Jean-Louis Beek {ah56-at-solo.pipex.co.za}
Priority: Normal
To: microscopy-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com
MIME-Version: 1.0

The Association Vaudoise des Chercheurs en Physique organizes a

**** Winter School****

M=E9thodes modernes de diffusion et de diffraction des neutrons, =E9lectrons=
et RX

in Grimentz (Valais) Switzerland
(nice for skiing, isn't it?)
Feb. 25 to March 2 1996

It is intended for people who are not specialized in (all) these methods
and who would like to get a general knowledge of the similarities, the
differences and the potential applications of these techniques. You can get
all the information on Internet

http://cimewww.epfl.ch/avcp/index.html

The lectures will be approx. 60% in French and 40% in English (25 hours at
total, 15 lecturers)
The deadline for registration is Feb. 3

__________________________________________________________________
Philippe Buffat Ecole Polytechnique Federale de
Lausanne (EPFL)
Centre Interdepartemental
de Microscopie Electronique
Address: EPFL-CIME, Batiment MX-C, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Phone: +41(21)693 29 83 Fax: +41(21)693 44 01 (Central European Time)
E-mail: philippe.buffat-at-cime.uhd.epfl.ch // pabuffat-at-cimesg1.epfl.ch
______________________________ Eudora F2.1 ___________________________






From: philippe.buffat-at-cime.uhd.epfl.ch (Philippe-Andre Buffat)
Date: Wed, 24 Jan 1996 08:59:03 +0100
Subject: Winter School/Diffraction

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html

X-Sender: pabuffat-at-cimedec1.epfl.ch
Message-Id: {ad2b944b020210040ae1-at-[128.178.98.14]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

The Association Vaudoise des Chercheurs en Physique organizes a

**** Winter School****

M=E9thodes modernes de diffusion et de diffraction des neutrons, =E9lectrons=
et RX

in Grimentz (Valais) Switzerland
(nice for skiing, isn't it?)
Feb. 25 to March 2 1996

It is intended for people who are not specialized in (all) these methods
and who would like to get a general knowledge of the similarities, the
differences and the potential applications of these techniques. You can get
all the information on Internet

http://cimewww.epfl.ch/avcp/index.html

The lectures will be approx. 60% in French and 40% in English (25 hours at
total, 15 lecturers)
The deadline for registration is Feb. 3

__________________________________________________________________
Philippe Buffat Ecole Polytechnique Federale de
Lausanne (EPFL)
Centre Interdepartemental
de Microscopie Electronique
Address: EPFL-CIME, Batiment MX-C, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Phone: +41(21)693 29 83 Fax: +41(21)693 44 01 (Central European Time)
E-mail: philippe.buffat-at-cime.uhd.epfl.ch // pabuffat-at-cimesg1.epfl.ch
______________________________ Eudora F2.1 ___________________________






From: Yves Maniette :      yves-at-giga.sct.ub.es
Date: Wed, 24 Jan 1996 12:01:05 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: AREMCO fax number

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html



Dear all,

I am looking for the fax number (or even E-Mail address) of the company
AREMCO products, OSSINING,NY. They sell Aremco crystalbond 509 glue, that
we use for preparing samples.

thank you in advance



Yves MANIETTE
Universitat de Barcelona
Serveis Cientifico Tecnics
Unitat ESCA TEM
Carrer Luis Sole i Sabaris
E-08028 BARCELONA

Tel +34 3 402 16 95
Fax +34 3 402 13 98





From: Johari, Dr. Om :      73211.647-at-CompuServe.COM
Date: 24 Jan 96 05:47:47 EST
Subject: Scanning Probe Microscopies Meeting at Bethesda during May 11-16, 1996

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html


-- [ From: Dr. Om Johari * EMC.Ver #2.0 ] --

please circulate/post

Please complete/return form below to remain/get on our lists.

Scanning Microscopy International
Post Office Box 66507, Chicago (A.M.F. O'Hare), IL 60666-0507,
U.S.A.
Telephone: (708) 529-6677 / FAX: (708) 980-6677
E.mail: 73211.647-at-compuserve.com

Scanning Microscopy 1996 meeting
May 11-16, 1996, Bethesda, Maryland (suburb of Washington, DC)

Symposium on: Scanning Probe Microscopies and Related Techniques
for the Biological and Materials Sciences

Note: A number of SPM papers will also be presented durin the
program on "Pattern Formation and Nanoscaled Structures in Thin
Film Formation" at the same time at same venue. THOSE PAPERS ARE
NOT LISTED BELOW. Please request / see a separate flier on that.

Program organizers: Dr. David P. Allison, Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., TN
(E-mail: allisondp-at-ornl.gov); Prof. Chunli Bai, Chinese Acad. Sci.,
Beijing (E.mail: clbai-at-infoc3.icas.ac.cn); Prof. Lawrence A.
Bottomley, Georgia Inst. Tech., Atlanta (E.mail:
lawrence.bottomley-at-chemistry.gatech.edu); Prof. Masamichi Fujihira,
Univ. Yokohama, Japan (phone: 81 22 2152021 / FAX: 81 22 2152020 /
E.mail: mfujihira-at-bio.titech.ac.jp); Dr. Heinrich J.K. Hoerber,
European Molec. Biol. Lab., Heidelberg, Germany (E.mail:
hoerber-at-embl-heidelberg.de); and Prof. Douglas J. Thomson, Univ.
Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada (E.mail: thomson-at-ee.umanitoba.ca).

Following up on the past SPM meetings, this symposium will provide
a nice occasion to present novel discoveries as well as reviews of
recent developments in theory, instrumentation, and applications of
scanning tunneling microscopy and related techniques, including
atomic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, near field
optical microscopy, etc. Applications of STM and other scanning
probe techniques should emphasize the studies of adsorbates as well
as physical and chemical process at solid surfaces. Topics of
interest include: studies of processes on metal, semiconductor, and
other solid surfaces: imaging of molecules, especially
biomolecules; imaging of cells and other biological structures;
tip-induced effects; etc.

Papers can still be offered: please contact one of the organizers
or Dr. Om Johari at Scanning Microscopy International.

List of presentations (as of January 23, 1996) in alphabetical
order

M.J. Allen, Digital Instruments, Santa Barbara, CA et al.:
The Chromatin Structure of Well-Spread Demembranated Human Sperm
Nuclei Revealed by AFM

D.P. Allison et al., Oak Ridge National Lab., TN:
High Resolution Physical Mapping of EcoRI restriction Sites on
Intact Cosmids by AFM Imaging

P.C. Zhang, C. BAI, P.K.H. Ho, Q. Li, Y. Dai, Y.S. Wu, B.F. Sheng,
Chinese Acad. Sci., Beijing:
AFM Study of Interactions Between Tumor Necrosis Factor and Its
Monoclonal Antibodies

J. Bereiter-Hahn et al., Univ. Frankfurt, Germany:
Regulation of Cell Surface Motility, as Revealed by Scanning
Acoustic Microscopy

G. Collins, Topomatrix, Santa Clara, CA:
(1) A Novel High Resolution NSOM; (2) Polymer Science Applications
of a Scanning Thermal Microscope Having a Resistively Heatable
Probe; (3) Applications of a Combined SPM/SEM

E.D. Dahlberg et al., Univ. Minn, Minneapolis:
Review: Magnetic Force Microscopy and Magnetotactic Bacteria

O. Enea, Univ. Poiters, France:
Topographic Studies of TiO2 and SnO2 Ceramics by Environmental SEM,
SEM and AFM

R. ESCHRICH, Max-Planck-Inst. Biochem., Martinsried, Germany; G.L.
Kumar, T.A. Keil, R. Guckenberger:
AFM on the Olfactory Dendrites of Giant Silkmoth Antheraea

M. Fujihara, Tokyo Inst. Tech., Japan:
Review: AFM of Solid Surfaces in Aqueous Solutions

D. Goddard, Br. Nucl Fuels, Preston, UK:
AFM of Bacterial Biofilms with Application to Microbially
Influenced Corrosion

H. Hansma, Univ. Calif., Santa Barbara:
Review: Atomic Force Microscopy of Biomaterials

M. HARA, W. Knoll, RIKEN, Saitama, Japan:
Review: STM and AFM Studies of Self-Assembled Monolayer Growth

D.O. HENDERSON, Y.S. Tung, R. Mu, Fisk Univ., Nashville, TN; W.A.
Curby, M. Mercado, Fed. Aviation Rech. Ctr., Atlantic City, NJ:
Optical and Atomic Force Microscopy of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate
Nanoclusters on Si(100)

E. Henderson, Iowa State Univ., Ames:
Biomolecular Detection with the AFM (Tentative Title)

H. Hoerber, European Molecular Biology Lab., Heidelberg, Germany:
Measuring Surface Forces with the AFM

D. HUANG, Y. Yamamoto, Yamamoto Quantum Fluctuation Project, Tokyo,
Japan and Stanford Univ., CA:
Hydrogen Atom Extraction and Redeposition on the Monohydride
Si(100)-2x1:H Surface

A. Ikai, Tokyo Inst. Tech., Japan:
Review: Measurements of Mechanical Parameters of Proteins and
Chromosomes with AFM

M.D. JOHNSON, Univ. Oklahoma, Norman, and H.W.M. Salemink:
Review: Cross-Sectional STM on Semiconductor Heterostructures (to
be presented during the Semiconductors program)

G.L. KUMAR, Max-Planck-Inst. Verhaltenphysiol., Seewiesen, Germany;
R. Eschrich, R. Guckenberger, T.A. Keil:
In Search for Putative Pheromone Receptors on the Membrane of
Olfactory Dendrites in Silkmoths (A. polyphemus and A. pernyi)
Using the AFM and SEM

L. Kuutti, VTT Biotech. Food Res., Espoo, Finland:
Identification and Surface Structure of Crystalline Cellulose
Studied by AFM

G. LEE, A.D. MacKerell, L.A. Chrisey, R.J. Colton, US Naval Res.
Lab., Washington, DC:
Measuring Inter- and Intramolecular Forces in Biomolecules

Y. Lyubchenko, Arizona State Univ., Tempe:
AFM Studies of RecA-DNA Complexes

J.F. Marchiando, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD::
Methods for Interpreting Measurements from a Scanning Capacitance
Microscope (to be presented during the Semiconductors program)

M. McDermott, Univ. Alberta, Edmonton, Canada et al.:
Review: Chemical Mapping with Force Microscopy

M. Rivera, M. MILES et al., Univ. Bristol, UK:
Phase Transitions in Liquid Crystals Observed by SPM

W. MIZUTANI, M. Motomatsu, H. Ogiso, H. Tokumoto, Nat. Inst. Adv.
Interdiscpl. Res., Tsukuba, Japan:
STM with Local Non-Linearity Detection of Organic Thin Films and
Ion Irradiated Graphite

D.J. MUELLER, F. Schabert, A. Engel, Univ. Basel, Switzerland:
Review: Structural Changes of Native Membrane Proteins Monitored at
Subnanometer Resolution with the AFM

H. MURAMATSU, Seiko Instruments, Chiba, Japan; T. Ataka, N. Chiba,
K. Nakajima, M. Fujihira
Review: Fluorescence Imaging and Spectroscopy of Biomaterials in
Air and Liquid by SNOM/AFM

P. Nagy, MTA KFKI Res. Inst., Budapest, Hungary:
Review: SPM Image Reconstruction

R. Perez, Univ. Cambridge, UK:
First Principles Simulations of Atomic Resolution in Non-Contact
AFM (to be presented during the Fundamental Physics Program)

R. RAITERI, H.-J. Butt, Max-Planck-Inst. Biophy., Frankfurt,
Germany:
Changes in Surface Stress Measured with an AFM

B. Samori, Univ. Calabria, Bologna, Italy:
DNA Imaging by SFM (exact title to come)

W. Haiss and J.K. SASS, Fritz-Haber-Inst., Berlin, Germany:
STM Surface Stress Measurements in Electrochemistry

Y. Shirane, Univ. Tokushima, Japan:
Surface Observation of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystals by FE-
SEM and AFM (to be presented during the Stones and Crystals
program)

R.P. Singh, Indian Min. Sci. Tech., New Delhi:
STM and Application Possibilities

V. Snitka et al., Kaunas Univ., Lithuania:
Acoustic Waves Investigation by Atomic Force Microscopy

I. Stangel, McGill Univ., Montreal, Canada:
The Applications and Limitations of AFM to Complex Biomaterials
Surfaces: Effects of Acid Demineralization on Human Dentin

M.S. UNLU, B.B. Goldberg, Boston Univ., MA:
Review: Characterization of Materials and Devices by Near Field
Optical Scanning Microscopy (to be presented during the
Semiconductors program)

J. Vesenka, Calif. State Univ., Fresno:
Review: The Diameter of Duplex and Quadruplex DNA Measured by SPM

VU THIEN BINH, F. Feschet, V. Semet, S.T. Purcell, Univ. Lyon,
France:
Fresnel Projection Microscopy: Theory and Experiment: Electron
Microscopy with Nanometer Resolution at ~ 200 eV

Z.Z. Wang, CNRS Lab. Microstr. Microelec., Bagneux, France:
Pulse Width Dependence of Nanowriting

J.W. Wu, J.H. GU, J.H. Fang, Z.H. Lu, Southeast Univ., Nanjing,
China:
A New Phenomenon at a Small Gap Resistance When Using STM to Modify
Gold Surface

T. WU, Z. Ai, Southeast Univ., Nanjing, China:
Autostereogram: A New Method for Scanning Probe Microscopy

Z.D. Xiao et al., Southeast Univ., Nanjing, China:
A New STM System Using Radioactive Tip

F. Zenhausern, IBM Watson Research Ctr., Yorktown Hts., NY:
New Developments in Near Field Optical Microscopy and Spectroscopy

---

Other related programs at the same venue (*: Fliers available):

*Fundamental Physics in Microscopy and Microanalysis,

*Pattern Formation and Nanoscaled Structures in Thin Film Formation

*Scanning Microscopy and Semiconductors: Metrology and Diagnostics;

Several Biological programs including: Microanalysis and Imaging,
*Immunolabelling, *Radiation Effects, Apoptosis, *Dentistry,
Corrosion Casting, *Inner Ear, *Bone Biology, *Stones and Crystals,
etc.);

Several Biomaterials Related Programs organized under "*Cells and
Materials": (1) Skeletal Tissue / Biomaterials; (2) Foreign Body
Reactions; (3) Biointerfacial Reactions at Biomaterial Surfaces;
(4) Innovative Drug Delivery Systems; (5) Blood-Related
Biomaterials; (6) and (7) Dental Biomaterials.

and Food Structure

----------------

For more information, please complete and return the form below to

__ I wish to present at the Scanning Microscopy 1996 meeting
(tentative title and summary on a separate sheet), please send a
Letter of Intent form.

__ I cannot present, but am likely to attend the 1996 meeting,
please keep me informed and send me: ___ 1996 Registration / Hotel
form.

__ I can neither present nor attend; please add/keep my name on
your mailing list. ___ Send me a mailing list form.

Please send: 1996 program fliers (*list programs here):



___ Instructions for Authors / ___ Major subject index / Table
of Contents for: ___ Scanning Microscopy / ___ Cells and
Materials / ___ Food Structure;

Flier on Scanning Microscopy:

___ Supplement 6, 1992 ("Signal and Image Processing in
Microscopy and Microanalysis");

___ Supplement 7, 1993 ("Physics of Generation and Detection of
Signals Used for Microcharacterization");

___ Supplement 8, 1994 ("Science of Biological Microanalysis")

___ Flier on the special issue: Interface Formation and Dynamics in
Layered Structures (Scanning Microscopy, Vol. 8, no. 4, 1994).

___ Flier on 1996 Pfefferkorn Conference on Electron Image and
Signal Processing, May 18-22, 1996 at Silver Bay, New York


Name

Title

Organization / Company


Address

City/State

Postal Code

Country

Phone

FAX

E.mail

Date




From: Johari, Dr. Om :      73211.647-at-CompuServe.COM
Date: 23 Jan 96 17:30:29 EST
Subject: Electron Image and Signal Processing Conference at Silver Bay, NY, May 18-22

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html


-- [ From: Dr. Om Johari * EMC.Ver #2.0 ] --

Please Circulate

Scanning Microscopy International
P.O. Box 66507, Chicago (AMF O'Hare), IL 60666, USA
Telephone: (708) 529-6677 / FAX: (708) 980-6677
E.mail:73211.647-at-compuserve.com

Fifteenth Pfefferkorn Conference on
Electron Image and Signal Processing

May 18-22, 1996 at Silver Bay Association, Silver Bay, NY

The Conference will provide a forum for discussion of the current
status, recent advances and prospects of many aspects of image and
signal processing in electron and near-field microscopy and
microanalysis. The principal themes are three-dimensional
reconstruction, image restoration, enhancement and analysis
(including morphological and algebraic approaches in particular),
electron holography, the phase problem, processing image sets (from
STEM detectors and from defocus and tilt series, for example),
image simulation, and hardware and software for image acquisition
and processing and for microscope control. Please see below for a
list of speakers.

The organizers are: Dr. Peter W. Hawkes, CNRS Lab. Opt. Elect.,
B.P. 4347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex, France (Phone: 33-62-257884 / FAX
33-62-257999 / E.mail: hawkes-at-cict.fr); Dr. W. Owen Saxton, Univ.
Cambridge, U.K. (FAX: 44-1223-334 567 / E.mail:
wos1-at-cus.cam.ac.uk); and Dr. Joachim Frank, NYS Dept. Health,
Wadsworth Center, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA (Phone: 518 474 7002
/ FAX: 518 474 8590 / E.mail: joachim-at-wadsworth.org). Interested
contributors should contact either of the organizers with a title
and a one page summary; please also include other relevant
information (e.g., time desired, reprints of relevant publications,
etc.).

Full-length papers will be published in the Conference Proceedings
to be issued as Scanning Microscopy Supplement 11, 1997.

Conference Information: Registration begins at 6 PM on Friday, May
17. The first lecture will be at 8:30 AM on Saturday, May 18; the
Conference will end at lunch on Wednesday, May 22. Sessions will
be daily in mornings (from 8:30 to 1), afternoons (about 4:30-7),
and evenings (about 8:45 to 10). Ample discussion time will be
allowed; active participation by attendees is invited. Because of
the limited number of attendees, the Pfefferkorn Conferences
provide an excellent opportunity for in-depth discussions and
personal contacts. Conference attendance is by application or
invitation only. Qualified registrants will be accepted on a
first-come-first-served basis. To apply: please submit name,
mailing and E.mail addresses, phone (work and home) and FAX
numbers, and a 50-100 statement about your qualification relative
to the theme (and topics) of the conference, accompanied by the
full registration fee of US $200 (includes attendance to sessions,
coffee-breaks, and a copy of the Conference Proceedings).

Conference Location: The sessions will take place at one of the
conference rooms at Silver Bay Association (SBA), Silver Bay, NY
12874 (phone: 518 543 8833 / FAX: 518 543 6733 / E.mail:
sbaconf-at-aol.com), located 80 miles north of Albany, NY. This 600
acres beautiful, peaceful, registered historical place, located on
Lake George and in the Adirondack mountains, offers dozens of water
and land sports, gym programs, hiking, etc. and is filled with
gardens, rolling lawns and gentle streams. It is ideal for a
family vacation or retreat. The room rates (all rates include
three full meals daily!) range from $40 per person (in two and four
bed-room cottages ideal for four and eight persons, respectively),
to $55 and $65 per person (based on two persons to a room) in rooms
without and with private baths, respectively. Accompanying
children aged 4 to 12 pay half of these rates. Single rooms are
available at a cost of $69 (without private bath) or $80 (with
private bath). It is expected that all attendees will stay at this
location. To make accommodation reservations, please contact SBA
directly and inform us of your travel details (mode and day/time).
Details about getting to Silver Bay will be sent to all attendees:
nearest airports are Albany (New York) and Burlington (Vermont);
foreigners may find it easier to fly to Montreal, Canada (about 150
miles north) or New York (about 200 miles south). There is one
daily train each way from New York and Montreal which stops in
Ticonderoga, NY (about 20 miles from Silver Bay); some bus service
is available too. Appropriate van transportation from Albany (at
costs ranging from $50 per van for less than 4 people, or $10 per
person for more than 5 persons) will also be arranged by SBA.
Attemps will also be made to form car pools with those driving.

Past Conferences: Started in 1982, in honor of the late Prof.
Gerhard E. Pfefferkorn, these Conferences present an in-depth
discussion of fundamental topics in scanning microscopy and related
techniques. Two conferences on topics directly related to the
theme of the 1996 Conference were held in 1987 and 1991;
registrants to the 1996 Conference can obtain those proceedings
[containing original peer-reviewed, full-length papers published as
Scanning Microscopy Supplements 2 (1998) and 6 (1992)] at special
package prices (including uninsured cheapest rate mail delivery) of
$95 (for US delivery) and $105 (for outside US delivery).

Scanning Microscopy International (SMI), a not-for-profit
organization, sponsors the annual Scanning Microscopy, Cells and
Materials, and Food Structure meetings: 1996 meeting will be from
May 11 to 16 at Hyatt Regency Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland (suburb of
Washington, D.C.]; publishes the international journals: Scanning
Microscopy (previously Scanning Electron Microscopy till 1986),
Food Structure, Cells and Materials (from 1991), and Scanning
Microscopy Supplements (Proceedings of the Pfefferkorn
Conferences); and issues publications devoted to selected topics
derived from its journals. Details of the programs planned for the
Scanning Microscopy 1996 meeting, a complete current list of
publications, samples Tables of Contents of publications, etc. are
available on request. The topics of this 1996 Conference are
relevant to the themes of our journals; papers for publication are
invited (Instructions for Authors are included in our journals or
available on request).

For more information, please contact Dr. Om Johari, at SMI.

---

List of speakers as of January 22, 1996 (note: * = invited but not
formally accepted as yet; when there are multiple authors, speakers
name is in CAPITALS).

G. ADE, Physikal.-Techns. Bundes., Braunschweig, Germany:
(1) A Digital Method for Noise Reduction in Holographic
Reconstructions and Electron Microscopical Images
(2) Coma-Free Alignment of Electron Microscopes and Digital
Determination of Aberration Coefficients (with R. Lauer)

G. Anstis, Univ. Technol., Sydney, Australia; C.R. Birkeland, S.C.
Anderson, D.J.H. Cockayne:
Computation and Quantitative Analysis of HAADF Lattice Images of
GaAs

N. Boisset, J.C. Taveau, V. You, F. de Haas, J. Lamy, URA CNRS,
Tours, France:
Refinement of Single Particle 3D Reconstruction (Art Method) Based
on Topological Selection of EM Views

N. Bonnet, Univ. Reims, France:
Multi-Dimensional Spectrum and Image Processing

C.B. Boothroyd, Univ. Cambridge, U.K.:
Recent Results on Energy Filtered Image Quantification

C. BURMESTER, Max-Planck-Inst. Mol. Physiol., Dortmund, Germany;
K.C. Holmes, R.R. Schroeder (Max-Planck-Inst. Med. Forschung,
Heidelburg, Germany):
Feasibility of the Multiple Isomorphous Replacement Method in
Protein-Electron-Diffraction

H. CHENG, T. Baker, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, IN:
The Correlation Approach to Virus Phasing

*M. Coster, Univ. Caen, France:
Morphology and SEM Image Analysis: Recent Progress

C. DINGES, H. Rose, Tech. Hochsch., Darmstadt, Germany:
Simulation of TEM Images and Diffraction Patterns Considering
Phonon and Electronic Excitations

J. Frank, NYS Dept. Health, Albany, NY:
Three-Dimensional Reconstruction (exact title to come)

S. Swaminathan, I.P. Jones (Univ. Birmingham, UK), N.J. Zaluzec
(Argonne Natl. Lab.), D.M. Maher (No. Carolina State Univ.,
Raleigh), H.L. FRASER, Ohio State Univ., Columbus:
Determination of Accurate Low Order Structure Factors for Si and
TiAl Using Energy Filtered CBED

D.R. Beniac, G.J. Czarnota(1), F.P. Ottensmeyer(1), G. HARAUZ,
Univ. Guelph, Canada; (1 = Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto):
Challenges of Three Dimensional Reconstruction of Nucleoprotein
Complexes from Electron Spectroscopic Images

P.W. Hawkes, CNRS Lab. Opt. Electron., Toulouse, France:
Image Algebra and Rank-Order Filters

M.J. Hytch., Ctr. d'Etud. Chim. Metall., CNRS, Vitry, France:
Holographic Reconstruction of Geometric Phase

P. Kruit, B.M. Mertens, Delft Univ. Technol., Netherlands:
Image Acquisition by Scanning in Fourier Space

M.K. KUNDMANN, Gatan EELS Software, Downers Grove, IL; S.L.
Friedman, A.J. Gubbens, O.L. Krivanek:
Characterization and Correction of TEM Energy Filter Aberrations

P.L. Bellon, S. LANZAVECCHIA, Univ. Milan, Italy:
The Moving Window Shannon Reconstruction in Real and Fourier
Domain. Applications in Tomography

H. Lichte, Univ. Dresden, Germany:
Pitfalls on the Road to 0.1 nm with Electron Holography

M. MANKOS, IBM Watson Res. Ctr., Yorktown Hts., NY; M.R.
Scheinfein, J.M. Cowley (Arizona State Univ.):
Holography and the STEM

M.R. McCartney, Arizona State Univ., Tempe:
Recent Applications of Electron Holography

D.G. MORGAN, D.J. DeRosier, Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA:
Analysis of Disordered Helices Using Correlation Methods

P.D. NELLIST, S.J. Pennycook, Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., TN:
Probe and Object Function Reconstruction in Incoherent STEM Imaging

M.A. O'Keefe, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Univ. Calif., Berkeley:
On-Line Remote-Control Electron Microscopy with Emphasis on the
Image and Signal Processing

P.A. PENCZEK, J. Zhu, R. Schroeder, J. Frank, NYS Dept. Health,
Albany, NY:
Three-Dimensional Reconstruction with CTF Compensation from Focus
Series

T. Plamann, Univ. Bristol, U.K.:
Three-Dimensional Propagation Effects in Fourier-Resolved
Ptychography

G. Matteucci, G.F. Missiroli, G. POZZI, Univ. Bologna, Italy:
Electron Holography and Electrostatic Fields

M. RADERMACHER, C. Lawrence, NYS Dept. Health, Albany, NY:
Radon Transform Techniques for Alignment and Three-Dimensional
Reconstruction from Random Projections

J.M. Rodenburg, Univ. Cambridge, U.K.:
Practical Double Resolution Projection Imaging in STEM

M. SAUNDERS, P.A. Midgley, R. Vincent, Univ. Bristol, UK:
Quantitative Energy-Filtered CBED: Matching Theory to Experiment

W.O. Saxton, Univ. Cambridge, U.K.:
Microscope Control (Exact title to come)

*M. Schatz, Fritz Haber Inst., Berlin, Germany:
Angular Reconstruction in Three-Dimensional Microscopy

Y. TAKAI, T. Ando, R. Shimizu, Univ. Osaka, Japan:
Spherical Aberration Free Observation by Defocus Image Modulation
Processing Electron Microscopy

T. TANJI, Nagoya Univ., Japan; T. Hirayama (JFCC, Nagoya):
Differential Interferometry by TEM Holography

A. Tonomura, Hitachi Advanced Res. Lab., Saitama, Japan:
Dynamic Observation of Superconducting Vortices by Electron Phase
Microscopy

N.K. TOVEY, J. Wang, Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich, U.K.:
Control Hardware and Software for SEM Image Processing

*K. Urban, Forschungszentrum, Juelich, Germany:
Stochastic Reconstruction Algorithms

D. VAN DYCK, M. Op de Beeck, Univ. Antwerp, Belgium:
From Image to Atomic Structure: How Far Are We?

M. VAN HEEL, E. Orlova, P. Dube, H. Stark, F. Zemlin, M. Schatz,
Fritz Haber Inst., Berlin, Germany:
Angular Reconstitution: High-Resolution Three-Dimensional Structure
From Single Particles

E. VOELKL, L.F. Allard, Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., TN, B. Frost (Univ.
Tennessee):
Electron Holography: Recent Developments and Applications

H.S. von Harrach, VG Scientific, E. Grinstead, U.K.:
Maximum Entropy Reconstruction of STEM Images

Z.L. Wang, Georgia Inst. Tech., Atlanta:
Thermal Diffuse Scattering in Energy Filtered Electron Diffraction
and Imaging

This conferences follows the Scanning Microscopy 1996 meeting in
Bethesda, Maryland from May 11-16 (contact Om Johari at SMI for
more information).

Papers can still be offered, please contact one of the organizers
(see above).




From: Naresh Shah :      naresh-at-service1.uky.edu
Date: Wed, 24 Jan 1996 08:44:00 -0500
Subject: Re: AREMCO fax number

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Message-ID: {310637A0.35BD-at-pop.uky.edu}

Yves Maniette wrote:
}
} Dear all,
}
} I am looking for the fax number (or even E-Mail address) of the company
} AREMCO products, OSSINING,NY. They sell Aremco crystalbond 509 glue, that
} we use for preparing samples.
}
} thank you in advance
}
} Yves MANIETTE
} Universitat de Barcelona
} Serveis Cientifico Tecnics
} Unitat ESCA TEM
} Carrer Luis Sole i Sabaris
} E-08028 BARCELONA
}
} Tel +34 3 402 16 95
} Fax +34 3 402 13 98


Aremco Products, Inc.
P.O. Box 429
Ossining, NY 10562-0429
(914)762-0685
(914)762-1663 (FAX)

I do not have e-mail address.

--

Naresh Shah
CFFLS, 341 Bowman Hall
University of Kentucky
Lexington, KY 40506-0059
e-mail: naresh-at-pop.uky.edu
(606) 257-5119
(606) 257-4027 (Dept. office)
(606) 257-7215 (FAX)




From: Joe D Geller :      geller-at-world.std.com
Date: Wed, 24 Jan 1996 09:45:33 +0001 (EST)
Subject: Re: AREMCO fax number

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Crystalbond is available from AREMCO.
Their phone is 914 762-0685 fax: 914 762-1663.

Joe Geller
Geller Microanalytical Lab
426e Boston St.
Topsfield, MA 01983-1212

On Wed, 24 Jan 1996, Yves Maniette wrote:

}
} Dear all,
}
} I am looking for the fax number (or even E-Mail address) of the company
} AREMCO products, OSSINING,NY. They sell Aremco crystalbond 509 glue, that
} we use for preparing samples.
}
} thank you in advance
}
}
}
} Yves MANIETTE
} Universitat de Barcelona
} Serveis Cientifico Tecnics
} Unitat ESCA TEM
} Carrer Luis Sole i Sabaris
} E-08028 BARCELONA
}
} Tel +34 3 402 16 95
} Fax +34 3 402 13 98
}




From: Wil Bigelow :      Wil_Bigelow-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 24 Jan 1996 12:11:31 -0400
Subject: RE-EDS Algorithms

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Subject: Time: 12:04 PM
OFFICE MEMO RE:EDS Algorithms Date: 1/24/96

Those of you interested in callculations such as those involved in processing
EDS spectra should by all means get a copy of the book "Data Reduction and
Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences" by P. R. Bevington, McGraw-Hill,
1969 It contains about a dozen self-consistent FORTRAN programs for
carrying out many of the basic mathematical operations involved in such
calculations. W. C. Bigelow (bigelow-at-umich.edu)





From: keller-at-boulder.nist.gov (Bob Keller)
Date: Wed, 24 Jan 1996 09:38:13 -0700
Subject: Re: EBSP system

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X-Sender: keller-at-arc1.mrd.bldrdoc.gov
Message-Id: {v01510103ad2c10bece11-at-[132.163.192.156]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

} I'm trying to get in touch with TSL TexSEM Laboratories Incorporated a
} company that makes EBSP software for Windows. I have a phone number
} 801-467-9930, but nobody answers. Anyone know how to get in touch with
} them?

TSL can be reached at 801-344-8990.

Bob Keller
NIST






From: MEIDJOSTRI-at-engvms.unl.edu (Jo Strinz-Colburn)
Date: Wed, 24 Jan 1996 10:32:13 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Hitachi S-310A field emission SEM

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I am looking for any manuals and/or technical data, i.e. circuit diagrams,
on a Hitachi S-310A field emission SEM. We have the column and vacuum
control/power supplies unit but no scan/display unit and I want to find out
how to connect a computer-based scanning/image acquisition system in its
place for a project.



Thanks for any help you can give me.




Jo Strinz-Colburn
meidjostri-at-engvms.unl.edu

c/o Mechanical Engineering
255 WSEC
Lincoln, NE 68588-0656
(402) 472-7920
(402) 472-1465 FAX






From: Leo Marin :      leo-at-spine.med.utoronto.ca
Date: Wed, 24 Jan 1996 14:38:46 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Formvar detachment

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I have been having a problem during "drop" staining of grids for TEM:
I place my slot grid on a drop of stain. Sometimes the formvar which
holds the sections in place detach from the grid - the formvar (and sections)
float on the drop of stain and the grid sinks to the bottom.Has anyone
out there been having a similar problem? Do you know of any solution. I
have taken a number of "remedial" measures but I am not sure whether
they have worked since the problem re-occurs from time to time. For example
I have :
- stained grids after allowing them to "stand" for at least 24 hours
after sectioning.
- tried multiple grid staining
- used a glue pen
- pre-dipped grids in formvar before picking up sections
- cleaned grids thoroughly in acetone-HCl- DW
-used acetone-stored grids
-left grids with sections (on formvar plates) in a desiccator for
extended periods
I would appreciate any suggestions.

Leo




From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Wed, 24 Jan 1996 09:59:58 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: TEM contrast

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} One of my courses will discuss in length the contrast
} theory used for the TEM.
} Since I've never ever worked with these beasts I wonder if there is a
} S/W simulator or some other means that wouldmake the digestion of the
} theory a little easier ???
}
} I have to start from electron diffraction, white field, dark field,
} Kikuchi pattern etc... all new to me ! to get to the contrast theory.

Dear CFILION,
The Academic Press volumes, Principles of Electron Optics, by
Hawkes & Kasper, go into this in great detail in Vol. 3. Good luck.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: jbpawley-at-facstaff.wisc.edu (Jim Pawley)
Date: Wed, 24 Jan 1996 09:21:58 -0600
Subject: "3D MICROSCOPY OF LIVING CELLS" Course, Second announcement

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********** PLEASE RESPOND BY EMAIL TO:jbpawley-at-facstaff.wisc.edu: **********

LIMITED SPACE STILL AVAILABLE.
________________________________________________________________________________

Second announcement:

An intensive, 8-day course on

"3D MICROSCOPY OF LIVING CELLS"

will be given at the

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

July 27 - August 4, 1996

THE PURPOSE OF THE COURSE

Modern methods of 3D light microscopy promise a revolutionary improvement
in our ability to view living cells. To help convert this promise to
reality for a wider selection of biological scientists, an intensive eight
day residential course concentrating on all aspects of the 3D Microscopy of
Living Cells will be introduced at the University of British Columbia, in
the summer of 1996.
Covering everything from basic microscopy to the technical considerations
that define the highest levels of performance of the confocal microscope,
this course will include:

* Quantitative confocal microscopy
* Pixelation: The Nyquist Criterion
* Lasers and laser tweezers
* Objectives and aberrations
* Scanning-systems
* Wide field/deconvolution techniques
* Detectors: operation and performance
* Optimal pinhole size & photon efficiency
* Dye design, characteristics and use
* How to keep your cells alive
* Two-photon excitation
* Video-rate confocal imaging
* Measuring ion concentrations
* Display and measurement of 3D data
* Digital hard copy and storage
* Fluorescent & gold labeling of living cells
* Backscattered light imaging.

Lecture demonstrations will be interspersed with hands-on laboratory
exercises that will utilize all of the currently available commercial
instruments for 3D microscopic imaging.
Students will work in groups of three throughout the discussion and
laboratory sessions, and will complete a live-cell 3D study on a specimen
of their choice.
At least seven, separate 3D microscopical workstations, attended by a
technical staff of 15, will be available for student use. Overall, the
teacher/student ratio will be more than 2:1.

International Academic Faculty:

* Jon Art University of Illinois
* Milton Charlton University of Toronto
* Rachel Errington Oxford University
* Jim Pawley University of Wisconcon-Madison
* Wallace Marshall U. of California, San Francisco
* Ernst Stelzer EMBL, Heidelberg
* Roger Tsien University of California, San Diego
* Pavel Vesely Academy of Sciences, Prague
* Watt Webb Cornell University
* Michael Weis University of British Columbia
* Nick White Oxford University

International Commercial Faculty:

* Ernst Keller Carl Zeiss, NY
* Paul Millard Molecular Probes, OR
* Sigrid Myrdal Bristol-Myers Squibb, WA
* K. Sam Wells Bio-Rad,,CA

WHO SHOULD ATTEND?

The course is designed for biological research scientists and advanced
graduate students who use, or plan to apply 3D microscopy to studies
involving living cells. No previous experience in advanced light
microscopy is required but applicants will be asked to outline how they
plan to use 3D microscopy and describe a short research project that they
plan to carry out during the course. Most projects will If space permits,
students with other interests in 3D light microscopy will be welcomed.

PLAN OF INSTRUCTION

Classes will meet from 8:30 -12:30 and 1:30 - 5:30 and will alternate
between lecture-demonstrations and laboratory sessions. From Monday to
Friday, facilities and supervision will be available until 11:00 pm, for
students to work on their projects. On average, only two topics will be
covered in each morning or afternoon session.
There will be enough 3D microscopy setups to permit students in groups
of three, to "learn-by-doing" following each demonstration. Lab handouts
will include detailed questions to stimulate group discussions.
Prior to the course, students will be organized into groups and encouraged
to communicate by email/phone, about the "Living-cell" group projects that
they will pursue in the evenings and that will be presented to the class on
the last day of the course.
Students must contact the Course Organizer to make necessary
arrangements for the transport and maintenance of cell lines etc. needed
for their projects.

ACCOMMODATIONS

Campus accommodations border on the luxurious and arrangements can easily
be made for accompanying family members. Rooms and suites will be
situated in the Walter Gage Residence located centrally, a few blocks from
either the lecture-lab facilities or the Student Union Building which
contains a large cafeteria, lounge, bank, etc. Many of the rooms in the
Gage Residence have breathtaking views of the mountains of North and West
Vancouver, and the Pacific Ocean. A variety of accommodation types are
available:

- Single room with shared washroom $24

- Single room with private bath $41

- Double suite (kitchenette, private bath,
TV, phone, double bedroom plus
separate sitting room) $63

- Triple suite (twin bedroom and queen
Murphy bed in sitting room, balcony,
kitchen, bath, TV, phone) $74
(All fees are $ US per night. Add 15% VAT)


Students are encouraged to bring family members to enjoy the pristine
beauty of the Vancouver area and the miles of sandy beaches that surround
the campus.


TUITION

Tuition is $1,500 US. On receipt of the deposit, all students will
receive preliminary assignments and a copy of the textbook, "Handbook of
Biological Confocal Microscopy," (Plenum, 1995).
The tuition fee includes one ticket for the opening reception and the
banquet, the textbook and all handouts. Accommodations and meals are not
included in the tuition fee.

APPLICATIONS

Applicants will complete a questionnaire to assess knowledge level and
field of interest. Enrolment will be limited to 20 participants.
Selection will be made on the basis of background and perceived need.
Those without previous LM experience will be provided with basic texts to
read before the course begins. Application packages may be obtained from


Prof. James Pawley, Rm. 1235,
1500 Johnson Dr., Madison, WI, USA 53706.
Phone: 1-608-263-3147, Fax 1-608-265-5315,
Email: jbpawley-at-facstaff.wisc.edu

Application deadlines:

Applications forms requesting information on field of interest and level
of experience must be received for screening by March 1, 1996.
Successful applicants will be notified by April 1, and a deposit of 50%
must be received by April 15, 1996. In general, refunds of the deposit
will not be possible.


Applications must be received by Mar. 1/96
50% deposit due Apr. 15/96
Registration 3:00 - 5:00 pm Sat., July 27/96
Last class will end with lunch Sun., Aug. 4/96



*****************************************

****************************************
Prof. James B. Pawley, Ph. 608-263-3147
Room 1235, Engineering Research Building, FAX 608-265-5315
1500 Johnson Dr., Madison, WI, 53706 JBPAWLEY-at-FACSTAFF.WISC.EDU

****************************************
Prof. James B. Pawley, Ph. 608-263-3147
Room 1235, Engineering Research Building, FAX 608-265-5315
1500 Johnson Dr., Madison, WI, 53706 JBPAWLEY-at-FACSTAFF.WISC.EDU






From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Wed, 24 Jan 1996 16:29:26 -0600
Subject: Re: Charging for Services

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Message-Id: {199601242132.PAA23101-at-BCM.TMC.EDU}
X-Sender: joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
X-Mailer: Windows Eudora Version 2.1.1
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

At 08:55 AM 1/23/96 -1000, you wrote:
} As I am in one of the facilities who used to have a "pre-paid, lump-sum"
} system in place that appeared to make everybody happy, only to have a
} federal audit come in and SEVERLY penalize us for doing so, I would also
} be interested in what other recharge facilities are doing. Please keep
} this dialog going, or post a compilation of replies!
}
} Mahalo,
} Tina
}
************************
Tina -

I am also in a fee-for-service situation. I get no support from grants,
except that investigators use funds from their grants to pay me for the
electron microscopy I do for their research projects. We have a fee
structure that basically prices our services depending upon what we are
called on to do, and whether there is a signed report that goes into a
patient's file in clinical cases. Some time ago when I was setting this up
and was curious what other service EM labs, especially medical labs like my
own, charged for their work, I was told that asking other labs what they
charged was illegal and amounted to price fixing. I am not sure what agency
enforces that, probably Medicare; and I am not sure if it is still true. But
if you have medical cases, you might inquire about this.


Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D.

Director, Electron Microscopy tel.: (713)798-4658
Department of Pathology, Rm.286-A FAX: (713)798-3945
Baylor College of Medicine Internet: joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
One Baylor Plaza Compuserve: 71555,1206
Houston, Texas 77030 U.S.A.






From: Bob Citron :      Bob_Citron-at-cc.chiron.com
Date: 1/23/96 12:53 PM
Subject: cataracts

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About a year ago, after using EM's for 27 years and having
developed cataracts in both eyes at an unusually early age
(49), I asked the question through this medium about eye damage
resulting from long-term use of electron microscopes. As in the
current discussion some interesting comments were made. There is
definitely evidence that radiation from a variety of sources
causes cataracts, typically in the posterior capsule of the lens
- not the nucleus where senile cataracts usually develop.
However, modern electron microscopes should be adequately
screened to prevent this. In my case the cataracts were
apparently typical of radiation-induced cataracts although when
and where the irradiation took place is anyone's guess. Someone
has mentioned UV radiation from vacuum evaporators. This could
be a possibility because I know of little in the way of
precautions which are routinely taken to prevent this.



Robin Cross
Director : EM Unit, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa
eurc-at-giraffe.ru.ac.za (tel: +27 461 318168 - fax: +27 461 24377)





From: R Holland Cheng :      RHC-at-justem.bio.purdue.edu
Date: Wed, 24 Jan 1996 12:28:02 -0500 (EST)
Subject: FWD: Meeting at Silver bay

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} Dear Dr. Cheng,
}
} Thank you for your reply.
}
} I have not had good success with the E.mails publicity. I provide the
} latest flier below. Can you please help me by having it posted? Any other
} help you can give to publicize the conference will be most appreciated.
} ----



-- [ From: Dr. Om Johari * EMC.Ver #2.0 ] --

Please Circulate

Scanning Microscopy International
P.O. Box 66507, Chicago (AMF O'Hare), IL 60666, USA
Telephone: (708) 529-6677 / FAX: (708) 980-6677
E.mail:73211.647-at-compuserve.com

Fifteenth Pfefferkorn Conference on
Electron Image and Signal Processing

May 18-22, 1996 at Silver Bay Association, Silver Bay, NY

The Conference will provide a forum for discussion of the current
status, recent advances and prospects of many aspects of image and
signal processing in electron and near-field microscopy and
microanalysis. The principal themes are three-dimensional
reconstruction, image restoration, enhancement and analysis
(including morphological and algebraic approaches in particular),
electron holography, the phase problem, processing image sets (from
STEM detectors and from defocus and tilt series, for example),
image simulation, and hardware and software for image acquisition
and processing and for microscope control. Please see below for a
list of speakers.

The organizers are: Dr. Peter W. Hawkes, CNRS Lab. Opt. Elect.,
B.P. 4347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex, France (Phone: 33-62-257884 / FAX
33-62-257999 / E.mail: hawkes-at-cict.fr); Dr. W. Owen Saxton, Univ.
Cambridge, U.K. (FAX: 44-1223-334 567 / E.mail:
wos1-at-cus.cam.ac.uk); and Dr. Joachim Frank, NYS Dept. Health,
Wadsworth Center, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA (Phone: 518 474 7002
/ FAX: 518 474 8590 / E.mail: joachim-at-wadsworth.org). Interested
contributors should contact either of the organizers with a title
and a one page summary; please also include other relevant
information (e.g., time desired, reprints of relevant publications,
etc.).

Full-length papers will be published in the Conference Proceedings
to be issued as Scanning Microscopy Supplement 11, 1997.

Conference Information: Registration begins at 6 PM on Friday, May
17. The first lecture will be at 8:30 AM on Saturday, May 18; the
Conference will end at lunch on Wednesday, May 22. Sessions will
be daily in mornings (from 8:30 to 1), afternoons (about 4:30-7),
and evenings (about 8:45 to 10). Ample discussion time will be
allowed; active participation by attendees is invited. Because of
the limited number of attendees, the Pfefferkorn Conferences
provide an excellent opportunity for in-depth discussions and
personal contacts. Conference attendance is by application or
invitation only. Qualified registrants will be accepted on a
first-come-first-served basis. To apply: please submit name,
mailing and E.mail addresses, phone (work and home) and FAX
numbers, and a 50-100 statement about your qualification relative
to the theme (and topics) of the conference, accompanied by the
full registration fee of US $200 (includes attendance to sessions,
coffee-breaks, and a copy of the Conference Proceedings).

Conference Location: The sessions will take place at one of the
conference rooms at Silver Bay Association (SBA), Silver Bay, NY
12874 (phone: 518 543 8833 / FAX: 518 543 6733 / E.mail:
sbaconf-at-aol.com), located 80 miles north of Albany, NY. This 600
acres beautiful, peaceful, registered historical place, located on
Lake George and in the Adirondack mountains, offers dozens of water
and land sports, gym programs, hiking, etc. and is filled with
gardens, rolling lawns and gentle streams. It is ideal for a
family vacation or retreat. The room rates (all rates include
three full meals daily!) range from $40 per person (in two and four
bed-room cottages ideal for four and eight persons, respectively),
to $55 and $65 per person (based on two persons to a room) in rooms
without and with private baths, respectively. Accompanying
children aged 4 to 12 pay half of these rates. Single rooms are
available at a cost of $69 (without private bath) or $80 (with
private bath). It is expected that all attendees will stay at this
location. To make accommodation reservations, please contact SBA
directly and inform us of your travel details (mode and day/time).
Details about getting to Silver Bay will be sent to all attendees:
nearest airports are Albany (New York) and Burlington (Vermont);
foreigners may find it easier to fly to Montreal, Canada (about 150
miles north) or New York (about 200 miles south). There is one
daily train each way from New York and Montreal which stops in
Ticonderoga, NY (about 20 miles from Silver Bay); some bus service
is available too. Appropriate van transportation from Albany (at
costs ranging from $50 per van for less than 4 people, or $10 per
person for more than 5 persons) will also be arranged by SBA.
Attemps will also be made to form car pools with those driving.

Past Conferences: Started in 1982, in honor of the late Prof.
Gerhard E. Pfefferkorn, these Conferences present an in-depth
discussion of fundamental topics in scanning microscopy and related
techniques. Two conferences on topics directly related to the
theme of the 1996 Conference were held in 1987 and 1991;
registrants to the 1996 Conference can obtain those proceedings
[containing original peer-reviewed, full-length papers published as
Scanning Microscopy Supplements 2 (1998) and 6 (1992)] at special
package prices (including uninsured cheapest rate mail delivery) of
$95 (for US delivery) and $105 (for outside US delivery).

Scanning Microscopy International (SMI), a not-for-profit
organization, sponsors the annual Scanning Microscopy, Cells and
Materials, and Food Structure meetings: 1996 meeting will be from
May 11 to 16 at Hyatt Regency Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland (suburb of
Washington, D.C.]; publishes the international journals: Scanning
Microscopy (previously Scanning Electron Microscopy till 1986),
Food Structure, Cells and Materials (from 1991), and Scanning
Microscopy Supplements (Proceedings of the Pfefferkorn
Conferences); and issues publications devoted to selected topics
derived from its journals. Details of the programs planned for the
Scanning Microscopy 1996 meeting, a complete current list of
publications, samples Tables of Contents of publications, etc. are
available on request. The topics of this 1996 Conference are
relevant to the themes of our journals; papers for publication are
invited (Instructions for Authors are included in our journals or
available on request).

For more information, please contact Dr. Om Johari, at SMI.

---

List of speakers as of January 22, 1996 (note: * = invited but not
formally accepted as yet; when there are multiple authors, speakers
name is in CAPITALS).

G. ADE, Physikal.-Techns. Bundes., Braunschweig, Germany:
(1) A Digital Method for Noise Reduction in Holographic
Reconstructions and Electron Microscopical Images
(2) Coma-Free Alignment of Electron Microscopes and Digital
Determination of Aberration Coefficients (with R. Lauer)

G. Anstis, Univ. Technol., Sydney, Australia; C.R. Birkeland, S.C.
Anderson, D.J.H. Cockayne:
Computation and Quantitative Analysis of HAADF Lattice Images of
GaAs

N. Boisset, J.C. Taveau, V. You, F. de Haas, J. Lamy, URA CNRS,
Tours, France:
Refinement of Single Particle 3D Reconstruction (Art Method) Based
on Topological Selection of EM Views

N. Bonnet, Univ. Reims, France:
Multi-Dimensional Spectrum and Image Processing

C.B. Boothroyd, Univ. Cambridge, U.K.:
Recent Results on Energy Filtered Image Quantification

C. BURMESTER, Max-Planck-Inst. Mol. Physiol., Dortmund, Germany;
K.C. Holmes, R.R. Schroeder (Max-Planck-Inst. Med. Forschung,
Heidelburg, Germany):
Feasibility of the Multiple Isomorphous Replacement Method in
Protein-Electron-Diffraction

H. CHENG, T. Baker, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, IN:
The Correlation Approach to Virus Phasing

*M. Coster, Univ. Caen, France:
Morphology and SEM Image Analysis: Recent Progress

C. DINGES, H. Rose, Tech. Hochsch., Darmstadt, Germany:
Simulation of TEM Images and Diffraction Patterns Considering
Phonon and Electronic Excitations

J. Frank, NYS Dept. Health, Albany, NY:
Three-Dimensional Reconstruction (exact title to come)

S. Swaminathan, I.P. Jones (Univ. Birmingham, UK), N.J. Zaluzec
(Argonne Natl. Lab.), D.M. Maher (No. Carolina State Univ.,
Raleigh), H.L. FRASER, Ohio State Univ., Columbus:
Determination of Accurate Low Order Structure Factors for Si and
TiAl Using Energy Filtered CBED

D.R. Beniac, G.J. Czarnota(1), F.P. Ottensmeyer(1), G. HARAUZ,
Univ. Guelph, Canada; (1 = Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto):
Challenges of Three Dimensional Reconstruction of Nucleoprotein
Complexes from Electron Spectroscopic Images

P.W. Hawkes, CNRS Lab. Opt. Electron., Toulouse, France:
Image Algebra and Rank-Order Filters

M.J. Hytch., Ctr. d'Etud. Chim. Metall., CNRS, Vitry, France:
Holographic Reconstruction of Geometric Phase

P. Kruit, B.M. Mertens, Delft Univ. Technol., Netherlands:
Image Acquisition by Scanning in Fourier Space

M.K. KUNDMANN, Gatan EELS Software, Downers Grove, IL; S.L.
Friedman, A.J. Gubbens, O.L. Krivanek:
Characterization and Correction of TEM Energy Filter Aberrations

P.L. Bellon, S. LANZAVECCHIA, Univ. Milan, Italy:
The Moving Window Shannon Reconstruction in Real and Fourier
Domain. Applications in Tomography

H. Lichte, Univ. Dresden, Germany:
Pitfalls on the Road to 0.1 nm with Electron Holography

M. MANKOS, IBM Watson Res. Ctr., Yorktown Hts., NY; M.R.
Scheinfein, J.M. Cowley (Arizona State Univ.):
Holography and the STEM

M.R. McCartney, Arizona State Univ., Tempe:
Recent Applications of Electron Holography

D.G. MORGAN, D.J. DeRosier, Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA:
Analysis of Disordered Helices Using Correlation Methods

P.D. NELLIST, S.J. Pennycook, Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., TN:
Probe and Object Function Reconstruction in Incoherent STEM Imaging

M.A. O'Keefe, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Univ. Calif., Berkeley:
On-Line Remote-Control Electron Microscopy with Emphasis on the
Image and Signal Processing

P.A. PENCZEK, J. Zhu, R. Schroeder, J. Frank, NYS Dept. Health,
Albany, NY:
Three-Dimensional Reconstruction with CTF Compensation from Focus
Series

T. Plamann, Univ. Bristol, U.K.:
Three-Dimensional Propagation Effects in Fourier-Resolved
Ptychography

G. Matteucci, G.F. Missiroli, G. POZZI, Univ. Bologna, Italy:
Electron Holography and Electrostatic Fields

M. RADERMACHER, C. Lawrence, NYS Dept. Health, Albany, NY:
Radon Transform Techniques for Alignment and Three-Dimensional
Reconstruction from Random Projections

J.M. Rodenburg, Univ. Cambridge, U.K.:
Practical Double Resolution Projection Imaging in STEM

M. SAUNDERS, P.A. Midgley, R. Vincent, Univ. Bristol, UK:
Quantitative Energy-Filtered CBED: Matching Theory to Experiment

W.O. Saxton, Univ. Cambridge, U.K.:
Microscope Control (Exact title to come)

*M. Schatz, Fritz Haber Inst., Berlin, Germany:
Angular Reconstruction in Three-Dimensional Microscopy

Y. TAKAI, T. Ando, R. Shimizu, Univ. Osaka, Japan:
Spherical Aberration Free Observation by Defocus Image Modulation
Processing Electron Microscopy

T. TANJI, Nagoya Univ., Japan; T. Hirayama (JFCC, Nagoya):
Differential Interferometry by TEM Holography

A. Tonomura, Hitachi Advanced Res. Lab., Saitama, Japan:
Dynamic Observation of Superconducting Vortices by Electron Phase
Microscopy

N.K. TOVEY, J. Wang, Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich, U.K.:
Control Hardware and Software for SEM Image Processing

*K. Urban, Forschungszentrum, Juelich, Germany:
Stochastic Reconstruction Algorithms

D. VAN DYCK, M. Op de Beeck, Univ. Antwerp, Belgium:
From Image to Atomic Structure: How Far Are We?

M. VAN HEEL, E. Orlova, P. Dube, H. Stark, F. Zemlin, M. Schatz,
Fritz Haber Inst., Berlin, Germany:
Angular Reconstitution: High-Resolution Three-Dimensional Structure
From Single Particles

E. VOELKL, L.F. Allard, Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., TN, B. Frost (Univ.
Tennessee):
Electron Holography: Recent Developments and Applications

H.S. von Harrach, VG Scientific, E. Grinstead, U.K.:
Maximum Entropy Reconstruction of STEM Images

Z.L. Wang, Georgia Inst. Tech., Atlanta:
Thermal Diffuse Scattering in Energy Filtered Electron Diffraction
and Imaging

This conferences follows the Scanning Microscopy 1996 meeting in
Bethesda, Maryland from May 11-16 (contact Om Johari at SMI for
more information).

Papers can still be offered, please contact one of the organizers
(see above).





From: Martin K|hler :      mk-at-enk.ks.se
Date: Thu, 25 Jan 1996 01:00:48 +0100
Subject: LM: uncaging instrumentation

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Equipment for "UNCAGING OF CAGED SUBSTANCES"?

I wonder what equipment is used or should be used for uncaging (photolysis)
of caged (photoactivable) compounds.

Background:
Caged compounds usually seems to be optimally activated by a short
(millisecond) pulse of {365 nm light. To get this light one may use light
sources like lasers, flash lamps or maybe arclamps with fast shutter. The
light may reach the sample either through the objective (light through
epifluorescence port of the microscope) or by leading an optical fibre
directly to the cell.

Questions about instrumentation:

- What light sources are used (types of lasers, Xenon arc lamps, Mercury arc
lamps, flash lamps)?

- How is the exact light path to the cell/cells/subcells? What types of
optics and components are used?

- What effect or energy is needed?

- What companies provide necessary parts (like Oriel, Newport, Melles Griot,
Hamamatsu)?=20

- What complete commersial systems are available for this, and how are their
performance?


Thanks in beforehand for your answers,
Martin

-----------------------------------------------
Martin K=F6hler
Department of Molecular Medicine
Rolf Luft Center for Diabetes Research L6B:1
Karolinska Hospital
S-171 76 STOCKHOLM
SWEDEN
phone 46-8-7295732
46-8-7295725
fax 46-8-7293658
E-mail mk-at-enk.ks.se
---------------------------------------------





From: Miguel Avalos B. :      miguel-at-ifisicaen.unam.mx
Date: Wed, 24 Jan 1996 19:53:07 -0800
Subject: ION MILL WANTED..

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I'm looking for a used (and inexpensive) ion mill device for the preparation
of TEM specimens..

Miguel Avalos
IFUNAM
Ensenada, B.C. MEXICO




From: Yves Maniette :      yves-at-giga.sct.ub.es
Date: Thu, 25 Jan 1996 09:52:52 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: glues:more

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Dear all,

Here is another message about glues for sample preparation. Hope it helps.
YM.


I saw your message om the Crystalbond. Please note that we sell the
Crystalbond in our catalog and at very competitive prices. If you are
interested please see page 147 of catalog XII. If you do not have this
catalog please let me know and we will send you one.
I hope this information helps.

Stacie Kirsch
Electron Microscopy Sciences.
Tel: 215-646-1566
Fax: 215-646-8931





From: Brett W. Cockman :      bcockman-at-uniwa.uwa.edu.au
Date: Thu, 25 Jan 1996 16:42:40 +0700 (WAST)
Subject: Thanks Re: Ralph knife glass

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Just a note of thanks to all those who provided their views and
recommendations regarding the use of ultramicrotome quality glass (UMG) v's
histology quality glass. The upshot is that UMG should be more than adequate
for the purpose of making Ralph knives.
Thanks again for your interest.

Brett.
Brett W. Cockman
Technologist in Charge
School of Dentistry
University of Western Australia
Voice: (619-2205834)
Fax: (619-2213829)
e-mail; bcockman-at-uniwa.uwa.edu.au




From: Yves Maniette :      yves-at-giga.sct.ub.es
Date: Thu, 25 Jan 1996 09:47:09 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: Sample preparation glues

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Dear all,

I got an interesting piece of information about glues for TEM sample
preparation, from D. Henriks, South Bay Technology.
So I am sending it to the list, as it might be of interest. Particularly
I know that it is quite difficult to get the AREMCO 509 glue in Europe,
because it has to go through a network of distributors and
sub-distributors, so that the price comes to be quite elevated.

-- MESSAGE --

We can supply it to you in the same 7" long sticks that you get from Aremco or
you can buy a package of 20 3" long x 1/4" x 1/4" Unwrapped sticks. These are
ideal for sample preparation. I absolutely guarantee that you will be 100%
satisfied with the product.

Below, I have listed quantity pricing and alternative packaging for the
QuickStick 135. This material is the same as "Crystalbond 509".

20 x 3.5" Sticks per tray (360 grams per tray) - this is our standard package.
Minimum order is 1 tray.

1 x .875" diameter x 7" long wrapped in cardboard tube (5 sticks = 450 grams).
Minimum order is 10 sticks.

10 x .875" diameter x 7" long unwrapped in plastic tray (1 tray = 900 grams).
Minimum order is 1 tray.

1 pound bulk pack trays
Minimum order is 10 pounds

Sizes and gross weights for above are approximate.


David Henriks TEL: 800-728-2233 (toll-free in USA)
South Bay Technology, Inc. 714-492-2600
1120 Via Callejon FAX: 714-492-1499
San Clemente, CA 92673 USA e-mail: 73531.1344-at-compuserve.com
sbt-at-msa.microscopy.com

Manufacturers of Precision Sample Preparation Equipment and Supplies for
Metallography, Crystallography and Electron Microscopy.





From: ENERGY BEAM SCIENCES, INC :      75767.640-at-CompuServe.COM
Date: 25 Jan 96 08:34:03 EST
Subject: Re: Formvar detachment

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Detachment of formvar films from grids during staining is a common problem. We
recommend use of the SynapTek grid stick kit, which holds the grids during
staining in the same plane as the solution flow, minimizing the chances of
losing the films (or collecting surface debris). The grids are held to the grid
stick with a special adhesive which is not attacked by solvents, and which will
not remain on the grid once it is removed from the stick.
Please contact me directly for specific ordering information.
Steven Slap, Vice-President
Energy Beam Sciences, Inc
75767,640-at-compuserve.com





From: krogers-at-ecn.purdue.edu (Kirk Rogers)
Date: Thu, 25 Jan 1996 10:41:18 -0500
Subject: RE:glues

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All-

I used the Crystalbond 509 glue forTEM prep initially, but about a 2 years
ago I switched to quick-bond nail glue (for cosmetic fingernails - a
cyanoacrylate formula, like SuperGlue) for several reasons:
1. specimens do not have to be heated, which seemed to be a problem with
the specimen mounts for the dimpler I was using

2. the glue thickness is about half of what I could achieve with
Crystalbond, which increased my success rate at preparing copper-sapphire
interface specimens

3. specimen adhesion is nearly instantaneous - instant gratification!

4. I can walk across the street and purchase more instead of waiting 3
weeks for the purchase order to get through purchasing

5. Crystalbond properties seemed to degrade during our humid summers.

The only real problems with the stuff are that it takes ~2 hours of soaking
in acetone to remove specimens from the dimpler mount, and when not capped
tightly an entire bottle will cure in about 2 weeks.

For larger jobs, I use a homemade version of the Crystalbond glue (found in
an old Handbook of Chemistry and Physics) which can be made by mixing
equimolal quantities of phthalic anhydride and ethylene glycol for 24 hours
at 200 deg. C in a covered beaker, stirring every couple of hours. Pour
into some sort of flexible mold to make shapes and store in a cool dry
place.




-Kirk
_____________________________________________
Kirk Rogers krogers-at-materials.ecn.purdue.edu
OR kirk.a.rogers.1-at-purdue.edu
Purdue University, School of Materials Science and Engineering,
1289 MSEE building, W. Lafayette, IN 47907-1289
OFFICE: 317-494-8751 FAX: 317-494-1204
http://materials.ecn.purdue.edu/~krogers






From: houpt-at-worldaccess.nl (houpt)
Date: Thu, 25 Jan 1996 17:30:51 +0100
Subject: toplens wanted

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For planktonresearch I use an old Leitz Ortholux stand.On this stand a
socalled Berek condensor is used with interchangeable toplenses.
I look for an small toplens of NA 1.4 which fits onto that condensor.
Can any microscopist help me , for a reasonable price.

Thank you in advance

Pieter Houpt

Pieter.M.Houpt.
Marine Plankton & microscopy
tel/fax. 003170504466
The Hague.
The Netherlands.






From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Thu, 25 Jan 1996 11:24:04 -0600
Subject: Re: Charging for Services

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At 08:51 AM 1/25/96 -0600, you wrote:

} Let me get this straight: you are required to charge "customary fees" for
} your services (otherwise you won't get paid), but you are not allowed to
} find out what the usual fees are? Did anyone ever try a class in elementary
} logic on these guys who make the rules?
}
*******************
I just went down the hall to check with our administrative associate in
charge of billing. Yes, I am right: for me (Director of the medical EM lab)
to ask people in another medical lab, not within our organization, what
their charges are for their services is illegal. As Chuck Garber, points
out, it runs afoul of the anti trust laws. I can ask for, and the other lab
can give me, a RANGE within which their charges fall, but they cannot
disclose, nor can I demand to know, what the actual numbers are. No, I do
not know how broad that "range" must be.


Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D.

Director, Electron Microscopy tel.: (713)798-4658
Department of Pathology, Rm.286-A FAX: (713)798-3945
Baylor College of Medicine Internet: joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
One Baylor Plaza Compuserve: 71555,1206
Houston, Texas 77030 U.S.A.






From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Thu, 25 Jan 1996 11:24:02 -0600
Subject: Re: Charging for Services

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At 07:22 AM 1/25/96 EST, you wrote:

} While you should not take this as legal advice, at no time has the
} congress ever exempted nonprofit or other tax exempt organizations from
} the anti trust laws. If anyone should ever challenge you on that one,
} ask them to show you where nonprofits were ever given any such
} exemption.
*******************
I assumed that to be the case.
*******************


} Secondly, I for one, sitting in the private sector, get quite a kick
} out of these kinds of conversations. It sounds to me like the decision
} on what to charge someone is about as arbitrary as could be, and there
} also seems to be an admission that there is little relationship between
} what someone costs vs. how it is charged.
*******************
For years that's exactly what I based my charges on, ie. my costs plus a bit
to cover replacement and depreciation. The goal was to run a lab that paid
for itself. There was no pressure to make a profit strictly for profit's
sake. Now with the new politics in health care, the "bottom line" is more
important than patient care, and I am told what to charge.
*******************


} Yet, how would you feel if I was selling you a sputter coater 20% more
} than I would charge someone else only because, say, I thought you could
} afford it more than someone else? I am sure you would not feel very
} good about that at all, as indeed you should feel.


*******************
Hey, it happens! Not from reputable suppliers such as SPI....but it happens.

I appreciate your thoughts on these matters, Chuck, because you view things
from a different perspective.


Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D.

Director, Electron Microscopy tel.: (713)798-4658
Department of Pathology, Rm.286-A FAX: (713)798-3945
Baylor College of Medicine Internet: joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
One Baylor Plaza Compuserve: 71555,1206
Houston, Texas 77030 U.S.A.






From: brmjg-at-ttacs1.ttu.edu (Mark Grimson)
Date: Thu, 25 Jan 1996 13:16:06 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Subscription

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Could you please add my name to the subscription file. Thank you.






From: Kathy Walters :      kwalters-at-emiris.iaf.uiowa.edu
Date: Thu, 25 Jan 1996 14:36:05 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Thin sections of polymers

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Esteemed Colleagues:

I have been asked to image the interior structure of a polymer
suspension.

Ideally I would like to resin embed for TEM. I am not a polymer
scientist, but I do know that these polymers produce spheres when
suspended with small amounts of BSA. The polymer is polyglycolic acid
(PGLA). I called the manufacturers, but they have not done any
significant imaging of it, and do not appear to be interested. They did
tell me that the PGLA is heat sensitive and dissolves in isopropal
alcohol. My experiment with epoxys was an unmitigated disaster, and I am
considering a low temperature embedment procedure (Another researcher
tried Lowicryl, but the spheres did not remain intact).

I referenced a book entitled "Polymer Microscopy" by Sawyer and
Grubb, but it doesn't refer to anything similar to my polymer.

Any (relevent) thoughts would be appriciated.

Kathy Walters
CMRF
U of Iowa





From: John.Wheatley-at-ASU.Edu (John C. Wheatley)
Date: Wed, 24 Jan 1996 15:00:12 -0700
Subject: CCD Cameras for Light Microscopy

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If this question has been asked before, I apologize. I need information on
your experiences with light microscopy CCD camera systems. What systems
are available for easily and inexpensively (?) digitizing images from light
microscopes to PC formats? I need manufacturers (addresses) and prices
please. Please send information to my e-mail address--especially if this
discussion has taken place before. Thank you.

John C. Wheatley
Lab Manager
Center for High Resolution Electron Microscopy
BOX 871704
Tempe, AZ 85287-1704
Phone: (602) 965-3831
FAX: (602) 965-9004
John.Wheatley-at-ASU.Edu






From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Thu, 25 Jan 1996 17:02:58 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: LM: uncaging instrumentation

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} I wonder what equipment is used or should be used for uncaging (photolysis)
} of caged (photoactivable) compounds.
} [snip]
} - What light sources are used (types of lasers, Xenon arc lamps, Mercury arc
} lamps, flash lamps)?
}
} - How is the exact light path to the cell/cells/subcells? What types of
} optics and components are used?
} [snip]

Dear Martin and especially SPM'ers on this list,
Can this be done using either a NSOM probe or an NSOM-like input
probe? If so, this would likely have many uses.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: John Getty :      jgetty-at-du.edu
Date: Thu, 25 Jan 1996 11:44:19 -0700 (MST)
Subject: Call for Papers, Denver X-Ray Conference

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Message-ID: {n1389519355.37373-at-mse.engin.umich.edu}


CALL FOR PAPERS (December 1995)
(Deadline for Submission of Abstracts is April 1, 1996)

=09COMBINED MEETING
=0945th ANNUAL DENVER X-RAY CONFERENCE
=09=09- and -
=09POWDER DIFFRACTION SATELLITE MEETING OF THE XVII=20
=09CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL UNION OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY

August 3-8, 1996, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A.

Co-Sponsored by the IUCr; the ICDD; and the University of Denver=20
Department of Engineering=20

=09The meeting will be held August 3-8, 1996, at the=20
Marriott Denver Tech Center Hotel,=20
4900 S. Syracuse St., Denver, CO 80237, U.S.A. =20
Phone (303) 779-1100, Fax (303) 740-2523. =20

Prospective attendees should make reservations early. The number of=20
rooms at the special conference rate is limited. The Conference rate=20
of $76.00 per day plus 11.8% tax for a single or double room can be=20
obtained if reservations are made before July 1, 1996, subject to=20
availability. Also available are a limited number of rooms for=20
students at $22.50 per night (double occupancy).=20

The Conference has appointed Monarch Travel as the official travel=20
agency to help with travel and car rental arrangements. Please contact=20
Monarch Travel by phone at (800) 458-7177, or (215) 557-7177=20
outside the U.S., or fax (215) 563-0479, with travel questions. The=20
program is tentatively as follows:

PLENARY SESSION =20
=09GRAZING-INCIDENCE X-RAY ANALYSIS
Organizers:=09T. C. Huang, IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA=20
=09=09R. J. Cernik, Daresbury Lab, Warrington, England
Opening remarks: by P. K. Predecki, University of Denver
Presentation of the 1996 Birks Award: to John V. Gilfrich, SFA,=20
=09Inc./NRL, Washington, DC
Presentation of ICDD Distinguished Fellow Awards: to J. W. Visser,=20
=09Delft, Netherlands; and D. K. Smith, =09Pennsylvania State University

INVITED PAPERS:
"Grazing Incidence Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering," J. B. Cohen,=20
=09Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL

"Depth Scaling of Phases in Thin Films," H. Goebel, Siemens AG=20
=09Corp., Munich, Germany=20

"Grazing-Incidence Technique for Surface, Interface, and Thin Film=20
=09Analysis," T. C. Huang,=20
=09IBM Almaden Research Lab, San Jose, CA; and=20
=09P. K. Predecki, Univ. of Denver, CO=20

"Grazing Angle X-Ray Spectrochemical Analysis, Present and=20
=09Future," Y. Gohshi, Univ. of Tokyo=20

"Analysis of Layered Materials Using Glancing-Incidence X-Ray=20
=09Reflection," D.K.G. de Boer and =09
=09A.J.G. Leenaers, Philips Research Labs, Eindhoven,=20
=09The Netherlands


SPECIAL SESSIONS=20


- PHASE QUANTIFICATION (CPD sponsored)
Organizers: D. L. Bish, Los Alamos National Lab, NM (505) 667-1165,=20
=09=09fax (505) 665-3285
=09=09D. K. Smith, Pennsylvania State University, PA (814) 865-5782,=20
=09=09fax (814) 863-7845

INVITED PAPERS:
"Quantitative Phase Analysis Using the Full Powder Diffraction=20
=09Pattern - Its Development and Current Status,"=20
=09R. J. Hill, CSIRO, Port Melbourne, Australia


- THIN FILMS AND MULTILAYERS (CPD sponsored)
Organizers: H. Goebel, Siemens AG, Germany fax 49 89 636 42256, =20
=09=09herb.goebel-at-zfe.siemens.de
=09=09D. E. Cox, Brookhaven National Lab, NY (516) 282-3818,=20
=09=09fax (516) 282-2739

INVITED PAPERS: (for Thin Films and Multilayers session)
"The Domain Structure of Langmuir-Blodgett Multilayers," U.=20
=09Pietsch, Univ. of Potsdam, Germany
"X-Ray Analysis of Magnetic Multilayers," V. Valvoda, Charles=20
=09Univ., Prague, Czech Republic
"Quantitative Characterization of Textures in Thin Films:=20
=09Measurements and Analysis," H. R. Wenk,=20
=09Univ. of California, Berkeley


- QUANTITATIVE XRF
Organizers: =09V. E. Buhrke, The Buhrke Company, Portola Valley,=20
=09=09CA (415) 851-5020, fax (415) 851-3696=20
=09=09H. Ebel, Technische Universit=E4t Wien, Vienna, Austria=20
=09=09fax 43 158 78 876

INVITED PAPERS:
"Routine X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometric Analysis by VERBA-
=09XRF," P. Verkhovodov, Kiev, Ukraine
"The Permutations and Combinations of Quantitative XRF=20
=09Methods," G. Lachance, Hammond, Ont., Canada
"An Analysis of Secondary Enhancement Effects in Quantitative=20
=09XRFA," M. Mantler, Technical Univ. of Vienna


- TOTAL REFLECTION XRF
Organizers: M. A. Zaitz, IBM East Fishkill, NY (914) 894-6337,=20
=09fax (914) 892-6256 =20
=09=09A. Shimazaki, Toshiba Corp.

INVITED PAPERS:
"A Review on Principles and Recent Developments in TXRF," H.=20
=09Aiginger, Atominstitut, Vienna, Austria
"New Possibilities and Applications of Total Reflection X-Ray=20
=09Fluorescence Analysis," A. Knochel,=20
=09University of Hamburg, Germany


- STRAIN/STRESS DETERMINATION BY DIFFRACTION METHODS
Organizers:=09A. Winholtz, University of Missouri (314) 882-6322,=20
=09=09fax (314) 884-5090
=09=09T. Ericsson, University of Linkoping, Sweden fax 46 1328 2505

INVITED PAPERS:
"Dependence of the Elastic Constants for X-Ray Diffraction on the=20
Diffraction Plane,"=09I. C. Noyan,=20
=09IBM, Yorktown Heights, NY; and C. C. Goldsmith,=20
=09IBM East Fishkill Facility, NY.
"Partially Destructive and Non-Destructive Determination of=20
=09Residual Stress States with Steep Subsurface Gradients,"
=09B. Eigenmann, Univ. Karlsruhe, Germany
"Second Order Stresses in Single Phase and Multiphase Materials:=20
=09Examples of Experimental and Modeling =09Appproaches," J. L.=20
=09Lebrun, ENSAM, Paris, France=20


- DIFFRACTION PEAK PROFILE ANALYSIS (CPD sponsored)
Organizers:=09R. L. Snyder, Alfred University, NY (607) 871-2438,=20
=09=09fax (607) 871-2392
=09=09D. Lou=EBr, University of Rennes, France =20
=09=09fax 33 9938 3487, louer-at-cicb.fr

INVITED PAPERS:
"Model-Based Interpretation of Diffraction Line Profiles: The Case=20
=09of Lattice Distortion," E. Mittemeijer,=20
=09Technical University of Delft, The Netherlands
"Model-Based Interpretation of Diffraction Line Profiles:=20
=09Determination of Crystallite Size and Shape,"=20
=09I. Langford, University of Birmingham, U.K.
"Model-Based Interpretation of Diffraction Line Profiles: Strain=20
=09Broadening Caused by Dislocations," T. Ungar, =09Eotvos=20
=09University, Budapest, Hungary


- ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF XRF
Organizers:=09R. Jenkins, ICDD, PA (610) 325-9810, fax (610) 325-9823
=09=09Y. Gohshi, University of Tokyo, Japan fax 81 3 3812 9254

INVITED PAPERS:
"Use of XRF for Analysis of Contaminants in Seawater," T. Elam,=20
=09NRL, Washington, DC
"Use of Semi-Quantitate Analysis Programs in the Analysis of=20
=09Pollutants," J. Croke, Philips Electronic=20
=09Instruments, Mahwah, NJ
(Title to be announced) Y. Gohshi, University of Tokyo, Japan


- NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN DETECTORS AND OTHER X-RAY INSTRUMENTATION =09
=09(CPD sponsored)
=09Organizers: H. Toraya, Nagoya Inst. of Technology, Japan =20
=09fax 81-572-27-6812, toraya-at-crl.nitech.ac.jp
=09=09J. V. Gilfrich, SFA, Inc./NRL, Washington, DC (301)=20
=09=09365-5070 fax & phone

INVITED PAPERS: (for New Developments in Detectors session)
=09"Novel Use of Imaging Plates in Powder Diffraction on the=20
=09Australian National Beamline Facility," D. Cookson, =09
=09Australian Nuclear Science and Technology=20
=09
=09"High Energy Resolution X-Ray Detectors Using Superconductors,"=20
=09D. Van Vechten
=09
=09"Multiple-Detector System for Powder Diffraction with Synchrotron=20
=09Radiation," H. Toraya,=20
=09Nagoya Inst. of Technology, Japan.


- PRECISION AND ACCURACY IN STRUCTURE REFINEMENT FROM POWDER=20
DATA (CPD sponsored)
Organizers:=09W.I.F. David, Rutherford-Appleton Lab, Chilton,=20
=09=09U.K. wifd-at-isise.rl.ac.uk =20
=09 R. A. Young, Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta =20
=09=09(404) 894-5208, r.young-at-physics.gatech.edu=20

INVITED PAPERS:
"Optimised Data Collection and Refinement Strategies for Powder=20
=09Data Analysis," W.I.F. David,=20
=09Rutherford-Appleton Lab, Chilton, U.K.
=09"Structure Refinement with Combined X-Ray and Neutron=20
=09Diffraction Data - Successes and Failures,"=20
=09R. B. Von Dreele, Los Alamos National Lab, NM=20


- XRF ANALYSIS OF SEMICONDUCTOR WAFERS (BPSG)
=09Organizers: R. Wilson, Rigaku/USA, Danvers, MA (508) 777-
=092446 x124, fax (508) 777-3594
=09=09A. Iida, Photon Factory, Ibaraki, Japan =20
=09=09aiida-at-kekvax.kek.jp

INVITED PAPERS:
"XRF Analysis of Thin Films and Problem Solving in the=20
=09Semiconductor Industry," M. A. Zaitz,=20
=09IBM, East Fishkill, NY.
"Measurement Capabilities of X-Ray Fluorescence for BPSG=20
=09Films," J. Westphall,=20
=09Watkins-Johnson Company, Scotts Valley, CA
"XRF Analysis of Insulator Films on Si Substrate," T. Konishi,=20
=09Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Japan


- HIGH-TEMPERATURE AND NON-AMBIENT APPLICATIONS OF DIFFRACTION
Organizer: C. R. Hubbard, Oak Ridge National Lab, TN =20
=09(423) 574-4472, hubbardcr-at-ornl.gov

INVITED PAPERS:
(To be announced)

TUTORIAL WORKSHOPS


- CREATING WINDOWING INTERFACES FOR FORTRAN=20
=09PROGRAMS: NEW LIVES FOR OLD TOOLS (1/2 day)
=09B. Toby, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD; and L. Finger,=20
=09Geophysical Laboratory, Washington, DC

- TOTAL REFLECTION XRF (one day)
=09P. Wobrauschek, Atominstitut, Vienna

- QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES AND ERRORS IN XRF (1/2 day)
=09J. A. Anzelmo, Fisons Instruments

- QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES AND ERRORS IN XRPD (1/2 day)
=09R. L. Snyder, Alfred University, NY; and R. Hill, CSIRO,=20
=09Australia

- NEW TECHNIQUES IN SEARCH-MATCHING (ICDD sponsored) (1/2 day)
=09R. Jenkins, ICDD, PA; and D. K. Smith, Penn State=20
=09University

- E-MAIL SYSTEMS AND WWW RESOURCES (x-ray related) (1/2 day)
=09R. Jenkins, ICDD, PA; and L. Cranswick, CSIRO, Australia

- SPECIMEN PREPARATION FOR XRF (one day)
=09V. E. Buhrke, The Buhrke Company, Portola Valley, CA

- ANALYSIS OF METALS BY XRF (1/2 day)
=09F. Feret, Alcan International, Canada

- XRD STANDARDS, CALIBRATION AND ALIGNMENT (1/2 day)
=09J. P. Cline, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD; and R. W. Cheary,=20
=09Univ. of Technology, Sydney, Australia

- TEXTURE AND RELATED 3-D POLYCRYSTAL ANALYSIS (1/2 day)
=09H. Bunge, Technical Univ. Clausthal, Germany; and R. Von=20
=09Dreele, Los Alamos National Lab, NM

- GRAZING INCIDENCE X-RAY CHARACTERIZATION (1/2 day)
=09D. K. Bowen, University of Warwick, U.K.


- MICROANALYSIS APPLICATIONS XRD AND XRF (1/2 day)
=09M. O. Eatough, Sandia National Labs, NM; and J. Brown,=20
=09University of Western Ontario, Canada

- STRATEGY FOR CALIBRATION OF XRF SPECTROMETERS (1/2 day)
=09B. Vrebos, Philips, The Netherlands; and P. A. Pella, NIST,=20
=09Gaithersburg, MD

- METHODS OF CORRECTING FOR MATRIX EFFECTS IN XRF (1/2 day)
=09R. Rousseau, Geological Survey of Canada

- SYNCHROTRON RADIATION ANALYSIS (1/2 day)
=09P. Stephens, State University of New York; and A. Fitch,=20
=09ESRF, Grenoble, France
=20
=09Contributed papers are hereby solicited for any of the above=20
special sessions or the XRD and XRF general sessions. Many of the=20
contributed papers will be placed in poster sessions. Those of more=20
general interest will be placed in oral sessions. =20

=09THE DEADLINE FOR SUBMISSION OF ABSTRACTS IS APRIL 1, 1996. =20

Abstracts are reproduced as-is in the abstracts book. They must not=20
exceed one page in length and must include title, author(s),=20
affiliation(s) and the text. They should be typed single-spaced using a=20
laser printer or equivalent with characters at least 2 mm high (lower=20
case) on a 15 cm wide x 20 cm long image area centered on an 8-1/2"=20
x 11" or A4 page, mailed flat without folds. On a SEPARATE=20
PAGE state: (1) speaker's name, mailing address, phone, fax and e-
mail numbers; and (2) whether you intend to publish this paper in the=20
conference proceedings, Advances in X-Ray Analysis, Vol. 40. The=20
original and one copy of the abstract should be sent to:

=09Paul K. Predecki, Dept. of Engineering, University of=20
Denver, Denver, CO 80208, USA. =20

Additional information may be obtained from Lynne Bonno at the=20
above address, telephone (303) 871-3515, fax (303) 871-4450, or e-
mail denxrcon-at-du.edu. A program for the Conference will be=20
prepared and mailed in May 1996. The program as well as this call for=20
papers will be placed on the University of Denver home page:
=09http://littlebird.engr.du.edu/home.html =20

=09The Organizing Committee considers unprofessional the=20
withdrawal of a paper (except in special circum-stances) after it has=20
been accepted and widely advertised. Non-U.S. authors, in particular,=20
please try to secure travel funding and approvals before submitting=20
your abstract(s).

=09With regard to publication of presented papers, manuscripts=20
must be submitted no later than one month after the conference to=20
allow publication before the next conference. To be acceptable for=20
publication, papers should describe either new methods, theory and=20
applications, improvements in methods or instrumentation, or other=20
advances in the state of the art. Papers emphasizing commercial=20
aspects are discouraged. Information for preparing manuscripts will=20
be mailed in June 1996.




From: jfmjfm-at-umich.edu (John F. Mansfield)
Date: Thu, 25 Jan 1996 04:03:37 -0400
Subject: Re: EBSP system

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html

Message-Id: {n1389523211.42950-at-msmail.tmc.tulane.edu}
"'smtp:Microscopy-at-Msa.Microscopy.Com'" {Microscopy-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com}

At 9:13 AM 1/24/96, Griffin, Robin wrote:
} I'm trying to get in touch with TSL TexSEM Laboratories Incorporated a
} company that makes EBSP software for Windows. I have a phone number
} 801-467-9930, but nobody answers. Anyone know how to get in touch with
} them?


Didnt they get bought out by Noran?

I heard a rumor.....

John Mansfield
North Campus Electron Microbeam Analysis Laboratory
413 SRB, University of Michigan
2455 Hayward, Ann Arbor MI 48109-2143
Phone: (313)936-3352 FAX (313)936-3352
jfmjfm-at-engin.umich.edu, John.F.Mansfield-at-umich.edu
or jfmjfm-at-umich.edu they all reach me!
URL: http://wwwpersonal.engin.umich.edu/~jfmjfm/jfmjfm.html






From: Rick Markgraf :      rlmarkgraf-at-ucdavis.edu
Date: Thu, 25 Jan 1996 17:16:55 -0800
Subject: Re: recharge centers

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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I recharge for use of specialized optical microscopes. Your University
should have a budget analyst in Budget that can help you.
You need to estimate the amount of non-use you expect and build that
into your rate as an expense. You also charge for your overhead, salaries
(figure in vacation & sick leave, breaks, etc.) and supplies. You also
should calculate depreciation for your equipment and build a reserve so you
can buy new equipment. Our campus even has a high-value equipment reserve
that provides for catastrophic loss of an expensive scope.
When you have figured all your costs, you should be able to divide it
up as fits your program. For instance, charge a one-time lump sum for each
use that recovers costs incurred regardless of the length of use, i.e.
cleaning, prep of scope, etc. Then, in addition, charge a low hourly rate
that covers the variable expenses. Don't forget to find out what the
non-university differential is and mark-up the rate for off-campus
customers. Billing is easier if you automate it by computer and its also
easier to see how you did, so you can adjust your rate next year.
Good Luck and keep good records.

At 07:47 AM 1/24/96 CST, Robin Griffin wrote:
}
} This recharge issue has recently come up here to. We are trying to comply
} with the rules and are looking for ways to do it without hurting the lab.
} My understanding is that
} 1) we need to charge rates that only recover costs (no profit - not ever a
} problem here) and
} 2) we must charge all univerisity users the same rates
}
} I was considering taking the cost of the lab and charging grants a
} percentage, sort of like an overhead that would cover the costs. Our
} accounting department seemed to think this would be okay. I liked it
} because I am worried that if we charge a fixed hourly rate, users would
} minimize lab. use. Many of my expenses are fixed so less use only means
} less bang for the buck. However, the U. of Hawaii writer seemed to think
} this might be illegal. It is also very scary to hear that they will come
} and audit- Eek! How about more specifics about the lump sum charging you
} did that got you in trouble and your experiences with the audit.
}
} Another issue, we have some professors that support the lab when they have
} money but some years they come up dry. We've always given them free time
} during their dry years with the idea that they can't get more grants without
} some work to show. It has always paid off for us. However, this appears to
} be against the recharge center rules because we are charging people with
} grants more than people without.
}
} One other issue, along with doing research, we teach laboratories on our em
} lab instrumentation. Any comments on how or if this is billed? I can't
} find anything in our rules about it.
}
} Thanks
}
} Robin Griffin
} EM Lab Manager
} Materials and Mechanical Engineering
} University of Alabama at Birmingham
}
}
Richard L. Markgraf
Microscope Services
University of California, Davis
Ph. (916)752-3477 Fax (916)752-6363
rlmarkgraf-at-ucdavis.edu





From: richard.easingwood-at-stonebow.otago.ac.nz (Richard Easingwood)
Date: Fri, 26 Jan 1996 17:31:27 +1100
Subject: Burleigh Instruments Inc - address anyone?

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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X-Sender: st004718-at-brandywine.otago.ac.nz
Message-Id: {v01530501ad2e24ad7ec3-at-[139.80.120.183]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Has anyone out there heard of a company called Burleigh Instruments Inc? If
you have and they are still in existence we would appreciate it if you
could let us know their address or phone number.

Thanks in advance.

Regards
Richard.


Richard Easingwood
South Campus Electron Microscope Unit
Otago Medical School
PO Box 913
Dunedin
NEW ZEALAND

Telephone: 64-03-479 7301
Facsimile: 64-03-479 7254

SOUTHERNMOST E.M UNIT IN THE WORLD















From: Zhiyu Wang :      zhiyu-at-hawaii.edu
Date: Thu, 25 Jan 1996 21:40:59 -1000
Subject: Re: Thin sections of polymers

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html


Hi, Kathy:

I had some experience in thin sectionning in polymer materials for TEM.

The resin I used is water soluable GMA. The reference can be found on:

Zhiyu Wang etc., The study of microstructure and ultrafiltration membrane
by electron microscope. Preceeding of the 1990 international congress on
membrane and membrane prcess. Vol. II, pp. 1211-1213, Chicago.

Please let me know if you have question.

Zhiyu Wang
Department of Biosystem Engineering
University of Hawaii
Honolulu Hawaii 96822




From: Richard Easingwood
Date: 26 January 1996 01:31
Subject: Burleigh Instruments Inc - address anyon

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Message-ID: {F972E82F01681600-at-c2gate.tcom.co.uk}

Original Subject:
Burleigh Instruments Inc - address anyone?

Has anyone out there heard of a company called Burleigh Instruments Inc? If
you have and they are still in existence we would appreciate it if you
could let us know their address or phone number.

Thanks in advance.

Regards
Richard.


Richard Easingwood
South Campus Electron Microscope Unit
Otago Medical School
PO Box 913
Dunedin
NEW ZEALAND

Telephone: 64-03-479 7301
Facsimile: 64-03-479 7254

SOUTHERNMOST E.M UNIT IN THE WORLD















From: tom thielen :      thielent-at-lurch.winthrop.edu
Date: Fri, 26 Jan 1996 09:37:33 -0500 (EST)
Subject: unsubscribe

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html


please "unsubscribe" me
-thanks

*******************************************************************************
*Tom Thielen "People who make sweeping generalizations are stupid!" *
*Pre-Med Major *
*Winthrop University thielent-at-lurch.winthrop.edu *
*******************************************************************************








From: keller-at-boulder.nist.gov (Bob Keller)
Date: Fri, 26 Jan 1996 07:50:02 -0700
Subject: EBSP system - TSL

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X-Sender: keller-at-arc1.mrd.bldrdoc.gov
Message-Id: {v01510106ad2e99b91186-at-[132.163.192.156]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

} At 9:13 AM 1/24/96, Griffin, Robin wrote:
} } I'm trying to get in touch with TSL TexSEM Laboratories Incorporated a
} } company that makes EBSP software for Windows. I have a phone number
} } 801-467-9930, but nobody answers. Anyone know how to get in touch with
} } them?
}
}
} Didnt they get bought out by Noran?
}
} I heard a rumor.....
}
} John Mansfield

They weren't bought out by Noran, but rather Noran is marketing their
systems. You can still deal directly with the TSL people if you want.

Bob Keller
NIST Mat'ls. Reliability Div.
Boulder, CO






From: chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU (John Chandler)
Date: Fri, 26 Jan 1996 09:30:17 -0700
Subject: Re: Thin sections of polymers

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html


} Esteemed Colleagues:
}
} I have been asked to image the interior structure of a polymer
} suspension.
}

**specifics deleted**

Any thoughts on the usefulness of freeze fracture to get a look at the
internal structure? I'm not a polymer person either, so don't have any
experience with this. You could, perhaps, avoid chemical changes with a
freezing technique.

John
chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU






From: vskulkar-at-wolf.co.net (Vitthal Kulkarni)
Date: Fri, 26 Jan 1996 12:13:05 -0600
Subject: fluorescence-microscope

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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We are interested in setting up a Langmuir trough with fluorescence microscope.
Currently, we are gathering information on fluorescence microscopes used for
the studies of two-dimensional phase states of Langmuir monolayers at
air/water interface. The microscopes are mounted on Langmuir trough and
phase changes in lipid monolayers can be monitored with compression of the
film. [e.g see reference K.J. Stine and C.M. Knobler, Ultramicroscopy 47,
23-34 (1992)]

Any information regarding types of fluorescence microscopes used in such
studies, their resolution, particular requirements, and accessories, etc
will be of great help.
Thank you,
Vitthal
Vitthal Kulkarni, Ph.D.
Membrane Biochemistry
The Hormel Institute
University of Minnesota
801, 16th Avenue NE
Austin, MN 55912
Tel. 507-437-9626
Fax. 507-437-9606





From: Dr. Andrew P. Somlyo :      aps2n-at-elvis.med.virginia.edu
Date: Fri, 26 Jan 1996 09:49:34 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: LM: uncaging instrumentation

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For general information, see:



J. A. Mccray D. R. Trentham
Properties and uses of photoreactive caged compounds
Annu. Rev. Biophys. Chem.
1989
18: 239 270


On Thu, 25 Jan 1996, William Tivol wrote:

} } I wonder what equipment is used or should be used for uncaging (photolysis)
} } of caged (photoactivable) compounds.
} } [snip]
} } - What light sources are used (types of lasers, Xenon arc lamps, Mercury arc
} } lamps, flash lamps)?
} }
} } - How is the exact light path to the cell/cells/subcells? What types of
} } optics and components are used?
} } [snip]
}
} Dear Martin and especially SPM'ers on this list,
} Can this be done using either a NSOM probe or an NSOM-like input
} probe? If so, this would likely have many uses.
} Yours,
} Bill Tivol
}




From: zaluzec-at-Microscopy.Com (Nestor J. Zaluzec)
Date: Fri, 26 Jan 1996 08:42:04 -0600
Subject: MSA/MAS/MSC-SMC Joint Meeting 1996

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G'day Subscribers....

I've gotten several off-line inquires about the
Microscopy & Microanalysis - 1996 which is being held in Minneapolis
on August 11-15,1996, and is the joint annual meeting
sponsored by MSA, MAS, MSC-SMC . Many have asked about the fact that
they have not yet received registration information.

I am posting this just to reassure all of you, that you will receive
relevant the information, albeit slightly late this year.
The registration booklet and call for papers is behind
schedule this year and we anticipate it being shipped within 2 weeks.
As soon as the booklets are ready for shipping I will post another
announcement to let people know that they are "in-the-mail".

The information will also be put up on the MSA WWW site, probably
by the middle of next week. However, you will not be able to
download the various manuscript forms, since they will not be suitable
for publication.

Abstracts of the Major Symposia and Topics for contributed papers/posters
are already on that site (http://www.msa.microscopy.com) under the
Annual Meetings Topic and you can use that information to start
planning your manuscripts and which session you would like to submit them to.

The deadline for receipt of Abstracts remains March 15th
as in previous years. Registration can be of course accepted right up
to the day of the meeting, by snail-mail, fax, phone, or in-person.


Cheers...
Nestor
Your Friendly Neighborhood SysOp
&
Microscopy & Microanalysis - 1996 Program Chair






From: Richard Thrift :      Richard_Thrift-at-depotech.com
Date: Fri, 26 Jan 1996 12:54:29 -0800
Subject: fluorescence-microscope -Reply

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Message-Id: {s108cf1d.051-at-depotech.com}
X-Mailer: Novell GroupWise 4.1

This is a good question to post to the microscopy listserver:
Microscopy-at-MSA.Microscopy.Com
(ask to have replies sent directly to you if you're not a subscriber).
To subscribe, I think you send the subject & text "subscribe" to
Listserver-at-MSA.Microscopy.Com (They've changed it since I
subscribed.)

Richard Thrift
p.s. again, I'm interested in the response you get. Thanks for providing
the reference.

} } } Vitthal Kulkarni {vskulkar-at-wolf.co.net} 01/26/96 10:13am } } }
We are interested in setting up a Langmuir trough with fluorescence
microscope.
Currently, we are gathering information on fluorescence microscopes
used for the studies of two-dimensional phase states of Langmuir
monolayers at air/water interface. The microscopes are mounted on
Langmuir trough and phase changes in lipid monolayers can be
monitored with compression of the film. [e.g see reference K.J. Stine and
C.M. Knobler, Ultramicroscopy 47,
23-34 (1992)]

Any information regarding types of fluorescence microscopes used in
such studies, their resolution, particular requirements, and accessories,
etc will be of great help.
Thank you,
Vitthal
Vitthal Kulkarni, Ph.D.
Membrane Biochemistry
The Hormel Institute
University of Minnesota
801, 16th Avenue NE
Austin, MN 55912
Tel. 507-437-9626
Fax. 507-437-9606







From: wise-at-vaxa.cis.uwosh.edu
Date: Fri, 26 Jan 1996 10:21:43 +0000
Subject: Re: Burleigh Instruments Inc - address anyone?

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
http://www.microscopy.com/MicroscopyListserver/MicroscopyArchives.html


} Has anyone out there heard of a company called Burleigh Instruments Inc? If
} you have and they are still in existence we would appreciate it if you
} could let us know their address or phone number.
}
} Thanks in advance.
}
} Regards
} Richard.
}
}
} Richard Easingwood
} South Campus Electron Microscope Unit
} Otago Medical School
} PO Box 913
} Dunedin
} NEW ZEALAND
}
} Telephone: 64-03-479 7301
} Facsimile: 64-03-479 7254
}
} SOUTHERNMOST E.M UNIT IN THE WORLD

Try

Burleigh Instruments Inc
Burleigh Park
Fishers, NY 14453
(716) 924-9355 fone
(716) 924-9072 fax
97-8379 tlx

UK
Burleigh Inst Ltd
Nine ALlied Business Centre
Cold Harbor Lane
Harpenden, Herts, AL5 4UT
(0582) 766888
(0582) 767888 fax

Europe
Burleigh Inst GmbH
Bergstrasse 104-106, D-6102
Pfungstadt, Germany
(06157) 3047
(06157) 7530 fax

Japan
Techscience Ltd
0489 (64) 3111
0489 (65) 1500

Burleigh has written a very useful 17 page booklet that explains the basic
of scanning probe microscopy called the Scanning Probe Microscope Book
(part number (?) STM 364 493, 51993-0). I have found it to be a great
intro to SPM.

Bob



Robert R. Wise, PhD
Department of Biology
University of Wisconsin Oshkosh
Oshkosh, WI 54901
(414) 424-3404 tel
(414) 424-1101 fax
wise-at-vaxa.cis.uwosh.edu






From: John_R_Reffner-at-rohmhaas.com (John R Reffner)
Date: 1/25/96 2:36 PM
Subject: Thin sections of polymers

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A technique we use to look at larger polymer particles that are sensitive to
embedding in epoxies is to blend them with a film-forming latex, cast films
and section.


-| Dr. John R. Reffner | email: rsrj2r-at-rohmhaas.com |-
-| --------------------------------------------------------------|-
The opinions expressed are those of the writer and not Rohm and Haas Company
________________________________________________________________



Esteemed Colleagues:

I have been asked to image the interior structure of a polymer
suspension.

Ideally I would like to resin embed for TEM. I am not a polymer
scientist, but I do know that these polymers produce spheres when
suspended with small amounts of BSA. The polymer is polyglycolic acid
(PGLA). I called the manufacturers, but they have not done any
significant imaging of it, and do not appear to be interested. They did
tell me that the PGLA is heat sensitive and dissolves in isopropal
alcohol. My experiment with epoxys was an unmitigated disaster, and I am
considering a low temperature embedment procedure (Another researcher
tried Lowicryl, but the spheres did not remain intact).

I referenced a book entitled "Polymer Microscopy" by Sawyer and
Grubb, but it doesn't refer to anything similar to my polymer.

Any (relevent) thoughts would be appriciated.

Kathy Walters
CMRF
U of Iowa





From: CHAFFEYN :      NIGEL.CHAFFEY-at-bbsrc.ac.uk
Date: Fri, 26 Jan 1996 17:03:14 +0000
Subject: Toluidine blue-quenching of autofluorescence - how?

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Dear Fellow Microscopists,
Happy New Year to you all (not too late I hope!).

I routinely use a dilute solution of toluidine blue to quench some of
the autofluorescence present in my material prepared for indirect
immunofluorescence microscopy of tubulin. I am convinced that it does reduce
the native fluorescence of my tissue (secondary vascular tissue of horse
chestnut). However, I was floored at question time at the end of a talk at an
international conference when asked, 'how does the quenching work?'. I have
asked colleagues and consulted textbooks, but still do not have the answer.
Can anybody help, please? [I'm sure that having the answer the question will
never be asked again, but it might!]

Many thanks,

Nigel Chaffey: IACR - Long Ashton Research Station, Bristol BS18 9AF,
UK [the Long Ashtonmost EM unit in the universe]




From: Glen Macdonald :      glenmac-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Fri, 26 Jan 1996 19:28:44 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: Low viscosity nitrocellulose

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Message-Id: {199601262022.OAA12999-at-alpha2.csd.uwm.edu}

Brett,

You can Low Viscosity Nitrocellulose from:
Randolph Products
Carlstadt, NJ 07072

Regards,
Glen MacDonald
Research Scientist
Hearing Research Laboratories of the
Virginia Merrill Bloedel Hearing Research Center
Box 35-7923
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195-7923
(206) 616-4156
glenmac-at-u.washington.edu






From: SALLY STOWE :      stowe-at-rsbs-central.anu.edu.au
Date: Sat, 27 Jan 1996 14:25:28 EST10
Subject: Re: Toluidine blue-quenching of autofluorescence - how?

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Nigel Chaffey wrote:}
} I routinely use a dilute solution of toluidine blue to quench some of
} the autofluorescence present in my material prepared for indirect
} immunofluorescence microscopy of tubulin. I am convinced that it does reduce
} the native fluorescence of my tissue (secondary vascular tissue of horse
} chestnut). However, I was floored at question time at the end of a talk at an
} international conference when asked, 'how does the quenching work?'. I have
} asked colleagues and consulted textbooks, but still do not have the answer.
} Can anybody help, please? [I'm sure that having the answer the question will
} never be asked again, but it might!]
}
} Many thanks,
}
} Nigel Chaffey: IACR - Long Ashton Research Station, Bristol BS18 9AF,
} UK [the Long Ashtonmost EM unit in the universe]


Brief rinsing with a very dilute solution of tol. blue also works
to quench autofluorescence in Drosophila eyes, using thin frozen
sections and FITC labelling. I'm not sure of the original rationale
-the autofluorescence is very high, we were desperate for something
that would work. I think just a hope that tol. blue probably binds to
double bonds (??) and might just dampen things down..and so it did.
Dont think I ever tried it with either rhodamine or a
short-wavelength chromophore like DAPI ...does tol blue itself
fluoresce under some excitation wavelengths?

Sally Stowe
Australian National University EM Unit, Canberra. (28 degrees centigrade,
blue skies, cool breeze..)
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sally Stowe |Email: stowe-at-rsbs.anu.edu.au
Facility Coordinator |Post:
ANU Electron Microscopy Unit |ANUEMU (RSBS)
Ph 61 6 249 2743 |Australian National Univ.
FAX 61 6 249 4891 |Canberra,
|AUSTRALIA 0200






From: Richard Abbott :      abbott-at-ligo.caltech.edu (by way of zaluzec-at-Microscopy.Com (Nestor J. Zaluzec))
Date: Sat, 27 Jan 1996 13:38:59 -0600
Subject: My Microscope

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Some time ago I purchased a beautiful microscope. One of the lenses
is an oil immersion type using "Cedar Oil". In a moments foolish
enthusiasm, I immersed the lens in the oil and used it to my delight.
Only after I was done did I realize that I have no idea how to clean
the lens. Now the lens has a gummy oil residue left on it rendering
it useless to me. Can anyone tell me how to clean my lens? I would
be delighted to get an answer.

Thanks, Rich Abbott.









From: Peter D. Barnett :      pbarnett-at-crl.com
Date: Sat, 27 Jan 1996 14:37:54 -0800
Subject: parts for B&L Model L

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I recently obtained a B&L Model L photomicrographic camera with a bunch of
lenses, base, bench, and accessories. It is equipped with a head which has
a reflex viewer and accomodates 5"x7" film holders. I would like to be able
to use this with 4"x5" film holders and thought perhaps someone on this list
might have an old one around with some parts they'd be willing to part with.

Or, maybe someone can suggest where to get a reducing back to go from a
5"x7" to 4"x5" film holder.

If so, please drop me a note directly.

Thanks.
Peter D. Barnett
Forensic Science Associates - Richmond CA
e-mail: pbarnett-at-crl.com FAX_510-222-8887





From: xin yang li :      xl48-at-uow.edu.au
Date: Mon, 29 Jan 1996 10:05:36 +1100 (EST)
Subject: Unsubscribe

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Could you please remove my name from subscription list?

Thanks




From: Finn-Mogens Haug :      f.m.s.haug-at-basalmed.uio.no
Date: Sun, 28 Jan 1996 10:38:47 +0100
Subject: Users/testers of SENSYS or Micromax cameras

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Message-Id: {199601290933.KAA23689-at-pons.uio.no}
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know that they are new, more moderately priced, cooled,
slow-scan cameras from Photometrics and Princeton. (The Photometrics
SENSYS was announced last November and may only now be produced
in volume - but it has been demonstrated in the US, I believe. The Princeton
Micromax is a packaging of the Small cooled camera head and the
ST133 controller).

If you have used or tested one or both for (biological) fluorescence
microscopy, I should be grateful for the opportunity to put some practical
questios, before deciding whether to go for one of them. (For the Princeton
cameras, experience with the TE cameras and ST133/ST133 controllers is
probably equally useful.)

Best regards, Finn-Mogens
*****************************************************************
Finn-Mogens Haug
University of Oslo, Institute of basic medical sciences,
Department of anatomy E-mail: f.m.haug-at-basalmed.uio.no
Box 1105 Blindern Phone : +47 22 85 12 67
N-0317 Oslo, NORWAY Fax : +47 22 85 12 78
*****************************************************************






From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Mon, 29 Jan 1996 12:05:46 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Toluidine blue-quenching of autofluorescence - how?

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} [snip] However, I was floored at question time at the end of a talk at an
} international conference when asked, 'how does the quenching work?'. I have
} asked colleagues and consulted textbooks, but still do not have the answer.

Dear Nigel,
Fluorescence is the radiative decay of an excited state of a molecule
to (usually) the ground state. Other decay modes exist and are always in
competition with radiative decay--thus the fluorescence yield term in inten-
sity formulas. Quenchers enhance non-radiative decay either by being accep-
tors for energy transfer or by promoting collisional de-excitation, and by-
and-large the energy transfer process is the most important. In this process,
a nearby quencher molecule is converted into an excited state and the fluo-
rescent molecule is converted into the ground state in a single step. The
quencher then decays via a non-radiative process.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: dbd1-at-uclink4.berkeley.edu
Date: Mon, 29 Jan 1996 10:55:46 -0800
Subject: ISI SEM parts needed

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psic-at-uclink4.berkeley.edu

The ISI (Topcon) DS-130 SEM at UC Berkeley has expired. Parts, i.e.
electronics are needed.
If you have or know of a DS-130 scope in storage or in a salvage state,
please contact me.
Thank you.


Doug Davis
Staff Research Associate
Electron Microscope Facility
University of California
Berkeley, CA 94720
(510) 642-2085
dbd1-at-uclink4.berkeley.edu







From: Wil Bigelow :      Wil_Bigelow-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 29 Jan 1996 15:05:30 -0400
Subject: RE-Cleaning Oil Imms Lens

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Message-ID: {n1389194398.83112-at-mse.engin.umich.edu}

Subject: Time: 2:47 PM
OFFICE MEMO RE:Cleaning Oil Imms Lens Date: 1/29/96

We always used to use a lens tissue moistened with a bit of xylene to clean
the oil off oil immersion lenses, and this is the procedure recommended in an
article, "Immersion oil and the microscope", by J. R. Cargille, President of
Cargille Laboratories, the outfit that makes most immersion oils. In his
article he points out that synthetic oils such as those manufactured by the
Cargille Co. have a number of advantages over Cedar oil and other natural
oils (i.e. they contain no volatiles, do not degrade from exposure to light
and normal temperatures, etc.) If you'd like a copy of this article, send me
your FAX number and I'll send it off to you. In any event, I think you
should be particularly careful not to use acetone or alcohol, because they
will soften and dissolve the cement that is usually used to hold the lenses
in place. Best of all, check with the manufacturer of the lens.





From: Wil Bigelow :      Wil_Bigelow-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 29 Jan 1996 16:35:03 -0400
Subject: Reitveld Method

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X-Nupop-Charset: English

Subject: Time: 4:29 PM
OFFICE MEMO Reitveld Method Date: 1/29/96

Does anyone know of Macintosh or IBM PC software that is readily available
(preferably free) for determination of lattice parameters from unknown x-ray
powder patterns by the Rietveld method?
W. C. Bigelow (bigelow-at-umich.edu)





From: tsi-at-werple.mira.net.au (Thomson Scientific:Paul Thomson)
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 09:30:25 +1100 (EST)
Subject: Automatic LN Refill systems

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Does anyone know of a commercial vendor of an Automatic LN Refill system?


Regards,


Paul Thomson
Thomson Scientific Instruments





From: lporter-at-goodyear.com (LE Porter)
Date: Mon, 29 Jan 1996 13:23:35 -0500
Subject: Re: Thin sections of polymers

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X-Sender: t456b19-at-rds163
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} Esteemed Colleagues:
}
} I have been asked to image the interior structure of a polymer
} suspension.
}
} Ideally I would like to resin embed for TEM. I am not a polymer
} scientist, but I do know that these polymers produce spheres when
} suspended with small amounts of BSA. The polymer is polyglycolic acid
} (PGLA). I called the manufacturers, but they have not done any
} significant imaging of it, and do not appear to be interested. They did
} tell me that the PGLA is heat sensitive and dissolves in isopropal
} alcohol. My experiment with epoxys was an unmitigated disaster, and I am
} considering a low temperature embedment procedure (Another researcher
} tried Lowicryl, but the spheres did not remain intact).
}
} I referenced a book entitled "Polymer Microscopy" by Sawyer and
} Grubb, but it doesn't refer to anything similar to my polymer.
}
} Any (relevent) thoughts would be appriciated.
}
} Kathy Walters
} CMRF
} U of Iowa


Kathy,

Have you seen the article:"Cryo-Ultramicrotomy of Individual Latex
Particles
for Examination of Internal Morphology" by Angela M Marcelli? It was published
in "The Microscope Vol 43:3 117-120 (1995)". If you supply your fax # I
will
fax you a copy.

L E Porter Phone (216) 796-1620
Head of Microscopy Fax (216) 796-3304
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company EMail LPORTER-at-GOODYEAR.COM
Dept 415A
142 Goodyear Blvd
Akron, OH 44305
USA







From: Michael OKeefe :      Michael_OKeefe-at-macmail.lbl.gov
Date: 29 Jan 1996 13:47:28 U
Subject: NCEM Visiting Scientist Pro

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Message-Id: {n1389199025.43681-at-macmail.lbl.gov}



University of California
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Materials Sciences Division


National Center for Electron Microscopy
Visiting Scientist Program


The National Center for Electron Microscopy is offering a fellowship
that will allow participants the opportunity to conduct research in their
own area of interest using the advanced transmission electron microscopes
at the Center.

The program is intended primarily for young faculty/investigator
electron microscopists, resident in the U.S. who are in the process of
setting up their own facilities or are awaiting delivery of new equipment,
and who could benefit from the head-start that use of instrumentation and
interaction with personnel at NCEM would bring. However, other post-
doctoral applicants with suitable experience and graduate students at an
advanced stage of their thesis work would also be considered. Awards will
be made according to the recommendations of the NCEM Steering Committee.

Fellowships will be of up to three-months duration and will carry a
stipend of up to $6,000 to assist in defraying travel and living expenses.
Applications must be received by March 31, 1996.

For further information and to receive application forms, contact


Gretchen Hermes, Coordinator
National Center for Electron Microscopy, Bldg. 72
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Berkeley, CA 94720
Tel.: (510) 486-5006
Fax: (510) 486-5888
Email: ghermes-at-lbl.gov






From: PHOBOS11-at-aol.com
Date: Mon, 29 Jan 1996 20:59:59 -0500
Subject: Re: Automatic LN Refill systems

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Hi all,

I saw a company at MSA-95 called VBS. They were marketing some very nice
system. Please check the exhibit directories.

Best Regards,

Al Coritz
RMC




From: Michael OKeefe :      Michael_OKeefe-at-macmail.lbl.gov
Date: 29 Jan 1996 13:50:05 U
Subject: NCEM Visiting Scientist Pro

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Message-Id: {n1389198906.51441-at-macmail.lbl.gov}



University of California
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Materials Sciences Division


National Center for Electron Microscopy
Visiting Scientist Program


The National Center for Electron Microscopy is offering a fellowship
that will allow participants the opportunity to conduct research in their
own area of interest using the advanced transmission electron microscopes
at the Center.

The program is intended primarily for young faculty/investigator
electron microscopists, resident in the U.S. who are in the process of
setting up their own facilities or are awaiting delivery of new equipment,
and who could benefit from the head-start that use of instrumentation and
interaction with personnel at NCEM would bring. However, other post-
doctoral applicants with suitable experience and graduate students at an
advanced stage of their thesis work would also be considered. Awards will
be made according to the recommendations of the NCEM Steering Committee.

Fellowships will be of up to three-months duration and will carry a
stipend of up to $6,000 to assist in defraying travel and living expenses.
Applications must be received by March 31, 1996.

For further information and to receive application forms, contact


Gretchen Hermes, Coordinator
National Center for Electron Microscopy, Bldg. 72
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Berkeley, CA 94720
Tel.: (510) 486-5006
Fax: (510) 486-5888
Email: ghermes-at-lbl.gov






From: grial-at-relay.starnet.net.ar
Date: 01/30/96 Time: 08:35:52
Subject: LM - Stores in UK

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From: baskin-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu (Tobias Baskin)
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 08:44:32 -0600
Subject: RE-Cleaning Oil Imms Lens

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Message-Id: {v01520d01ad33de70f660-at-[128.206.15.200]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Greetings,
Will Bigelow wrote:

} [snip]... In any event, I think you
} should be particularly careful not to use acetone or alcohol, because they
} will soften and dissolve the cement that is usually used to hold the lenses
} in place. Best of all, check with the manufacturer of the lens.

What is the reason for xylene being less likely to dissolve cement
than acetone or ethanol? I would have thought that it depended on the
cement and that generalizations would be difficult. Thanks for any insight
on this.

Tobias Baskin

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
___ ____ ^ ____ _____ Tobias I. Baskin
/ \ / / \ / \ / University of Missouri
/ | / / \ / / Biological Sciences
/___ / /__ /_____\ / /__ 109 Tucker Hall
/ / / \ ( / Columbia, MO 65211 USA
/ / / \ \ / voice: 573-882-0173
/ /____ / \ \____/ /_____ fax: 573-882-0123






From: Michael L. Boucher :      BOUCHER-at-tcrca.usbm.gov
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 09:45:06 CST
Subject: Re: RE-Cleaning Oil Imms Lens

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We've used xylol for the last 30 years here with no serious
consequences on any of our Zeiss and Leitz objectives. The service
people use a combination of ether and other stuff, but we don't need
it often enough to deal with having a can of ether on hand. Xylol
should work fine, but never use alcohol or acetone on objectives.
Mike
*****************************************************************
Michael L. Boucher Sr. Boucher-at-TCRCA.USBM.GOV
Geology-Mineralogy/Chemistry Labs Ph 612-725-4614
Twin Cities Research Center Fax 612-725-4527
U.S. Bureau of Mines Center 725-4500
Department of Interior
5629 Minnehaha Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55417-3099
U.S.A.
*****************************************************************





From: Theresa A. Fassel :      fassel-at-post.its.mcw.edu
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 10:12:16 -0600 (CST)
Subject: database for microscopy

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Does anyone know of database software that I could use to (1) input the
form our lab uses for each sample that comes in (2) search the records by
chosen field of information like "cell line" or "users name" for example
and (3) build a new file with the records from that search? This would
enable me to answer questions like "what were all the experiments done on
x cell line from y time frame?" or place all the records from one user
in one file that I could then print or give to him/her. I would also
like to make a rapid index with just the identification number, date,
user and cell or tissue type, as a rapid frame of reference.

Is there software to do this? Any recommendations or experiences?

Theresa

Dr. Theresa A. Fassel
Sr. Research Associate fassel-at-post.its.mcw.edu
Department of Microbiology (414)-456-8410
Medical College of Wisconsin Fax (414)-266-8522
8701 Watertown Plank Road
Milwaukee, WI 53226-0509






From: Jun Jiao :      junj-at-u.Arizona.EDU
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 10:33:55 -0700 (MST)
Subject: subscribe

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Subscribe!





From: rutledge phil :      prutle1-at-gl.umbc.edu
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 12:30:21 -0500 (EST)
Subject: workshops

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light and electron microscopists;

I was wondering if anyone knows of any upcoming workshops in molecular
biology using molecular probes for confocal and electron microscopy. I
prefer a workshop where "hands on" techniques are emphasized.

Also, does anyone know where 22mm square, quartz coverslips can be purchased?

Thanks in advance.

Peace,

Phil Rutledge




From: nkrsmith-at-juno.com (Nancy K.R. Smith)
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 11:27:18 PST
Subject: SED For Philips STEM

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To: microscopy-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com

Dear all:
I have attempted to respond directly to Alwyn Eades at 2 different email
addresses listed in his 1-29 posting & get an error message of "illegal
host/domain". So I apologize for posting this to the list.

I know someone who knows someone who bought a Philips SEM at our
university's auction. I think he has given up on getting it set up. So he
might be willing to sell parts from it. I don't remember the model no. It
was one of only about 3 that were made with a motor-driven stage, about 1978
vintage. I have no idea any parts might be useable on your system. Contact
me if you want to pursue it.

Nancy Smith
nkrsmith-at-juno.com cc:smithn-at-uthscsa.edu
210-567-3861 Fax 210-567-3803




From: DLIETZ-at-trentu.ca
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 15:01:47 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: subscribe

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From: DLIETZ-at-trentu.ca
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 15:05:51 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: subscribe

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I would like to subscribe again to see what's going on in the field of
microscopy.





From: MicroToday-at-aol.com
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 15:21:35 -0500
Subject: Database Software

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Hi Theresa -
Regarding your inquiry, I would MOST strongly recommend "Q&A" for two
reasons:
1) It is a true piece of cake to identify fields as "keyword" fields, then
in each you can have an unlimited number of variables to search on - and
build, if you want separate records, mailings, etc. The variables can be in
any form. I happen to use codes (like "A") to indicate a particular
category, but you can use anything - including full names.
2) Unlike the current highly regarded database systems (i.e. Foxpro, etc.)
Q&A is a snap to learn. A half dozen hours of study, and you are up and
operating.
And, in addition, it is not very expensive.
Good luck and regards,
Don Grimes, Microscopy Today





From: Paul Webster :      Paul.Webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 30 Jan 1996 18:18:55 -0500
Subject: Re: Workshops

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Message-Id: {n1389096353.87437-at-QuickMail.Yale.edu}

Phil Rutledge writes
"I was wondering if anyone knows of any upcoming workshops in molecular
biology using molecular probes for confocal and electron microscopy. I
prefer a workshop where "hands on" techniques are emphasized."

The 1996 EMBO course which is being held in Prague will have a session on *in
situ* hybridization (as well as cryosectioning, immunolabeling and stereology).
These courses are always "hands on" but the competition to get accepted on them
is tough.

For more details contact:
Dr. Ivan Raska
Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR
Albertov 4
CZ-128 00 Praha 2
Czechoslovakia
E-mail: raska-at-site.cas.cz
Phone: +42-2-2491 0315
Fax: +42-2-294590





From: A. Kent Christensen :      akc-at-umich.edu
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 12:06:30 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: RE-Cleaning Oil Imms Lens

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The original question referred to a situation where it was indeed
necessary to clean cedarwood oil off an immersion lens. However, in
routine use of an oil immersion lens, it has been my understanding over
the years that it is best not to clean the lens. We use commercial
non-drying immersion oil, and merely wipe the excess oil off the lens with
a tissue after use.

A. Kent Christensen, University of Michigan, {akc-at-umich.edu}

-------------------------------

On Tue, 30 Jan 1996, Tobias Baskin wrote:

} Greetings,
} Will Bigelow wrote:
}
} } [snip]... In any event, I think you
} } should be particularly careful not to use acetone or alcohol, because they
} } will soften and dissolve the cement that is usually used to hold the lenses
} } in place. Best of all, check with the manufacturer of the lens.
}
} What is the reason for xylene being less likely to dissolve cement
} than acetone or ethanol? I would have thought that it depended on the
} cement and that generalizations would be difficult. Thanks for any insight
} on this.
}
} Tobias Baskin
}
} - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
} ___ ____ ^ ____ _____ Tobias I. Baskin
} / \ / / \ / \ / University of Missouri
} / | / / \ / / Biological Sciences
} /___ / /__ /_____\ / /__ 109 Tucker Hall
} / / / \ ( / Columbia, MO 65211 USA
} / / / \ \ / voice: 573-882-0173
} / /____ / \ \____/ /_____ fax: 573-882-0123
}
}
}




From: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu (Greg Erdos)
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 15:34:57 GMT
Subject: Flat Scanners

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Back a few weeks to our discussion of flat bed scanners. It was noted that
negatives need to be 1-2 stops overexposed for the transparency adapters to
work properly.

UMAX has come out with a new version of there software that operates
under Windows '95 that allows one to adjust the lamp intensity. I have not
tried it. However one assumes that this would then enable one to compensate
for light or dark materials that fall outside the range of the automatic
settings
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-
Greg Erdos Phone: 352-392-1295
Scientific Director,
ICBR Electron Microscopy Core Lab
218 Carr Hall Fax: 352-846-0251
University of Florida E-mail: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu
Gainesville, FL 32611
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-





From: Fermin, Cesar :      fermin-at-TMC.Tulane.Edu
Date: 30 Jan 1996 10:45:48 -0500
Subject: Scann. Microsc. Int. Meet.

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Message-Id: {n1389123256.18761-at-msmail.tmc.tulane.edu}

Scanning Microscopy International
Post Office Box 66507, Chicago (A.M.F. O'Hare), IL 60666-0507,
U.S.A.
Telephone: (708) 529-6677 / FAX: (708) 980-6698
E.mail: 73211.647-at-compuserve.com

Scanning Microscopy, Cells and Materials, and Food Structure 1996
meetings will be from May 11 to 16 at the Hyatt Regency Hotel,
Bethesda, MD (suburb of Washington, D.C.). Programs on the follow-
ing topics are already being planned (*fliers available, list
below): *Scanning Probe Microscopies (including STM, AFM, etc.) and Related
Techniques for the Biological and Materials Sciences (program already has
over 50
papers); Physical sciences programs in: *Fundamental Physics in
Microscopy and Microanalysis (program of 20+ papers), *Pattern
Formation and Nanoscaled Structures in Thin Film Formation (program
of 25+ papers), *Scanning Microscopy and Semiconductors: Metrology
and Diagnostics (Program of 25+ papers); Biological programs in:
Microanalysis and Imaging, *Immunolabelling, *Radiation Effects,
Apoptosis, *Dentistry, Corrosion Casting, *Inner Ear, *Bone
Biology, *Stones and Crystals, etc.); *Cells and Materials
(covering: Skeletal Tissue / Biomaterials; Foreign Body Reactions;
Biointerfacial Reactions at Biomaterials Surfaces; Innovative Drug
Delivery Systems; Blood Related Biomaterials; and Dental
Biomaterials); and Food Structure related topics. For
participation and contribution, please contact Om Johari at address above.

Scanning Microscopy International is also sponsoring another
international meeting: 15th Pfefferkorn Conference on Electron
Image and Signal Processing (immediately after the Bethesda
Meeting) from May 18-22, 1996 at Silver Bay, New York (80 miles
north of Albany, New York). The organizers are: Drs. Peter W.
Hawkes (CNRS, Toulouse, France; FAX: 33-62-257999; E.mail:
hawkes-at-cict.fr; as its chief organizer), W. Owen Saxton (Univ.
Cambridge, U.K.) and Joachim Frank (NY State Dept. Health, Albany,
NY). Nearly 45 invited contributions are planned; a flier is
available on request. Interested contributors should contact one
of the organizers.




From: Rick Markgraf :      rlmarkgraf-at-ucdavis.edu
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 10:54:30 -0800
Subject: Cleaning Oil Imms Lens

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I agree that xylene and alcohol are probably equal. An old Leitz
Ortholux manual warned against using "spirits" to clean lenses. Modern
cements are unlikely to be affected by either, but I still choose to use
them sparingly. I always use 6" cotton-tipped applicator sticks and, after
dipping them in xylene, press the bud against a tissue until it is just
damp. It makes more sense than soaking the lens and cleans just as well. I
also follow up with a dry bud when cleaning oil from a 40X objective. Then,
I use the same method with Windex or other commercial glass cleaner to
remove all traces and clean the lens thoroughly.
Cotton tipped applicators have an enormous advantage over lens paper.
They work better on small, concave, or recessed lenses, they aren't touched
by your fingers, and so never transfer skin oils, and they prevent contact
between your skin and any toxic solvents (such as xylene) you may use.
I never use acetone on an objective. Some (mostly American Optical)
have a painted "mask" around the lens, and acetone can dissolve the mask and
deposit the paint onto the lens.

} Will Bigelow wrote:
}
} } [snip]... In any event, I think you
} } should be particularly careful not to use acetone or alcohol, because they
} } will soften and dissolve the cement that is usually used to hold the lenses
} } in place. Best of all, check with the manufacturer of the lens.
}
} What is the reason for xylene being less likely to dissolve cement
} than acetone or ethanol? I would have thought that it depended on the
} cement and that generalizations would be difficult. Thanks for any insight
} on this.
}
} Tobias Baskin
}
} - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
} ___ ____ ^ ____ _____ Tobias I. Baskin
} / \ / / \ / \ / University of Missouri
} / | / / \ / / Biological Sciences
} /___ / /__ /_____\ / /__ 109 Tucker Hall
} / / / \ ( / Columbia, MO 65211 USA
} / / / \ \ / voice: 573-882-0173
} / /____ / \ \____/ /_____ fax: 573-882-0123
}
}
}
}
Richard L. Markgraf
Microscope Services
University of California, Davis
Ph. (916)752-3477 Fax (916)752-6363
rlmarkgraf-at-ucdavis.edu





From: ScottE57-at-aol.com
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 20:47:17 -0500
Subject: Re: database for microscopy

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Advanced Imaging Concepts Image Central Version 2.0 windows image database is
very applicapble here. Please contact us for further information.

Scott E. Berman
Advanced Imaging Concepts, Inc.
Phone (908) 274-1877
Fax (908) 274-1974
e-mail Scott E57-at-aol.com






From: BAKERK 905-822-3520(265) :      BakerK-at-aa.wl.com
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 14:30:45 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Fiducial Points

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Mr-Received: by mta SPVX01.MUAS; Relayed; Tue, 30 Jan 1996 14:30:45 -0400
Mr-Received: by mta SPVX01; Relayed; Tue, 30 Jan 1996 14:30:46 -0400
Mr-Received: by mta SRVR01; Relayed; Tue, 30 Jan 1996 14:32:02 -0400
Disclose-Recipients: prohibited



Does anyone have any suggestions for placing fiducial points in tissues that
are intended for embeddment, serial sectioning and immunolabeling? We are
hoping to reconstruct serial sections as image stacks, ultimately for the
purpose of
measurement and visualization.

Some have suggested surface cuts, embeddment of threads, or even the inclusion
of some kind of stainable implant.

Thank You in advance for any and all comments.

KWB
905-822-3520
BAKERK-at-AA.WL.COM






From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 13:50:55 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: database for microscopy

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Message-ID: {n1389083118.76446-at-mse.engin.umich.edu}

} Does anyone know of database software that I could use to (1) input the
} form our lab uses for each sample that comes in (2) search the records by
} chosen field of information like "cell line" or "users name" for example
} and (3) build a new file with the records from that search? This would
} enable me to answer questions like "what were all the experiments done on
} x cell line from y time frame?" or place all the records from one user
} in one file that I could then print or give to him/her. I would also
} like to make a rapid index with just the identification number, date,
} user and cell or tissue type, as a rapid frame of reference.
}
} Is there software to do this? Any recommendations or experiences?
}
Dear Theresa,
Any relational database program will do everything you ask. I have
experience with dBASE, which works well, but is not free. All you have to
do in a relational database program is to define fields with the requisite
info, e.g., for the field "C_LINE" put in the cell line, etc., then use the
search utilities to do boolian searches. The index file can be embedded in
the main data file; you only need to print or list those fields in which you
have an interest. dBASE can print these on forms which you can design to
meet your own needs. As I said, almost any database program can do these
things, so the one to choose is the one you can get most cheaply and/or
which you can use best. Good luck.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: Wil Bigelow :      Wil_Bigelow-at-mse.engin.umich.edu
Date: 30 Jan 1996 13:59:07 -0400
Subject: More on Immers Oils

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Message-ID: {n1389111783.51258-at-mse.engin.umich.edu}

Subject: Time: 1:27 PM
OFFICE MEMO More on Immers Oils Date: 1/30/96

Wow, did I open a can of worms when I mentioned the article on immersion
oils by J. J.Cargille. Actually, the article was written in 1964, and is
possibly quite a bit out of date by now. Basically it covers the following
points:
1. describes the function of immersion oil in increasing the
numerical aperture of a lens by increasing the refractive index between the
objective and condenser.
2. Discusses the problems involved in formulating immersion oils, most
of which are of no direct concern to users of them.
4. Notes that a variation of 1 C in temperature can change the
refractive index of an oil by approx. 0.0004, so be sure to work at the temp
given on the bottle
5. Synthetic oils can be formulated to have better properties than most
natural oils;
- freedom from color which may degrade performance
- lower volatility and more resistant to oxidation and
photo-decomposition, and so less likely to thicken and to form a gummy
deposit on the lens. Wont thicken over time and change ref. index.
- lower acidity and so less likely to damage your instrument,
He also mentions that although Red Cedar oil has been one of the most
commonly used oils: it has poor adsorption characteristics because it may be
discolored; it contains volatiles and will leave gummy films on lenses unless
cleaned off promptly, and it may thicken over time due to evaporation and
change refractive index; it usually has a relatively high acidity, and so may
be prone to damage the objective with prolonged use.
He does not explain why it is common practice to use xylene to clean
immersion oil off lenses, except to say that it doesn't damage the lens
cement. I don't know whether this is the solvent recommended by all
manufacturers of microscopes. In these times when such a wide variety of
cements are available there may be some exceptions. However, I did check the
instructions for a Nikon microscope we purchased only a couple of years ago,
and xylene was recommended there.
The rule I facetiously give to my students concerning the approach to
using instruments is, "After all the controls are bent and everything is
completely fouled up, read the instruction manual!"
The present address of the Cargille Company is: R. P Cargille
Laboratories, 55 Commerce Road, Cedar Grove, NJ, 07009 (Ph. 201-239-6633;
Fx: 201-239-6096) if you want more up-to-date info on immersion oils.
Sorry to get everyone so stirred up:
Wil Bigelow (bigelow-at-umich.edu)





From: mrg1995-at-htp.net
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 23:00:16 -0600
Subject: Subscribe Microscopy@MSA.Microscopy.Com

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Subscribe Microscopy-at-MSA.Microscopy.Com
MRG Associates, Inc.
[Worldwide Headquarters]
755 Waverly Avenue
Holtsville, New York, USA 11742
1-800-606-8869 (Voice within USA)
1-516-447-1041 (Voice)
1-516-447-1042 (FAX)
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O





From: Tina Carvalho :      tina-at-halia.pbrc.Hawaii.Edu
Date: Tue, 30 Jan 1996 09:17:15 -1000 (HST)
Subject: Re: Fed audit at Univ Hawaii

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Quite a few people have asked me for details of the federal audit at the
University of Hawaii that deemed our billing practices fraud.
Below is a brief summary that I sent to one interested person a couple
of months ago--

} We apparently had two things going on here that annoyed the Feds. The
} first, and the one that should be of the most concern to other
} facilities that operate on a recharge basis, is that a Federal audit
} alleged that we were making charges to Federal grants in advance of
} receipt of services. We had been selling "shares" of instrument time,
} allowing users to prepay for 80 hour blocks of time in advance. More
} casual users who paid for time by the hour paid roughly twice as much
} per hour as those who bought blocks of time. This was an incentive to
} get people to commit to instrument usage, allowed us to collect monies
} with which to pay our service contracts (which must be paid in advance),
} expedited paperwork, and allowed users to encumber funds in a timely
} manner. Everything went along fine for about 6 years, but then the Feds
} decided that this constituted fraud. And they weren't very nice about
} it, either. (As an aside, the auditors admitted that our bookkeeping
} was exemplary and that the shares bit was a great and efficient idea and
} should be allowed, but it isn't, so they slapped us anyway.)
}
} The second problem is related, and was actually the more serious on in
} the Feds eyes, even though it involved less money. Apparently our
} umbrella research unit transferred some funds to us as sort of a cross
} between a retainer and a gift, to be used by one of the other research
} labs if needed, but as a gift if not used. Unfortunately, they had us
} write an invoice for it that said it was for use of the EMs, which were
} never used. This was "clearly fraud". I guess if those monies had been
} labelled as for core support or as a gift or whatever, it would have
} been (almost) OK. The net result of these two practices was that about
$20,000 was taken from us, presumably to be returned to the Federal grants
} from which it came. Plus interest! In actuality, the $$ sits in some
} account somewhere where no one knows what to do with it, and the matter
} has been shelved. Meanwhile, we have allowed, over the last four years,
} the users involved to continue to "work off" the money they had put into
} the facility, at our loss. And so, with Federal and Hawaii state budget
} cuts, we're in deep kim chee. The $$ that was taken from us would have
} paid all our service contracts this year, for instance, and we are now
} broke...! And we can't see breaking even for years to come.
} I can see the Fed's points, they could see ours, and everybody lost on
} this one. Don't let it happen to you!

Other things that must be considered include the federal granting
agencies rules that you may not charge federal grants any more than the
lowest rate you charge anyone else. With monies for any given
project often coming from several sources, we quit trying to have
differential charges altogether, so now we charge outside, commercial
projects the same as internal U.H. projects. (Fortunately, there are no
provate EM companies against whom we can't compete, so we don't have to
worry about the politics of taking on any outside projects.) But then
there could be a question about the taxpayers footing part of the bill
for commercial users...

We had a site visit from a federal agency that supports roughly a third
of our facility base costs (my salary included) two weeks ago. They
seriously questioned why we didn't give preferential rates for users of
the facility that were also funded by their agency. I'm confused,
because if we have lower rates for their users, then other federal
grantees would not have the lowest rates, and if we lowered them, then
agency #1's rates would not be preferential, and so it would go until it
was all free! BUT THEN one of the site visitors wanted to know what we
would do if a faculty member had no money but needed to get preliminary data
for a proposal, could we provide any services for free? And while one
member was asking me that, another across the room was telling the
facility manager that we CAN'T do any work for anyone for free because
they were supporting us... They obviously don't have a unified plan.

The basic problem still remains that we have to pay our service
contracts IN ADVANCE, but we have no reserve pool of money from which
to do so (and some facilities are prohibited from accumulating a pool
of money, anyway). And you can't collect money in advance of services
rendered. Other recharge facilities here are in the same boat. It
takes a lot of money for, say, DNA sequencing or protein synthesis, or
whatever. The facility here would get the $$ up front to pay for
gearing up to do it. That is now illegal. So they have to do it first
(how?) and then charge the customer. And not make a profit to have the
reserves to gear up for the next task...

Anyone have any words of wisdom?



Aloha nui,
Tina
}
} *****************************************
} Tina (Weatherby) Carvalho *
} Biological Electron Microscope Facility *
} University of Hawaii *
} (808) 956-6251 *
} tina-at-ahi.pbrc.hawaii.edu *
} http://www.pbrc.hawaii.edu/bemf/ *
} *****************************************
p.s., Yesterday was gorgeous, about 83 degrees F, but today we expect
rain, just to keep the mountains green.






From: Pogany Lajos :      pogany-at-power.szfki.kfki.hu
Date: Wed, 31 Jan 1996 05:58:23 +0100
Subject: CD ROM for archieving

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Errors-To: borbas-at-sunserv.kfki.hu

Dear subscribers,

Is anyone able to assist me in finding a CD ROM writer for image archieving
in the price range of about 1000 $?
Would be possibile to send me addresses where are those available?

Thanks for Your help

LAjos Pogany
pogany-at-power.szfki.kfki.hu






From: Hasse Ekwall :      Hans.Ekwall-at-ah.slu.se
Date: Wed, 31 Jan 1996 08:51:47 +0100
Subject: subscribe

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Subscribe Microscopy-at-MSA.Microscopy.Com


SWEDISH UNIVERSITY AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Hans Ekwall
Dept. Anatomy & Histology
Box 7011, S-750 07 Uppsala, SWEDEN

E-mail Hans.Ekwall-at-ah.slu.se
Voice: +46 18 672141 Telefax: +46 18 672852






From: s.griffiths-at-ucl.ac.uk (Stephen Griffiths)
Date: Wed, 31 Jan 1996 09:09:28 +0000
Subject: Re: LM: Objective Lens cleaning

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Going back a few years, as I do unfortunately, I remember the Microscope
Service Engineer telling me never to use Xylene as it dissolved the mounting
medium of the lens. He always used Ether.

The problem was he used to chuck the Ether soaked lens paper into the metal
wastebin. He also used to smoke. And smoking wasn't banned in the Lab in
those days. (I said I went back a few years). When he also threw his
cigarette end in the bin, the result was exciting, (excessively so) to say
the least.

I still use Xylene. Nothing fell out yet. :)

Regards
Stephen

{} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {}
{} Stephen Griffiths {} e-mail s.griffiths-at-ucl.ac.uk {}
{} Visual Science Department {} {}
{} Institute of Ophthalmology {} Tel: 0171 608 6914 {}
{} London. EC1V 9EL. UK. {} Fax: 0171 608 6850 {}
{} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {} {}





From: Stefan.Gunnarsson-at-devbiol.uu.se (Stefan Gunnarsson)
Date: Wed, 31 Jan 1996 08:48:46 +0100
Subject: Re: Cleaning Oil Imms Lens

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It seems that there are quite a lot of different methods of cleaning
lenses. My favourite method, for what it is worth, is to use either a
proprietary mixture form Leica here in Sweden (isopropanol, some detergent
and dist. water, I think) or abs. ethanol (both are OK from the
manufacturer). After wiping the excess oil off around the lens (never on
the lens), I put a drop of this on the lens, let it sit for a while, then
blow it off in one go with clean compressed CO2. I repeat as many times as
necessary. In this way I never need to touch the lens surface which
according to many authorities (e.g. Shinya Inou=E9 in his book "Video
Microscopy") may be detrimental as the surface coating of the lens is very
soft and easily scratched or abrased even by "soft" cotton or lens cleaning
paper.
I prefer not to use solvents like xylene due to their potential health
risks which I think should be considered in this context.
Finally, it would be nice if reps. from each of the large microscope
manufacturers could give the final words in this matter (what is best for
the lenses, what can the cement take, what if there is other stuff than oil
to clean (e.g. Moviol or other mountants), what is the best way to clean
non-oil immersion lenses that have been messed up with oil or other
things).

Stefan



............................................................................=
..

Stefan Gunnarsson
Microscopy Unit,Dept. of Animal Development and Genetics

Uppsala University
Norbyv. 18A, S-75236 UPPSALA, Sweden
e-mail Stefan.Gunnarsson-at-devbiol.uu.se








From: Katherine.S.Connolly-at-Dartmouth.EDU (Katherine S. Connolly)
Date: 31 Jan 96 09:14:07 EST
Subject: database

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Message-Id: {199601311348.HAA13017-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com}

For Macintosh users,I collate and segregate with Claris Works database. I do
not know if this is a DOS program.
Kate




From: DLIETZ-at-trentu.ca
Date: Wed, 31 Jan 1996 10:06:59 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: computer archiving LM and SEM

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I have recently returned to Trent U and we have started to look at a
computer archiving system which we would like to use in teaching. We have
a small computer (MACS) lab which we are expanding. I am interested in
finding out what systems other labs are using to grab images. Our aim is
to grab images from an SEM, a CCD hooked up to a LM or Video camera and be
able to enhance the images and add script and then download them through
our LAND to the teaching lab. We also wish to do this all in colour. If
you can give me any leads please reply.




From: Doug Keene :      DRK-at-SHCC.ORG
Date: Wed, 31 Jan 1996 09:53:50 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: Cleaning Oil Imms Lens

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We have been using Q-tip brand cotton swabs dipped in chloroform to clean our
Zeiss objectives. The method works extremely well, and requires a minimum of
scrubbing. Using this method over the past 7 years has resulted in no
problems. I would caution that other cotton swabs may
scratch the lenses. Doug Keene, Shriners Hospital Research Unit




From: DonPfield-at-aol.com
Date: Wed, 31 Jan 1996 15:56:00 -0500
Subject: Fisons/Kevex upgrade

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I have a Fisons/Kevex 770 XRF system and would like to upgrade the computer
systerm to a Windows based software system. Does anyone know of other
sources of upgrade hardware/software other than the manufacturer?
Thanks

DonP




From: Delilah Irving :      dirving-at-aggie.pw.usda.gov
Date: Wed, 31 Jan 1996 12:30:50 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: Cleaning Oil Imms Lens

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I use Kodak lens cleaner on a cotton swab and blot with a clean cotton
swab (Q-tip will do) for both oil immersion and non-oil immersion lenses.
It's certainly of less of a health threat than xylene or chloroform and
since it comes in a squeeze bottle is not likely to become contaminated by
dipping cotton swabs into it.

De Irving, USDA, Albany, CA





From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Wed, 31 Jan 1996 17:16:30 -0600
Subject: Stain problem

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I am having a recurring problem with either my grid stain, or water in my
knife boat, or wash water. We stain epoxy sections on copper grids with the
usual uranyl acetate in 50% methanol followed by Reynold's lead citrate.
These are washed in ultra pure water boiled to remove carbonate. We have
done this routine stain procedure successfully for years and have not
changed our materials or procedure in any way. However recently our sections
have been plagued by almost perfectly hexagonal shaped deposits of electron
lucent to opaque "stuff". These deposits aren't embedded within the epoxy as
they ripple and burble under a concentrated beam. Microprobe (EDXEA) of the
deposits gives a solitary lead peak (no uranium peak), but it is unclear
whether the material is an inappropriate lead deposit or another material,
that may have come from the boat or wash water, that is binding the lead
stain. Between the hexagons, we see that the embedded tissue stains well. I
would appreciate any suggestions as to what this might be and how to stop it.


Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D.

Director, Electron Microscopy tel.: (713)798-4658
Department of Pathology, Rm.286-A FAX: (713)798-3945
Baylor College of Medicine Internet: joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
One Baylor Plaza Compuserve: 71555,1206
Houston, Texas 77030 U.S.A.






From: W.Jablonski-at-csl.utas.edu.au (Wis Jablonski)
Date: Thu, 01 Feb 1996 10:19:35 +1000
Subject: Stain problem

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Dear All,
Could you please, help me to locate E-mail and other contact items of Prof.
William A. Miller, Professor of Oral Biology , some times ago at State
University of New York at Buffalo. Please contact me directly on my Email,
W.Jablonski-at-csl.utas.edu.au
Regards to all, and happy New Year 1996,
Wis Jablonski, OiC, EM/X-ray Microanalysis, CSL, Uni of Tasmania





From: dianavd-at-eye.usyd.edu.au (Diana van Driel)
Date: Thu, 1 Feb 1996 10:04:08 +1100
Subject: cleaning LM lenses

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I was recommended to clean any gunked up lens with a knob of polystyrene
foam - no chemicals, just the dry foam rubbed in a circular motion onto the
lens. Over the years none of my Zeiss lenses has suffered any damage from
this.


Diana van Driel
Dept Ophthalmology
Sydney University 2006
NSW, AUSTRALIA






From: MicroToday-at-aol.com
Date: Wed, 31 Jan 1996 18:41:04 -0500
Subject: More on database S/W

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Considering the number of comments and questions I received concerning my
recent recommendation of Q&A database software, kindly allow this response to
the full list:
The name of the software is "Q&A" and it is made by Symantec. Going back
some 5-6 years, it was highly recommended by a number of the computer
magazines. Pricing used to be listed by the software vendors in the back of
these computer magazines, and I expect that they still do - or you might
call Symantec direct (408)253-9600.
To further explain its advantage, we all know that all database software has
a common set of fields. And the normal application is to put only one
variable in each field. For example, one might have a "last name" field - in
which goes only last names. Theresa's question was to S/W that can
conviently handle a considerable number of variables for each record.
In Q&A during setup, you can designate a field as a keyword field. Then in
that field you can have hundreds of variables - each separated by a
semicolon. You can then search (include or eliminate) just as if your
variables were in the dedicated fields. And you can have more than one
keyword field - and search (include or eliminate) on variables from BOTH
fields.
For example, one of my keyword fields is "interests". I enter whether the
person is a "user" or a manufacturer/supplier, his/her primary field(s) of
microscopy interest (biology, material or earth science), and then his/her
specific interests (electron, light, confocal, AFM, etc., etc.). In this one
field I happen to have a total of 14 variables. If the person is a user I
enter an "A", or if he/she is a manufacturer I enter a "B", if he/she is
interested in electron and confocal microscopy, I enter an "C" and a "D",
etc.- each code # followed by a semicolon. I could, of course, enter real
text rather than the code. Say I want to find users only with an interest
in biology and light microscopy. A piece of cake! And to extend the search
to include only those who work in an individual company in a specific town is
so, so easy.
I do understand that other database software allows these kind of searches
but all I have looked at, and I have looked at most, makes it somewhat to
very difficult.
I hope that a number of you find these comments of interest.
Regards,
Don Grimes, Microscopy Today




From: Tina Carvalho :      tina-at-halia.pbrc.Hawaii.Edu
Date: Wed, 31 Jan 1996 10:54:05 -1000 (HST)
Subject: Audit woes

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I would like to thank all of you who have responded to me personally
with sympathy or ideas concerning our audit woes. Actually, we are OK
right now (except for always operating in the red, which we are getting
away with for now). My message was primarily to stimulate discussion on
the subject of recharge problems, and as a warning to other facilities
who may be subject to such scrutiny in the future. Rearranging our
billing practices was not so awful; losing a chunk of money and being
psychologically dragged over the coals was.

In my opinion, each facility that is not totally subsidized by their
institution needs to take a good look at their sources of funds, and at
what their outlay is. We basically have to justify every nickle of our
hourly charges for instrument use, for example. We have built into that
charge some percentage of the costs of consumables, technician salary
for maintenance, cost of other down time, whatever. We do not add in a
portion of the service contracts because they are (partially) supported
by other sources. We should, however, add in that portion NOT covered
by other sources. But the calculations have gotten so cumbersome as it
is, that we have not. Plus there recently came up the question of use
by faculty partially supported by the same grant as supports part of the
service contract, and should that be prorated? It gets unbelievably
complex really quickly. So I'm just thorwing this out there to (make
your lives more miserable, and) warn others of the potential
budgetary/political problems that may come out of the blue. I expect
each situation to be different. I am interested in finding ways to go
back to the "lump sum" situation for our regular users. For instance,
perhaps they can pay outright for a percentage of the service
contracts, and then not be charged by the hour. It probably all depends on
the current person sitting in the fiscal or contract office, or what they
are wearing, or whatever. I'm interested in what works for other
facilities.

Our rainstorm blew through, and today it's 83 degrees, clear and sunny.
And I'm stuck in this EM lab...

*****************************************
Tina (Weatherby) Carvalho *
Biological Electron Microscope Facility *
University of Hawaii *
(808) 956-6251 *
tina-at-ahi.pbrc.hawaii.edu *
http://www.pbrc.hawaii.edu/bemf/ *
*****************************************





From: chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU (John Chandler)
Date: Wed, 31 Jan 1996 23:11:44 -0700
Subject: Re: Audit woes

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Thanks, Tina, for sharing your woes with the readers of the microscopy list.=
As was discussed at the Technologist's Forum at MSA last year, these=
issues affect all EM service labs that deal with federally funded research=
projects. The answers are not always easy, but there are some basic=
guidelines that we use at Colorado State University that could be applied=
at other universities.

** some deleted **

} In my opinion, each facility that is not totally subsidized by their=20
} institution needs to take a good look at their sources of funds, and at=20
} what their outlay is. We basically have to justify every nickle of our=20

This is what we have found. Financial support of EM labs from central=
sources, like college deans and vice presidents for research is essential. =
When we polled about 2 dozen EM labs at universities comparable to ours a=
few years ago, the clear message was that to not have central support was=
"the kiss of death".

} hourly charges for instrument use, for example. We have built into that=20
} charge some percentage of the costs of consumables, technician salary=20
} for maintenance, cost of other down time, whatever. We do not add in a=20

We have had to do rigorous cost accounting to find out as accurately as=
possible what the hourly cost of operating the instruments is. We know=
what the fixed costs for each instrument are. They are service contracts,=
gases, liquid nitrogen, an estimated number of hours for routine=
maintenance, etc. Those expenses are divided by the expected usage, in=
hours, to come up with an estimated hourly charge. Our best estimate for=
our instruments is $45/hr in actual cost to run the instruments.

We have gone through several mechanisms over the last 5-10 years to get=
financial support from our central administration. What happens this year=
and next is that several central sources have paid enough dollars to cover=
some of the fixed costs, specifically service contracts, which allows us to=
bill every user at CSU the same reduced rate of $17/hr. There are three=
important points to remember; 1) no dollars from federal grants are used=
for the up front payments, so there is no pre-payment for services, 2) all=
CSU users are billed the same amount for the entire fiscal year, and 3) the=
hourly charge reflects real expenses.

This entire process is a collosal pain, but it is essential, if we want to=
stay in compliance with federal regulations. We think the effort will=
serve us well, should we be audited. We have been working closely with the=
financial officer of our college and the university's controller to be as=
sure as is possible that our policies will pass their scrutiny, as well as=
that of auditors.

These policies aren't used only in the EM Center, but also at other centers=
around the university, and will be used by more. So what happens at other=
labs at your university might be useful to you.

} portion of the service contracts because they are (partially) supported=20
} by other sources. We should, however, add in that portion NOT covered=20
} by other sources. But the calculations have gotten so cumbersome as it=20
} is, that we have not. Plus there recently came up the question of use=20
} by faculty partially supported by the same grant as supports part of the=20
} service contract, and should that be prorated? It gets unbelievably=20

A multi-tiered fee schedule invites such headaches that we won't even=
consider it. The bookkeeping is so cumbersome and convoluted that we think=
it invites trouble.

Our philosophy is that we will bill for real expenses fairly, so no one gets=
gouged. We had been subsidizing the campus for a long time, and, once we=
decided to clean up the books, we made everyone acccountable.

We are trying to meet our expenses as closely as possible, without making=
money. If we end the year with a deficit, we can legitimately charge that=
against next year's budget and recoup it through adjusted fees next fiscal =
year.

} complex really quickly. So I'm just thorwing this out there to (make=20
} your lives more miserable, and) warn others of the potential=20
} budgetary/political problems that may come out of the blue. I expect=20
} each situation to be different. I am interested in finding ways to go=20
} back to the "lump sum" situation for our regular users. For instance,=20
} perhaps they can pay outright for a percentage of the service=20
} contracts, and then not be charged by the hour. It probably all depends on=
=20

This is the kind of arrangement that we think is sure to get us in trouble,=
so we won't consider it. Once the true costs of running the facility are=
known by the users, they are much more likely to go along with the charges.=
Everyone would like to get the services for free, but it's hard to argue=
with facts like real costs.

So far, this approach is working very well. And, since we're still looking=
for better ways to recoup expenses, I'm interested in any other procedures=
that work.

} the current person sitting in the fiscal or contract office, or what they=
=20
} are wearing, or whatever. I'm interested in what works for other=20
} facilities.

John
chandler-at-lamar.ColoState.EDU






From: mager-at-unixg.ubc.ca (Mary Mager)
Date: Wed, 31 Jan 1996 23:29:01 -0800
Subject: Re: Fisons/Kevex upgrade

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} I have a Fisons/Kevex 770 XRF system and would like to upgrade the computer
} systerm to a Windows based software system. Does anyone know of other
} sources of upgrade hardware/software other than the manufacturer?
} Thanks

Dear Don,
The company IXRF have contacted old Kevex EDS users with a system to run
EDS software on a Pentium computer, using the power supplies and pulse
processor of your existing Kevex. With a name like IXFR, I suspect they do
XRF systems, too.
Contact:
Kenny Witherspoon
IXRF Systems, Inc.
15715 Brookford Drive
Houston, TX 7705
tel: 713-286-6485, fax: 713-286-2660

They will probably be at MAS/MSA/MSC, too.
Regards,
Mary

Mary Mager
Electron Microscopist
Metals and Materials Eng, UBC
309 - 6350 Stores Rd.
Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4
CANADA
tel: 604-822-5648, fax: 604-822-3619
email: mager-at-unixg.ubc.ca






From: mager-at-unixg.ubc.ca (Mary Mager)
Date: Wed, 31 Jan 1996 23:20:51 -0800
Subject: Re: database for microscopy

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} Does anyone know of database software that I could use to (1) input the
} form our lab uses for each sample that comes in (2) search the records by
} chosen field of information like "cell line" or "users name" for example
} and (3) build a new file with the records from that search?
Dear Theresa,
I have been using Microsoft Access for keeping track of my billing in my
lab for about three years now. It is a relational database and you can
design the particular "queries" to relate any data to any other. I do
Christmas cards at home, keep track of SEM hours, photos, different
customers and rates at work. I know it will do a lot more than I use, and I
find it easy to change things if I need to.

I suspect any good database would be sufficient for your use, it is just a
matter of choosing one. The learning curve is a bit slow at first, but you
soon learn.

Hope this helps,
Mary

Mary Mager
Electron Microscopist
Metals and Materials Eng, UBC
309 - 6350 Stores Rd.
Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4
CANADA
tel: 604-822-5648, fax: 604-822-3619
email: mager-at-unixg.ubc.ca






From: RMacKay :      RMACKAY-at-AC.DAL.CA
Date: Thu, 1 Feb 1996 10:49:23 +0000
Subject: EMPA Software

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Message-Id: {199602011357.JAA16914-at-Snoopy.UCIS.Dal.Ca}
Comments: Authenticated sender is {RMACKAY-at-ac.dal.ca}

To those in probe land,

Occasionally I am asked to identify an unknown mineral based on
microprobe data. Does any one know of an inexpensive software
program that would run on a PC ?

Best Regards,

Bob MacKay
Robert MacKay
Department of Earth Sciences
Dalhousie University
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
B3H 3J5
Tel: 902 494-7087
e-mail rmackay-at-ac.dal.ca




From: Leo Marin :      leo-at-spine.med.utoronto.ca
Date: Thu, 1 Feb 1996 09:58:12 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Fiducial points

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I have been thinking about a similar problem with respect to serial
sectioning of the hippocampus. Could the use of a microbeam laser to
produce a micron-size hole in the tissue be part of a solution?
Leo Marin
Dept. of Physiology
University of Toronto




From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Thu, 01 Feb 1996 11:03:59 -0600
Subject: Re: Stain problem

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At 08:43 AM 2/1/96 -0500, you wrote:
......My conclusion was that the Pb was present as an impurity on the grids,
some batches have it, some don't.
}
*************
That's something I hadn't thought about sinse we routinely wash our grids
(copper mesh) in acetone followed by alcohol. We will try an acetic acid
wash next followed by thorough rinsing in clean water and see what happens.

* * Joiner Cartwright, Jr. * *





From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Thu, 01 Feb 1996 11:03:56 -0600
Subject: Re: Stain problem

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At 08:37 AM 2/1/96 -0500, you wrote:
.....perhaps the problem appeared after the resin cartridges were exchanged
and hence
} most likely to leach chelating agent.
}
*************

That's a good point. However the water used is from a reverse osmosis system
and shouldn't have that problem. Also up until the recent past, we had
indeed used resin demineralized water without problem. Thanks for your input.

* * Joiner Cartwright, Jr. * *





From: Clint_Haris-RA3813-at-email.sps.mot.com
Date: 1 Feb 96 11:46:35 -0600
Subject: unsubscribe

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From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Thu, 01 Feb 1996 11:04:02 -0600
Subject: Re: Stain problem

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At 09:20 AM 2/1/96 EST, you wrote:

.....we thought it was coming from the lead solder in the water
pipes.....you might ask Don Steel at alcan.....

**************
Paul -

I just read Don's letter and am going to try his suggestion to wash grids
better. We have had this problem with both resin demineralized water as well
as water purified by reverse osmosis that is used in tissue culture. The
success of our tissue cultures seems to preclude a significant lead content
in the latter.

I must admit that I feel a bit better hearing that others have come up
against these -at-#%&*-at-#$! hexagons.
* * Joiner Cartwright, Jr. * *





From: Rea, Thomas -TREA
Date: 1996-02-01 11:02
Subject: looking for MS-Access example databases

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------------------------------------------------------------------------------




Can anyone give me a good http or ftp or even a BBS site that has MS-Access
example databases (i.e., Shareware, etc.....).

I have been looking on the WWW and
I have found next to zilch!!!!


Thanks!

Tom Rea
TREA-at-chevron.com





From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Thu, 01 Feb 1996 15:16:49 -0600
Subject: Re: Stain problem

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At 10:10 AM 2/1/96 -0800, you wrote:

} The hexangonal crystals are probably uranyl acetate, not the lead. Take
} a look at your Uranyl staining procedure. The stain is probably over
} saturated or drying out at some point or possibly too old.
}
} Dan

**********************
Dan -

I'll check that out and see what happens. However EDXEA microprobe of the
contamination yielded a lead peak only.....but, shoot, I'll try anything at
this point.

* * Joiner Cartwright, Jr. * *





From: Donald Lovett :      lovett-at-trenton.edu
Date: Thu, 1 Feb 1996 08:37:58 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Stain problem

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In response to Joiner Cartwright's question about a precipitate that is
forming on his grids when he uses "ultra pure water boiled to remove
carbonate", I have the following suggestion:

I was taught to never use resin-purified water in solutions for EM work.
The rational was that chelating agents in the resin may become
solubilized and later create unwanted precipitate in the specimen. I
only use glass distilled water for all of my EM work. Perhaps the
problem suggested above is due to the water (I assume that "ultra pure"
refers to a resin purification system. If this is the case, perhaps the
problem appeared after the resin cartridges were exchanged (and hence
most likely to leach chelating agent).

__________________________________________________________________________
Donald L. Lovett e-mail: lovett-at-trenton.edu
Assoc. Professor, Dept. of Biology voice: (609) 771-2876
Trenton State College, NJ 08650-4700 fax: (609) 771-2674






From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Thu, 1 Feb 1996 16:39:21 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Fiducial points

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} Could the use of a microbeam laser to
} produce a micron-size hole in the tissue be part of a solution?

Dear Leo & all,
Since the object is to produce contrast between the rest of the
section and the fiducial mark, a micron-sized hole would do the job. One
must remember that during the fixing, staining & embedding the hole might
be bent or otherwise distorted, but that information is useful in itself.
An alternative to using a laser is to use a micropipette. We have been
developing micropipettes for HVEM sample holders & have discovered that
they can be pulled to submicron diameters, so they may offer an advantage
over lasers. (Good old low-tech solutions still have merit. :-))
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Thu, 01 Feb 1996 16:17:02 -0600
Subject: Re: Stain problem

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Thanks, Chuck. That sounds plausable. We'll give it a try.

Joiner
************************************

At 02:52 PM 2/1/96 -0600, you wrote:
} Joiner,
} I posted a message to Microscopy and never saw it come over the
} newsgroup. So anyway....
} We have had the same problem. If we use fresh sodium citrate in
} the preparation of the lead citrate, it goes away. Information, from ?
} somewhere, indicated that sodium citrate can degrade over time. It isn't
} easy buying small quantities of the stuff so we buy 500 grams and aliquot
} out the powder in 15 - to 20 gram portions in scintillation vials and keep
} it out of the light. When we use a vial, we discard any leftover. If two
} vials/two batches of Pbcitrate show problems, we discard any remaining
} vials and order a new batch of sodium citrate.
} We may be fooling ourselves and the leftover sodium citrate is an
} adequate sacrifice to appease the quirky gods of EM. Either way, it works
} for us.
}
} Chuck
}
}
}
} Charles J. Butterick (Chuck)
} Electron Microscopy Center
} Department of Cell Biology
} and Biochemistry
} Texas Tech University Health
} Sciences Center
} 3601 4th Street
} Lubbock, Texas 79430
}
} vox (806) 743-1633
} fax (806) 743-1219
} email emccjb-at-ttuhsc.edu or
} chuck-at-micron1.lubb.ttuhsc.edu
}
}
}
}





From: emccjb-at-ttuhsc.edu (Charles J. Butterick)
Date: Thu, 1 Feb 1996 09:01:16 -0600
Subject: RE: Stain problem

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Joiner Cartwright said,
"I am having a recurring problem with either my grid stain, or water in my
knife boat, or wash water. We stain epoxy sections on copper grids with the
usual uranyl acetate in 50% methanol followed by Reynold's lead citrate.
These are washed in ultra pure water boiled to remove carbonate. We have
done this routine stain procedure successfully for years and have not
changed our materials or procedure in any way. However recently our sections
have been plagued by almost perfectly hexagonal shaped deposits of electron
lucent to opaque "stuff". These deposits aren't embedded within the epoxy as
they ripple and burble under a concentrated beam. Microprobe (EDXEA) of the
deposits gives a solitary lead peak (no uranium peak), but it is unclear
whether the material is an inappropriate lead deposit or another material,
that may have come from the boat or wash water, that is binding the lead
stain. Between the hexagons, we see that the embedded tissue stains well. I
would appreciate any suggestions as to what this might be and how to stop it."

I've had the same problem. Generally the problem occurs when our
sodium citrate gets too old. When we order fresh sodium citrate, we
aliquot 15-20g into separate scintillation vials and seal the vials
tightly. We use the amount necessary to make Reynold's lead citrate and
dispose of the leftover sodium citrate in the used vial. Apparently, the
reopening of a bulk container allows degradation of the sodium citrate.
Then again, this might be silly superstition and my gift of
leftover sodium citrate might be a suitable sacrifice to appease the fickle
nature of the gods of EM.



Charles J. Butterick (Chuck)
Electron Microscopy Center
Department of Cell Biology
and Biochemistry
Texas Tech University Health
Sciences Center
3601 4th Street
Lubbock, Texas 79430

vox (806) 743-1633
fax (806) 743-1219
email emccjb-at-ttuhsc.edu or
chuck-at-micron1.lubb.ttuhsc.edu






From: sbarlow-at-sunstroke.sdsu.edu (Steve Barlow)
Date: Thu, 1 Feb 1996 12:02:15 -0800 (PST)
Subject: call for papers, Microscopy Colloquium

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X-Nupop-Charset: English


Announcement and Call for Papers

Fourth Annual Microscopy Colloquium
hosted by
California State University and
Southern California Electron Microscope Society

Saturday, May 4, 1996
Sunday, May 5, 1996

at the San Diego State University Aztec Center, San Diego California

Business meeting for CSU delegates
Friday, May 3, 1994

Abstracts Due March 15, 1996

The proceedings of the meeting will be published in
Microscopy Research and Technique.

This Colloquium provides a forum for the exchange of research interests and
experiences in all fields of light and electron microscopy, in biological,
geological, and materials sciences. Participants include students and
scientists from academia and industry. Both platform and poster
presentations are invited.

Student presentations are strongly encouraged

Registration:

Registration Fees: $35 Regular $10 Student $50 Vendor by March 15

Late Registration: $45 Regular $10 Student $60 Vendor, after March 15

Makes checks payable to: EM Facility/Colloquium

Send to: Dr. Steven Barlow
EM Facility/Biology Dept.
San Diego State University
San Diego, CA 92182-4614

For additional information, flyers, and abstract forms, contact:
Steve Barlow (619) 594-4523 or sbarlow-at-sunstroke.sdsu.edu


---------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dr. Steve Barlow
EM Facility/Biology Dept.
San Diego State University
San Diego CA 92182-4614
phone: (619) 594-4523
fax: (619) 594-5676
email: sbarlow-at-sunstroke.sdsu.edu





From: W.Jablonski-at-csl.utas.edu.au (Wis Jablonski)
Date: Fri, 02 Feb 1996 09:26:19 +1000
Subject: Crystallographic Congress 1996

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Dear All,
Thank you very much for helping me to locate Bill Miller and especially
Prof. Summers, Irving Delilah and Susan Udin.Thanks again.
Cheers, Wis Jablonski , CSL, Uni-Tas, Australia





From: Cannon9965-at-aol.com
Date: Thu, 1 Feb 1996 19:51:44 -0500
Subject: Objective lens cleaning

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I was advised by my microscope rep. (a very respected microscopist) to use a
heavy polishing compound (like used to remove paint on cars) and light grit
sandpaper to remove oil and lens coatings on our lenses. On particularly
difficult occasions a sandblaster has sufficed. Needless to say that in 23
years we have experienced no difficulty using this method. We have never
published a paper based on our findings but we hope to get a Science article
soon.

I thought that with the huge influx of postings regarding this issue I would
just add my 2 cents worth as it seems everybody had a different idea about
how to do it. You should contact you local microscope rep. if you need to
know how to clean a lens.




From: Murphy, Judy :      murphy-at-sjdccd.cc.ca.us
Date: 1 Feb 1996 17:14:08 -0800
Subject: SEM/EDX Technologist Opening

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Message-ID: {n1388927599.95193-at-sjdccd.cc.ca.us}
"MSA List" {microscopy-at-aaem.amc.anl.gov} ,
"EM Lab" {emlab-at-sjdccd.cc.ca.us} ,
"Hinds, Joan" {jhinds-at-sjdccd.cc.ca.us} ,
"Villalovoz, Frank" {fvillalovoz-at-sjdccd.cc.ca.us}
X-Mailer: Mail*Link SMTP-MS 3.0.2


Altera Corporation
SEM/EDX Technologist (Reliability Technician Opportunity)


COMPANY: Altera Corporation is a leader in advanced programmable logic
devices and software. Our continued growth and success necessitates the need
for the
following talented individual to join our team.

JOB DESCRIPTION: In this position you will work with product, reliability and
technology engineers to identify appropriate failure analysis techniques,
provide physical analysis service to identify the root causes of the failures,

document the results, and inform the engineers of the root causes for
corrective actions. You will also coordinate the maintenance of failure
analysis equipment.

QUALIFICATIONS: The ideal candidate will have one plus years related
experience in physical analysis. Also they will be familiar with usage of
analysis equipment including SEM, EDX, precision cross sectioning, RIE, Jet
Etcher and chemical de-processing set-up. Good communication skills, ability
to handle multiple projects and interact effectively with others is a must.

BENEFITS: Altera offers a challenging environment along with comprehensive
benefits which include profit sharing, company matching 401(k) plan and an
Employee Stock Purchase Plan.

CONTACT: Principals only please. EOE.
Send resume to:

Altera Corporation,
Human Resources,
Attn: JG/SJDC295,
2610 Orchard Parkway,
San Jose, CA 95134-2020.
FAX: 408-435-5065.







From: rlmarkgraf-at-ucdavis.edu (Rick Markgraf)
Date: Thu, 1 Feb 1996 14:16:37 -0800
Subject: Re: cleaning LM lenses

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} Diana van Driel wrote:
} I was recommended to clean any gunked up lens with a knob of polystyrene
} foam - no chemicals, just the dry foam rubbed in a circular motion onto the
} lens. Over the years none of my Zeiss lenses has suffered any damage from
} this.

Have you inspected the front lenses of your objectives under
magnification to see if there are scratches in the coating? If there are
none, is is a testament to the durability of the Zeiss coatings.

I have seen too many microscope lenses (yes, even Zeiss) marred by
rubbing with dry materiels. I don't recommend this for any lens. The dust
particles that settle on lenses, particularly uncovered oculars, act like
sandpaper when rubbed across the lens surface. Solutions such as lens
cleaners lubricate these particles and reduce their abrasive effect. Cotton
buds tend to lift the particles into their fibers, while, I believe,
polystyrene would tend to keep them at the lens surface where they can do
damage.

This discussion of cleaning gunked immersion lenses misses the real
problem, in my mind. I care for 2100 microscopes constantly in use by
university students. We use only synthetic immersion oils. Despite
warnings, a certain number of these microscopes end up with immersion oil on
the high dry (40X) objectives, rendering them useless until cleaned. Since
the microscopes may be of 8 different brands, of varied models and ages, my
cleaning method has to work for them all, and be applicable in a classroom
situation. Cotton buds and glass cleaner (Windex or something similar) used
in a wash and dry pattern, work well for cleaning all lenses and is
relatively benign to microscope and student. Glass cleaner doesn't work
well for immersion oil on the 40X, because it requires repeated application
of the glass cleaner to remove all traces, a time-consuming effort.
The US Government, and particularly the state of California, have
stringent safety rules governing use of chemicals. While xylene, may be the
best cleaner for immersion oil, its toxicity is a drawback and I hesitate to
recommend it for students in a classroom environment. Same goes for pet
ether, methyl-ethyl ketone, acetone or chloroform. Alcohol would be a
preferred solution, but, because of warnings about its use with older
microscopes, I hesitate to recommend it. Perhaps when the older microscopes
are completely phased out of our inventory ...
Immersion oil seems to be a popular thread with this list. I would
appreciate any comments or ideas.

Rick Markgraf
Microscope Services
University of California, Davis
rlmarkgraf-at-ucdavis.edu
PH. (916)752-3477 FAX (916)752-6363







From: vpdravid-at-casbah.acns.nwu.edu
Date: Thu, 1 Feb 1996 23:23:46 -0600
Subject: Position Open

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"Matthew Libera" {mlibera-at-vaxa.stevens-tech.edu} ,
"Eric Lifshin" {lifshin-at-crd.ge.com} , "Charlie Lyman" {cel1-at-lehigh.edu} ,
"Tom Malis" {Tom.Malis-at-cc2smtp.emr.ca} , "Jon McCarthy" {jonm-at-noran.com} ,
"Stuart McKernan" {stuartm-at-maroon.tc.umn.edu} ,
"Mike Miller" {xkm-at-ornl.gov} , "John Mansfield" {jfmjfm-at-umich.edu} ,
"Joe Mayer" {jmayer-at-vaxww1.mpi-stuttgart.mpg.de} ,
{Microscopy-at-aaem.amc.anl.gov} , "Joe Michael" {jrmicha-at-sandia.gov} ,
"Terry Mitchell" {temitchell-at-lanl.gov}

Dear Friends:

There is an immediate opening in our group at Northwestern
University for a Postdoctoral Scholar or a Research Associate, in the area
of Analytical Electron Microscopy/Materials Science. I would greatly
appreciate it if you could pass on the following information to interested
parties. Please have anyone interested contact me at the
address/e-mail/phone below.

Thanks !

Vinayak
============================================================================

POSITION OPEN: Postdoctoral Scholar or Research Associate

Area: Analytical Electron Microscopy & Materials Science

Qualification: A PhD in Materials Science/Physics or related area. Very
strong hands-on experience in various AEM techniques is required, including
transmission EELS, x-ray microanalysis and CBED. Experience in specimen
preparation of variety of materials, especially x-sectional TEM is
required. Preference will be given to those who have demonstrated skills
and publications using FEG TEM/STEM/SEM and interfacial/defect phenomena in
solids.

Instrumentation available at NU in the newly restructured Electron
Probe Instrumentation Center (EPIC) includes: A Hitachi HF-2000 FEG
TEM/STEM with x-ray, EELS, in-situ IV/LHe holder and e- holography set-up,
a Hitachi S4500-II FEG SEM with x-ray, EBSP/OIM and LHe stage with in-situ
IV probes, a Hitachi H8100 cTEM, and access to various other TEMs/SEMs and
other analytical instrumentation.

Research involves use of diverse AEM techniques to probe problems
of thin film growth, interfaces & grain boundaries in oxide systems.

The position is open immediately for at least one year, renewable
upon mutual agreement for longer period. Salary and benefits will
commensurate with experience and skills.

Please contact immediately:

*******************************************************
(Vinayak P. Dravid)
Associate Professor, Materials Science & Engineering
Director, Electron Probe Instrumentation Center (EPIC)
Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
Ph.: (847) 467-1363, Fax: (847) 491-7820
E-mail: v-dravid-at-nwu.edu
*******************************************************


Thanks,

(NOTE THE NEW AREA CODE)
*******************************************************
(Vinayak P. Dravid)
Associate Professor, Materials Science & Engineering
Director, Electron Probe Instrumentation Center (EPIC)
Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
Ph.: (847) 467-1363, Fax: (847) 491-7820
E-mail: v-dravid-at-nwu.edu
*******************************************************






From: DonPfield-at-aol.com
Date: Fri, 2 Feb 1996 07:50:17 -0500
Subject: XRF Upgrade

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Thanks for all the help. I will contact each suggestion.

DonPfield




From: Michaela Just :      MICHAELA-at-MOON.OVI.AC.ZA
Date: Fri, 2 Feb 1996 14:54:46 CAT
Subject: unsubscribe

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unsubscribe microscopy newsgroup, thanx
Michaela Just
Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute
P.O. Box x05
Onderstepoort
0110
RSA
e-mail: Michaela-at-moon.ovi.ac.za
Tel: 27-12-5299215
Fax: 27-12-5299434




From: kelloes-at-emlab.cb.uga.edu
Date: Fri, 2 Feb 1996 11:54:10 +0000
Subject: Short (8-15 pages) Electron Microscopy Article

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Hello on the Net:

I need help in either getting articles or article references
on a good, short EM paper that would be useful for teaching
students. In the July-August 1992 American Scientist Magazine,
there was an excellent article, entitled "The New Vision of Light
Microscopy". This is an excellent paper on LM and image analysis
for students and also for technician references. If anyone out
there has any suggestions or ideas, please let me know. Thank you in
advance. Cathy Kelloes




From: Leo Marin :      leo-at-spine.med.utoronto.ca
Date: Fri, 2 Feb 1996 10:34:36 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Heat Pen

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In the past I have used chloroform routinely for expanding thin sections.
Because of the hazardous nature of this chemical I tried a heat pen
(amps - .125), but it was totally ineffective. Would a more powerful
heat pen be effective in reducing compression ? I would appreciate
some feed back on this.
Thanks
Leo




From: John Gabrovsek :      gabrovj-at-cesmtp.ccf.org
Date: Fri, 02 Feb 1996 10:31:02 -0500
Subject: TEM,Staining problem

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X-Mailer: Novell GroupWise 4.1

While discussion is going on about the precipitate that is forming on
grids even when ultrapure boiled water is used (Cartwright, Lovett).
I have another question. I see sometimes grids jumping in plastic
dish becose of static electricity. I imagine that if we place charged
grid on stain solution that some stain will precipitate.Is out there
anybody who would comment for this possibility?
John Gabrovsek





From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Fri, 02 Feb 1996 10:59:27 -0600
Subject: Re: stain problem

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At 04:28 PM 2/1/96 -0600, you wrote:

"Do you wet your grids before putting them in your methanolic uranyl acetate?"

No, we haven't been wetting the grids first. But that sounds like a
reasonable thing to do. If Mollenhauer suggested it, it must be good.

*********************

"I also have one caution about using acetic acid to clean grids. If you
leave the grids in the acetic acid too long, you'll get flakes of copper on
your sections."


Yes, we're careful about that. One thing that may be contributing to the
problem is that we're using the thin bar "Super 200" grids because we need
to maximize the open space. These grids are difficult to wash as thoroughly
as we'd like because there is less metal for the sections to adhere to and
they are easily washed off the grid. But we've been using these grids and
stain procedure successfully for years. We are looking for things in the
laboratory environment that have recently changed. Our pay scale is not high
on the list of suspects.

Thank you, Jane.

* * Joiner Cartwright, Jr. * *





From: Shea Miller :      MILLERS-at-em.agr.ca
Date: Fri, 02 Feb 1996 09:21:32 -0500
Subject: freeze substitution to retain soluble components

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Greetings all!
I am trying to use freeze substitution to retain soluble
oligosaccharides in plant tissues, and am not yet convinced that I
have been successful, partly because of embedding/infiltration
problems (I think!). We have tried a variation of the tannic acid
fixation with Kaeser's substitution cocktail, and stuff seems to
look ok (tough to really assess when the scope has been down,
unfortunately), although we have been advised that probably LR
White is easier to work with than Lowycryl K4M, which is what we
used the last time, and it doesn't section happily. Would like to
try another run (just got some fresh LR White) and thought it
would be useful to ask for some input from the group. It's
probably of interest to more than me, but if folks prefer to
respond directly, I will summarize the responses and post them.
I'm certainly looking forward to your input!

TIA
shea

S.Shea Miller
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Centre for Food and Animal Research
Central Experimental Farm
Ottawa, Ontario
Canada K1A 0C6
Phone: 613-759-1760
Fax: 613-759-1765
email: millers-at-em.agr.ca





From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Fri, 02 Feb 1996 14:14:01 -0600
Subject: Re: Stain problem

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Message-Id: {199602021914.NAA17379-at-watson.bcm.tmc.edu}
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At 08:55 AM 2/2/96 -0800, you wrote:

} Could the UA somehow have been cross-contaminated with Pb?
} Sometimes a weak wash with 0.02 N NaOH will help with Pb deposits-if that
} is the source of the problem.
}
}
} Doug Davis
}
**********************
Doug,

We've been pretty careful not to cross contaminate. We may have to resort to
after-the-fact cleaning, but I would like to eleminate the problem before it
occurs. Thanks for the suggestion.

* * Joiner Cartwright, Jr. * *





From: Andy Blackwood
Date: Fri, 2 Feb 1996 12:00:15 -0500
Subject: Audit at U of Hawaii

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2 February 1996


To: Microscopy BB

I think there is something about the circumstances described over the last
few days by Tina Carvalho that recalls some of the recent discussion of
ethical values.

No matter how high and noble our calling, we all work within rules. Some of
them are institutional, some professional and some come from the laws of our
state and our nation. Whatever their source, however, the rules are what the
rules are.

If we don't like the rules, we can work to change them, but none of us has a
license to violate them. Auditors, internal or external, are in the business
of finding violations of the rules, and some of them do a very good job of
doing just that. All of us are tempted from time to time to bend or to break
the rules under which we operate, sometimes for a very good purpose. In the
case of our microscopy supplies business, for example, we may be asked to
sell the components of a sputter coating system separately so that they can
be bought out of a budget intended for consumables, when the rules say that
the system is capital equipment, to come out of another budget. Is this
right? Or is it a conspiracy to defraud? Does the noble purpose (the fact
that the funds will go back to the sponsor) make any difference? How about
the request that we predate or postdate the invoice, to get it into the
"right" year?

It seems to me that we are all better off if we just force ourselves to live
within the rules instead of trying to rationalize our efforts to get around
them.

BTW, am I the only person who wonders which is the chicken and which is the
egg when Tina comments about the lack of commercial EM facilities within her
state?

Andy

Andrew W. Blackwood, Ph.D.
Structure Probe, Inc.
63 Unquowa Road
Fairfield, CT 06430-5015
Ph: 1 203 254 0000
FAX: 1 203 254 2262
e-mail: AWBlackwoo-at-aol.com
WWW--http://mail.cccbi.chester.pa.us/spi/spihome.html




From: CSENCSITS-at-aaem.amc.anl.gov
Date: Fri, 2 Feb 1996 16:55:14 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Pt TEM grids

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Does anyone make Pt TEM grids? They are needed for high temperature
experiments-other grids oxidize.

Roseann Csencsits
Argonne National Laboratory
Argonne, IL
708-252-4977




From: CSENCSITS-at-aaem.amc.anl.gov
Date: Fri, 2 Feb 1996 16:53:52 -0600 (CST)
Subject: JEOL 4000-double tilt holders

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Does anyone know where I might be able to purchase some used double tilt
top entry specimen holders for a JEOL 4000 EX? Is there someone
decommissioning a JEOL 4000EX that would like to sell their specimen holders?

Roseann Csencsits
Argonne National Laboratory
Argonne, IL
708-252-4977




From: Cheri Owen :      cowen-at-cmb.biosci.wayne.edu
Date: Fri, 2 Feb 1996 16:16:11 -0500 (EST)
Subject: TEM Embedding question (fwd)

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Does anyone have a protocol for using (HPMA?) instead of propylene oxide and
embedding coverslips directly in cell wells, and then using liquid
nitrogen to remove the coverslip after plastic is polymerized?





From: Paul Webster :      Paul.Webster-at-quickmail.yale.edu
Date: 2 Feb 1996 17:40:07 -0500
Subject: Re: freeze substitution

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Message-Id: {n1388839485.36053-at-QuickMail.Yale.edu}

Dear Shea,

Have you considered fixing the tissue in aldehyde and embedding in one of the
other (hydrophobic) Lowicryl resins (e.g. HM 20, HM 23). They polymerize at
lower temperatures and cut very well. We have had some success with soluble
proteins in the pancreas and there are published examples of this method.

Here are a few references which might be of interest:
van Genderen et al, 1991 J. Cell Biol. 115:1009-1019.
Oprins et al, 1994 J. Histochem. Cytochem. 42:497-503.

There is also a recent paper in Microscopy Research & Technique which covers
this subject but omits to refer to the above papers. The paper is in MRT, 1996
33:251-261. Look too at the work by Humbel & Schwarz which is cited in the MRT
paper.





From: :      oliver-at-ipas2.afip.mil
Date: Fri, 2 Feb 1996 17:26:17 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Audit at U of Hawaii

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On Fri, 2 Feb 1996 AWBlackwoo-at-aol.com wrote:

} 2 February 1996
}
} From: Andy Blackwood
}
} To: Microscopy BB
}
} I think there is something about the circumstances described over the last
} few days by Tina Carvalho that recalls some of the recent discussion of
} ethical values.
}
} No matter how high and noble our calling, we all work within rules. Some of
} them are institutional, some professional and some come from the laws of our
} state and our nation. Whatever their source, however, the rules are what the
} rules are.
}
} If we don't like the rules, we can work to change them, but none of us has a
} license to violate them.

On the contrary. The idea that the existence of arbitrary rules defines
ethical behavior is incorrect by construction. The classic examples,
of course are in the realm of human rights violations -- where the
ethical actions are explicitly those which are against the rules imposed
by an unethical or irrational government.

It is *not* necesarily unethical to break rules, particularly
when those rules are arbitrary, capricious, or in themselves
unethical.


} It seems to me that we are all better off if we just force ourselves to live
} within the rules instead of trying to rationalize our efforts to get around
} them.
}

When you call efforts to get around irresponsible regulations
"rationalization" you beg the question that sometimes getting
around the regulation is the only ethical thing to do. Sometimes
finding an excuse for observing the regulations, and thus avoiding
actions which involve personal risk, is the rationalization.

Ethics and rules are not orthogonal, but I, at least, refuse to
let arbitrary bureacrats and supercilious functionaries get away
with calling me "unethical" if I am not sufficiently obsequious
to their dictates.

billo




From: oshel-at-ux1.cso.uiuc.edu (Philip Oshel)
Date: Fri, 2 Feb 1996 20:41:03 -0500
Subject: Re: More on database S/W

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Message-Id: {v02120d01ad3866b7ccdb-at-[128.174.23.207]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
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} Considering the number of comments and questions I received concerning my
} recent recommendation of Q&A database software...
} Don Grimes, Microscopy Today

I have used Q&A, and must agree with Don Grimes. Most database
programs have a lot of unnecessary bells and whistles.

&&& Illigitimi non carborundum &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
Philip Oshel
Center for Electron Microscopy
University of Illinois
(217)244-3145
oshel-at-ux1.cso.uiuc.edu






From: GVKM07A-at-PRODIGY.COM (DR CHARLES A GARBER)
Date: Fri, 02 Feb 1996 23:50:36 EST
Subject: Platinum grids

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-- [ From: Charles A. Garber, Ph. D. * EMC.Ver #2.10P ] --

On February 20 was written:

} Subject: Pt TEM grids
}
} Does anyone make Pt TEM grids? They are needed for high temperature
} experiments-other grids oxidize.
}
} Roseann Csencsits
} Argonne National Laboratory
} Argonne, IL
} 708-252-4977
}
}
Pt grids are not in our printed catalog but are to be found in our all-
electronic catalog on our WWW website as indicated below, in several
different mesh sizes.


Chuck

======================================================
Charles A. Garber, Ph. D. Ph: 1-(610)-436-5400
President 1-(800)-2424-SPI
SPI SUPPLIES FAX: 1-(610)-436-5755
PO BOX 656 e-mail:
GVKM07A-at-prodigy.com
West Chester, PA 19381-0656 USA Customer Service:
SpiSupp-at-aol.com

########################################################
WWW: http://mail.cccbi.chester.pa.us/spi/spihome.html
########################################################
======================================================





From: HENRY P ADAMS :      hadams-at-nmsu.edu
Date: Sat, 3 Feb 1996 10:36:17 -0700 (MST)
Subject: DBC box for Hitachi H7000

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I am in the proces of purchasing a digital image acquisition system for a
Hitachi H7000 stem. To do this I need a digital beam control box to
interface the microscope to the acquisition system. The later models, eg.
Hitachi H7100 have this circuitry built in but the older models (H7000)
need the DBC box which Hitachi made but no longer does. Does anyone
out there have one that they don't use anymore or know of any extras
collecting dust on a shelf somewhere? I am slightly desparate and have
some money (not much) to pay for such a beast.
Thanks in advance for info or sources,
Hank Adams
EML, New Mexico State Univ
email: hadams-at-nmsu.edu
phone: 505/6463600




From: emccjb-at-ttuhsc.edu (Charles J. Butterick)
Date: Sat, 3 Feb 1996 11:44:45 -0600
Subject: Re: Audit at U of Hawaii

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Andrew W. Blackwood, Ph.D. Structure Probe, Inc. wrote:
"......It seems to me that we are all better off if we just force
ourselves to live within the rules instead of trying to rationalize our
efforts to get around
them........".

Andy is correct. The rules and laws must be followed. Those we
don't agree with we can work to change. But am I the only one who reads
Andy's entire commentary (that only mentions what academics do to get
around some regulation in order to purchase an item) and feels resentment?
I have been approached many times by vendors who ask me to write
lock-out specifications so I will buy from only one source. Other vendors
have informed me that if I bought a certain dollar amount of supplies, they
would throw in the instrument for free that uses those supplies. More than
once I have successfully appealed to the State of Texas on a bid where an
unscrupulous vendor misrepresents their instrumentation and/or the price.
Some vendors are as eager to earn the academic dollar as the academic is to
stretch what little he/she has.
What about vendors/business people who appeal to the government
and/or granting agencies to restrict the activities of the academics, thus
reducing competition? Chuck Garber will readily inform you of the meeting
that promulagated the rule that says instrumentation purchased with federal
dollars cannot be used for commercial purposes. When that rule was made,
there was no academic representation (the perspective of scientists at
NSF/NIH is different than that of scientists in colleges and universities).
Is that fair? What about the politically incorrect white vendor(s) who set
up, or use, minority/women fronts in order to sell their products? Is
there any noble purpose for vendors who abuse the system for profit and
gain?
A more important question would ask why is there such a strident
militancy against academics among certain individuals at SPI? Let it out,
guys, so maybe we can feel your pain......

Chuck




Charles J. Butterick (Chuck)
Electron Microscopy Center
Department of Cell Biology
and Biochemistry
Texas Tech University Health
Sciences Center
3601 4th Street
Lubbock, Texas 79430

vox (806) 743-1633
fax (806) 743-1219
email emccjb-at-ttuhsc.edu or
chuck-at-micron1.lubb.ttuhsc.edu






From: AMCGroup2-at-aol.com
Date: Sat, 3 Feb 1996 22:21:16 -0500
Subject: Re: Anonymous Inquiry

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In response to the inquiry from anonymous subscriber,
ratyrg-at-esvax.dnet.dupont.com, posted on 96-01-24 (regarding availability of
cryomicrotomy courses), please be advised that AMC Group offers a series of
intensive hands-on workshops on cryomicrotomy on a regular basis. We also
offer other advanced workshops including the FIB cross-sectioning and
wedge-polishing for site-specific TEM specimen preparation. For the
workshops schedule and other informative material on the general subject of
specimen preparation, please see our page on WWW at the Microscopy-Online
site (http:// www.Microscopy-Online.com/). For further information, please
contact me directly. Thanks.

Renee E. Nicholas
Workshops Coordinator
AMC Group




From: Arkadiusz Kloc :      al969-at-freenet.toronto.on.ca
Date: Sun, 4 Feb 1996 14:51:40 -0500 (EST)
Subject: unsubscribe

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Please "unsubscribe" me
- Thank You




From: oshel-at-ux1.cso.uiuc.edu (Philip Oshel)
Date: Sun, 4 Feb 1996 13:03:54 -0500
Subject: Re: Audit at U of Hawaii

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} What about vendors/business people who appeal to the government
} and/or granting agencies to restrict the activities of the academics, thus
} reducing competition?
} Charles J. Butterick (Chuck)

Or, as an actual experience, the SEM vendor who threatened--the
correct word--to file a complaint with US Customs, and force a *previous*
employer to pay a multi-thousand-dollar penalty if we didn't buy a US-made
SEM.
(Needless to say, we didn't, and they didn't, since it was a
fatuous threat. And a permanent loss of business.)
Phil Oshel
(Not at U. Ill. at above the time)

&&& Illigitimi non carborundum &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
Philip Oshel
Center for Electron Microscopy
University of Illinois
(217)244-3145
oshel-at-ux1.cso.uiuc.edu






From: Arkadiusz Kloc :      al969-at-freenet.toronto.on.ca
Date: Sun, 4 Feb 1996 14:53:11 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Unsubscribe

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Please "unsubscribe" me
-Thank You




From: MicroToday-at-aol.com
Date: Sun, 4 Feb 1996 17:36:11 -0500
Subject: Microscopy Images/Prints

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Group:
I am sure that many of you are familiar with the nifty microscopy images
produced by David Scharf. If not, allow me to note that they have been
featured in Life, Time, National Geographic, Scientific American, Discover,
Natural History, Harpers, The Saturday Evening Post, etc.
As it happens, I am in the process of producing a series of 16 of his
best images - typically as 23 in x 19 in, HIGH quality, lithographic prints.
Descriptions, etc. of the series is contained in the next issue of
Microscopy Today, which will be mailed in a week's time. Should you,
including our international associates, not be receiving the newsletter and
have a potiential interest in the prints, kindly advise by eMail and I would
be delighted to send you a no cost description of the series.
And, should the publication of microscopy prints be an "enjoyable"
hobby, I may extend the series. Should you have microscopy images that you
consider worthy of reproduction, I would appreciate hear from you.
Understanding that there is a bit of "commercialism" in this note, I
hope that the uniqueness of the subject causes not many of you to be
offended.
Best regards to all,
Don Grimes, Microscopy Today






From: Mobiewan-at-aol.com
Date: Sun, 4 Feb 1996 19:43:46 -0500
Subject: SEM for sale

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Do you know anyone who might be interested in an ISI Super III-A SEM that's
in excellent operating condition for only $8,000? We are in the St. Paul, MN
area and would be happy to demo the scope in our location on your specimen.
This workhorse would be an excellent instrument for a small
college/lab/hobbyist or manufacturer. Contact me for more specs or info.
Ask me about a $300 travel rebate offer.

Mark Overmyer
Kevmar Equipment Co.




From: dianavd-at-eye.usyd.edu.au (Diana van Driel)
Date: Mon, 5 Feb 1996 11:53:02 +1100
Subject: Re: Heat Pen

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} In the past I have used chloroform routinely for expanding thin sections.
} Because of the hazardous nature of this chemical I tried a heat pen
} (amps - .125), but it was totally ineffective. Would a more powerful
} heat pen be effective in reducing compression ? I would appreciate
} some feed back on this.
} Thanks
} Leo

The heat pen I use is fine as long as it is held close to the section and
used for around 30 secs (longer for some sections).


Diana van Driel
Dept Ophthalmology
Sydney University 2006
NSW, AUSTRALIA






From: Keith Moulding :      mcmouldk-at-uxmail.ust.hk
Date: Mon, 05 Feb 1996 15:40:10 +0800
Subject: Sixth Asia-Pacific Conference On Electron Microscopy

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Sixth Asia-Pacific Conference On Electron Microscopy.

Under the Auspices of The International Federation of Societies
for Electron Microscopy (IFSEM) and The Committee of Asia-Pacific
Societies for Electron Microscopy (CAPSEM).

The Sixth Asia-Pacific Conference on electron Microscope will be
held at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, to be held on
July 1-5, 1996.

Final call for abstracts.

The deadline for abstracts has been extend to 15th February, 1996.
If you are close to the deadline, please use an express mail service
to submit your abstracts. Faxed abstracts cannot be accepted.


The conference will provide a forum for the dissemination of new
information on the application of scanning and transmission electron
microscopy, diffraction and microanalysis in life and materials
sciences. The conference will include scientific sessions (plenary
lectures, symposia oral presentations and posters). There will also
be an exhibition of scientific instruments together with workshops
and open laboratories.

*******************************************************************
Contact address:

The 6APEM conference,
Secretariat,
Chintek Promotion Services,
13/C Trust Tower,
68 Johston Road,
Wanchai,
Hong Kong.

FAX: (852) 28611022, attention Ms. Karina Ng.
(852) 25296045


*******************************************************************
Please contact the above address only. Please do not send requests
for information to this e-mail address.





From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Mon, 05 Feb 1996 11:01:57 -0600
Subject: Re: Staining Problems

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Message-ID: {199602051315.IAA18418-at-IndyNet.indy.net}
To: Microscopy list {microscopy-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com}

At 02:41 PM 2/4/96 -0500, you wrote:

} Dear Joiner,
} If you find a solution to your staining problems, could you please let me
} know? I have used the same receipe for UA and LC for over 20 years without
} problems. But recently, have been haunted by the symptoms you relayed, with
} always using ddwater and trying NaOH washes, different grid suppliers... I am
} ready to record the position of the planets when I get good staining. I
} wonder if such can be related to low humidity and increased static
} electricity???????????? I hope you are able to solve this curse and that you
} will share such with me. Needless to say, I will let you know if I have any
} luck.
}
} Best regards,
}
} Robyn Rufner, Ph.D.
} Deborah Research Institute, 20 Pine Mill Rd., Browns Mills, NJ 08015
} 609-893-1016, fax: 609-893-2441, email: rrufner-at-aol.com
}
********************
Robyn -

I will indeed share what I've gleened from this thread, but as I told Dwight
Beebe, not until you all have solved my problem. No, actually I will pass it
on. That's what this listserver is for. The static charge sometimes found on
grids has been suggested to be causing precipitation of the stain. If I can
find one of those antistatic guns that we used to de-charge our LP's with,
I'll try it, being the student of reason and logic that I am and staunch
supporter of the scientific meathod. Then at the next full moon I'm going to
nail a dead cat to the north side of an oak tree....

* * Joiner Cartwright, Jr. * *





From: John_R_Reffner-at-rohmhaas.com (John R Reffner)
Date: 1/31/96 5:58 AM
Subject: CD ROM for archiving

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Mime-Version: 1.0
Pogany Lajos {pogany-at-power.szfki.kfki.hu}
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I'm also looking in to CDR's for archiving. I think we will get the Pinnacle
5040, a 2x write 4x read, which runs about $1300 ($1000 internal). HP makes
one for about the same cost, Yamaha and Sony have models for a bit more $.

Any comments from people already using any of these?


______________________________ Reply Separator _________________________________


Dear subscribers,

Is anyone able to assist me in finding a CD ROM writer for image archieving
in the price range of about 1000 $?
Would be possibile to send me addresses where are those available?

Thanks for Your help

LAjos Pogany
pogany-at-power.szfki.kfki.hu






From: Steinmeyer-at-mbox.biophysik.uni-hannover.de
Date: Mon, 5 Feb 1996 18:14:12 +0100 (MET)
Subject: Ca2+-Measurements with fura

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Hello all,

does anyone know if there is a newsgroup or a listserver discussing problems
of measuring Ca2+ with fura?
Perhaps a group dealing with fluorescence microscopy in general would help.

Thanks for any help

--
Ralf Steinmeyer (Steinmeyer-at-mbox.biophysik.uni-hannover.de)
UNI Hannover Herrenhaeuser Str. 2
Inst. f. Biophysik 30419 Hannover




From: Glen Macdonald :      glenmac-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Mon, 5 Feb 1996 10:03:53 -0800 (PST)
Subject: Re: cleaning LM lenses

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X-Sender: glenmac-at-homer20.u.washington.edu

We use Kodak lens cleaner for routine cleaning, plastic dropper bottles
are refilled from the more affordable quart containers. Chloroform is
reserved for obstinate deposits, like when someone immerses a non-DPX
lens into the DPX or Permount.

A couple of microscope technicians that have worked on our equipment use
lighter fluid. It dries without leaving a film and yet is claimed not to
attack lens adhesives or coatings. Has anyone else used lighter fluid on
lenses? Personally, I've only used to take scuff marks of vinyl
flooring.

Regards,


Glen MacDonald
Research Scientist
Hearing Research Laboratories of the
Virginia Merrill Bloedel Hearing Research Center
Box 35-7923
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195-7923
(206) 616-4156
glenmac-at-u.washington.edu










From: William R Oliver :      oliver-at-ipas4.afip.mil
Date: Mon, 5 Feb 1996 17:43:21 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Ethics

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On Mon, 5 Feb 1996, Don Chernoff at ASM wrote:

} Recent messages by Blackwood and Oliver are examples of two opposing points
} of view about ethics and philosophy. On one side is the normative view:
} that there exist absolute standards ('norms') for conduct. On the other
} side is the relative view: standards depend on the situation.

I'm not so sure that it's a question of absolute versus situational
ethics as much as *who* defines the "right" and "wrong." My position
is not that ethics are situational; my position is that bureaucratic
rules and ethics are not the same. Thus, noncompliance is not prima
facie evidence that someone has done something "wrong." My primary
concern is with the increasing criminalization of noncompliance, leading
to allegations of "fraud," "scientific misconduct," and such.

I am not a scofflaw, and I certainly try to live within rules within
reason. However, I don't mistake regulatory pronouncements for divine
dispensation. Not confusing the two does not equate to the support of
anarchy, nor does necessarily make it easy to rationalize any actions,
as a different respondent suggests. Indeed, I might suggest the
opposite -- that recognizing and accepting individual responsibility
for individual ethical decisions independent of an external rulemaking
bureaucracy might lead to more careful consideration of action, not less.
Relying on legalistic justifications is perhaps not the last, but certainly
one of the favorite refuges of a scoundrel.

} Let me remind the reader that we are not talking about human rights
} violations, tyranny or murder here. We are only talking about money. It
} really isn't worth doing more than 'blowing off steam'. I say follow the
} rules that exist and work to change the rules that appear improper.

You bring up another interesting idea, that we are not talking about
human rights, but, instead, "We are only talking about money."

In fact, we *are* talking about human rights. It isn't "only money" if a
governmental agency, by its regulatory or enforcement rights, deprives you
of your livelihood, appropriates your possessions, and criminalizes
violation. When investigations result in allegations of fraud there is
resultant criminal liability; the only question then is whether or not the
regulatory agency wants to take you down bad enough to expend the effort.
It may be only money, but when legal fees and seizures destroy life
savings it is more than a mere inconvenience. When allegations of fraud
or "scientific misconduct" based on technical violations of regulatory
pronouncements leads to the destruction of a career, it is a nontrivial
life event. For me, at least, it would not be "only money" at risk. As
ex-Secretary Donovan said after the trials that destroyed his career in
spite of finding him innocent, "Where do I go to get my reputation back?"

When the time and effort it takes to attempt to satisfy the voracious
appetitite of a regulatory agency detracts from scientific investigation,
patient care, or stifles innovation and experimentation, it is a loss to
more than a single investigator. When regulatory demands and limitations
force new intellectual exploration and development off the shores of the
US, it hurts this nation badly.

In spite of all of this, I would take a more sanguine attitude about
today's regulatory atmosphere were it not for the problem that, in my
personal opinion, in many areas the regulatory morass is so byzantine and
self-contratictory that it is fundamentally impossible to remain in
compliance given limited time and resources to devote to doing so. In
many a regulatory setting, particularly an investigation, the person being
investigated is by no means considered "innocent until proven guilty."
Instead, the assumption is that the worst possible interpretation is the
correct one, and it is the burden of the person being investigated to
prove his or her innocence. And the investigators have all the
resources. It is no surprise that even the innocent plea bargain when
they face financial ruin in the face of defending themselves against the
charges of "fraud," "conspiracy," etc., etc., etc.

In such an atmosphere, simply trying to do one's best is just not good
enough. A person who thinks he or she is working within the rules simply
doesn't know all the rules. There are no innocent, only the untargeted,
and obscurity is a weak defense.

Of course, I could be wrong.

billo







From: WARRENJ1-at-cliffy.polaroid.com
Date: 2/3/96 1:44 PM
Subject: Re: Audit at U of Hawaii

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I believe that I am one of the vendors that Chuck Butterick is
referring to that offered *free* equipment with the purchase of a
certain amount of supplies. It has been a a year or two since I
offered the program to Chuck.

He is correct that the idea was to get around budget rules that allow
unlimited purchase of supplies but no capital or equipment purchases.
In this particular instance, if you bought the equipment and the
supplies(film, in this case), paying the lowest available pricing, you
would spend the same $ as you would if we gave you the hardware and
you paid the premium price for the requisite cases of film.

I will admit that we have a vested interest in placing our equipment
with customers so that we sell film. However, I would suggest that if
our customers have a need for any of our products and due to various
constraints are unable to acquire it through equipment purchase
funding, we are working to meet the customers needs-we cant make the
customer invest in equipment or participate in a program if they do
not want to.

Yes, I am in sales and my livelihood depends on what I sell. I believe
that what I sell offers my customers a better way of doing their
job;more effectively and more efficiently-if I didnt, I'd quit.

Certainly I would agree that some vendors may have unscrupulous
practices and I do not condone that. I am asking you to consider that
the intent behind our program and possibly others is to benefit you-so
you can have the tools you need to do your job.

John D. Warren
Eastern US Sales Manager
Helios Scientific Group
Polaroid Corporation
______________________________ Reply Separator _________________________________


Andrew W. Blackwood, Ph.D. Structure Probe, Inc. wrote:
"......It seems to me that we are all better off if we just force
ourselves to live within the rules instead of trying to rationalize our
efforts to get around
them........".

Andy is correct. The rules and laws must be followed. Those we
don't agree with we can work to change. But am I the only one who reads
Andy's entire commentary (that only mentions what academics do to get
around some regulation in order to purchase an item) and feels resentment?
I have been approached many times by vendors who ask me to write
lock-out specifications so I will buy from only one source. Other vendors
have informed me that if I bought a certain dollar amount of supplies, they
would throw in the instrument for free that uses those supplies. More than
once I have successfully appealed to the State of Texas on a bid where an
unscrupulous vendor misrepresents their instrumentation and/or the price.
Some vendors are as eager to earn the academic dollar as the academic is to
stretch what little he/she has.
What about vendors/business people who appeal to the government
and/or granting agencies to restrict the activities of the academics, thus
reducing competition? Chuck Garber will readily inform you of the meeting
that promulagated the rule that says instrumentation purchased with federal
dollars cannot be used for commercial purposes. When that rule was made,
there was no academic representation (the perspective of scientists at
NSF/NIH is different than that of scientists in colleges and universities).
Is that fair? What about the politically incorrect white vendor(s) who set
up, or use, minority/women fronts in order to sell their products? Is there
any noble purpose for vendors who abuse the system for profit and gain?
A more important question would ask why is there such a strident
militancy against academics among certain individuals at SPI? Let it out,
guys, so maybe we can feel your pain......

Chuck




Charles J. Butterick (Chuck)
Electron Microscopy Center
Department of Cell Biology
and Biochemistry
Texas Tech University Health
Sciences Center
3601 4th Street
Lubbock, Texas 79430

vox (806) 743-1633
fax (806) 743-1219
email emccjb-at-ttuhsc.edu or
chuck-at-micron1.lubb.ttuhsc.edu




From: Richard.Larker-at-mb.luth.se (Richard Larker)
Date: Mon, 5 Feb 1996 17:32:04 +0100
Subject: TEM spec. prep. by Gatan Disc Grinder on SBT diamond films

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This is a request for information from colleagues experienced with the
thinning of TEM specimens held by a Gatan Disc Grinder against South Bay
Technology (or 3M Imperial) diamond abrasive films. First some information:


My TEM specimens are taken from joints that have been diffusion bonded by
Hot Isostatic Pressing, using the method described in J. Mater. Sci. 29
(1994) 4404-4414. The diffusion couples are as paired semicylinders fitted
into a small metal tube (3 mm outer diameter) of stainless steel or nickel.
This tube acts as an encapsulation for the isostatic argon pressure (200
MPa) during HIP, and afterwards the capsule is simply sliced with diamond
saw before thinning,leaving the capsule as a stabilizing collar around the
diffusion couples avoiding cracking for materials having very different
coefficients of thermal expansion, such as silicon nitride and Ni-base
superalloys. The materials joined so far include Ni-base superalloys (both
single crystal and polycrystalline), silicon nitride, titanium nitride, as
well as CMC (Si3N4/TiN) and MMC (TiN/Ni) compositionally graded materials
(FGMs).

In June 1995, I participated in a very informative TEM Spec. Prep. Course
(lead by Ron Anderson, IBM, East Fishkill Lab, NY, USA) held at BAL-TEC AG
in Liechtenstein. After that, I decided to change the type of thinning
abrasives from diamond spray on a soft cloth to SBT diamond abrasive films
with fixed diamonds (30m, 15m, 6m, 3m, 1m and 0.5m grain sizes),
finally followed by colloidal silica on a soft cloth.

However, due to the usefulness of retaining the stabilizing collar of
capsule tube, I still want to use the Gatan Disk Grinder (GDG) for parallel
thinning, instead of the otherwise impressive SBT Tri-pod polisher
demonstrated at the course. Regarding the glue for fixing the specimen on
the specimen mount of the GDG, I have changed from wax to Crystalbond 509,
in order to avoid remaining films after cleaning in aceton. Finally, I
intend to perform low-angle ion beam milling using the BAL-TEC RES 010,
possibly preceeded by dimple grinding.


Based on this, I would like your comments on the following questions:

-What are the experiences from the combination Gatan Disc Grinder and South
Bay Technology (or 3M Imperial) diamond abrasive films (8, plain back),
adhering by capillary forces to a slowly (50-100rpm) rotating glass plate?

-Is it always (or exclusively for ductile materials) necessary to use all
of the above grain size steps and/or remove a damage layer from the
previous step corresponding up to three times the grinding grain size? (If
so, given a cutting wheel such as Struers 330CA having 68m (Grit #220)
diamonds, it seems necessary to cut samples thicker than 400m!)

-Is it necessary/unsuitable to press the GDG against the diamond abrasive
film, or is the weight of the GDG itself (660g) sufficient? (If the
specimen area would carry the total weight, it would correspond to a
pressure of approx. 1MPa (135psi).

-Is it beneficial to rotate the GDG itself during polishing?

-Is it beneficial to grind down the specimen continously or incrementally
(50m steps are recommended by Gatan). If stepwise, should the steps be
related to the diamond film grain size?

-Is the fit between the specimen mount and the GDG itself crucial for the
integrity of the glued specimen? Which tolerances (after wear) can be
tolerated?


Thanks in advance,

/Richard
________________________________________________________________________
Dr. Richard Larker, Ph.D. Phone: +46 920 91107
Research fellow Fax: +46 920 99309
Division of Engineering Materials
Lulea University of Technology E-mail: Richard.Larker-at-mb.luth.se
S-97187 Lulea, SWEDEN
________________________________________________________________________







From: ldm2-at-apollo.numis.nwu.edu (L.D.Marks)
Date: Mon, 5 Feb 1996 16:02:50 -0600
Subject: Textbook(s)

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I am going to be teaching a mixed TEM/SEM course to undergraduates
in Materials Science next quarter. I am sending this note out to ask
for comments/suggestions about textbooks, both from people who have taught
and those who have been at the recieving end.

NOTE: For obvious reasons, please respond directly to me rather than
everyone on the listserver unless you really intend to do the latter.





From: elaine.levy-at-well.ox.ac.uk (Elaine Levy)
Date: Tue, 06 Feb 1996 09:20:56 +0000
Subject: subscribe

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Please would someone send me the list serv address for subscribing to this list.

Thank you

Elaine Levy
--------------------------------------------------------------
Elaine Levy PhD
Cytogenetics Laboratory
Wellcome Trust Centre For Human Genetics
Windmill Rd.,
Oxford OX3 7BN

tel 01865 740022
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email elaine.levy-at-well.ox.ac.uk
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From: CSEDAX-at-ARCRIDE.EDU.AR
Date: Tue, 6 Feb 1996 08:08 -0300
Subject: Need information about CIT ALCATEL difussion pumps oil

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Hi everyone,

our group has received 2 bottles of CIT ALCATEL 220
diffusion pumps oil for free. We have no information at all about how good
it would be for our JEOL SEM and we have found no cataloges around. If any of
you knows something about vapor presion of this oil, or has experience using
it, and has a little time for writing to us, we would appreciate it very
much. Thanks in advance,


Silvia Montoro
csedax-at-arcride.edu.ar

Regional Center for Research and Development
Santa Fe
Argentina





From: Stephan Helfer :      S.Helfer-at-rbge.org.uk
Date: Tue, 6 Feb 1996 09:48:44 BST
Subject: Re: Ethics

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Bill Oliver wrote:

} ... recognizing and accepting individual responsibility
} for individual ethical decisions ...

To me this seems to be the key; together with a well estabished line
of accountability (very important). We will still make mistakes, but
hopefully won't be alone in them...

Stephan




From: GVKM07A-at-PRODIGY.COM (DR CHARLES A GARBER)
Date: Tue, 06 Feb 1996 07:08:50 EST
Subject: Comments of Chuck Butterick

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-- [ From: Charles A. Garber, Ph. D. * EMC.Ver #2.10P ] --

I would like to set the record straight about "militancy against
academics among certain individuals at SPI" and also, the record with
regard to the true complexion of those at NSF who were resonsibile for
the drafting and implimentation of NSF Important Notice 91.

First, there is no such "militancy", indeed our firm relies on the
graduates of the nation's academic institutions just like any other
employer. Our future business prospects in fact are closely
intertwined with the future prospects of our academic customers. So
any suggestion to the contrary, as they say on the other side of the
ocean, is just pure rubbish.

If there is indeed any "militancy" at all, it is on the part of a small
handfull of individuals and departments who are literally running
businesses out of their university laboratories and who feel threatened
should anyone suggest that what they are doing is not right.

So surely there is concern about anyone using university equipment in
competition against private sector laboratories such as our own. For
the most part, people I know in academia are on "our" side of this
issue and hold the view that the university's instrumentation in fact
should not be used this way. They seem to feel that those projects that
are basic and fundamental in nature and suitable for inclusion in a
student's thesis (e.g. those projects that do contribute to educational
objectives) take up the available time for their instrumentation anyhow
and that outside commercial work just gets in the way and interferes
with the progress of the students and the quality of the work being
done. So those who advocate some contrary view are clearly on the
wrong side of the tracks on this issue, and are also on the wrong side
with respect to their own academic peers.

Second, at the time of the drafting of NSF Important Notice 91, the
Director of NSF was Prof. George Pimentel, perhaps one of the most
respected and published academicians ever to head NSF. He came to NSF
from the Chemistry Department at the University of California-Berkeley.
He was an "academic" and represented "academic interests" in every
sense of the word. To suggest otherwise is to misrepresent Dr.
Pimentel's attitudes, perspectives, and outlook.

The Associate Direrctor at the time was Dr. Donald Langenberg. Prior
to his position at NSF he was a full professor of physics (at the U. of
Pennsylvania, if I remember correctly), and after his tenure at NSF
moved on to serve as President of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science, the Chancellor (I think that was the postion)
of the University of Illinois - Chicago and from there to his present
position of Chancellor of the University of Maryland system, with over
sight over all state universities in the State of Maryland.

Both Drs. Pimentel and Langenberg were in attendence at most of the
meetings that led up to the drafting of NSF Important Notice 91. And
their participation in the drafting of the document was certainly in no
way to be thought of as being passive. So for anyone to suggest that
in some way the academic community was not properly represented is
again "pure rubbish".

But intentional or not, it is obvious that there are still some who
would try to discredit the NSF Important Notice 91 document in every
possible way, in this case, by suggesting there was a lack of academic
representation among those involved with its drafting and
implimentation.

With regard to some of Chuck Butterick's other comments, unethical
behavior of any type should not be tolerated in any environment where
high quality research is being conducted. Vendors guilty of the kinds
of infractions described in Chuck's posting should be reported to the
appropriate procurement officials who have in place mechanisms by which
such abuses of process can be rooted-out and stopped. Of course it
does take two to tango and therefore the other side of the equation,
that is, the customer who is encouraging such inappropriate practices
should also be reported. While the wheel of "justice" might move
slowly, the wheel does move, but please don't paint the behavior of the
entire vendor community with the same brush. The electron optics
industry of manufacturers and distributors by and large is highly
professional and honest and when instances do occur that do not fit
this pattern, there is a process by which one can keep that kind of
circumstance from recurring in the future.

As a final comment, for anyone not personally familiar with NSF
Important Notice 91, I would be happy to FAX you a copy, just send me
your FAX number.


Chuck (Garber)
======================================================
Charles A. Garber, Ph. D. Ph: 1-(610)-436-5400
President 1-(800)-2424-SPI
SPI SUPPLIES FAX: 1-(610)-436-5755
PO BOX 656 e-mail:
GVKM07A-at-prodigy.com
West Chester, PA 19381-0656 USA Customer Service:
SpiSupp-at-aol.com

########################################################
WWW: http://mail.cccbi.chester.pa.us/spi/spihome.html
########################################################
======================================================







From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Tue, 06 Feb 1996 10:56:47 -0600
Subject: Re: static

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At 08:21 AM 2/6/96 EST, you wrote:
} Joiner-
} If you *do* find an old Zerostat gun (which is a little like searching for
} brontosaurus chow), it's probably not going to be any good any more. The same
} effect can be acheived by using glow discharge. Have you got that on an old
} evaporator or coater? Good luck!
} Steven
}
}
**************
Yes, I do; although the evaporator ain't no spring chicken.





From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Tue, 06 Feb 1996 10:56:45 -0600
Subject: Re: Staining Problems

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At 09:06 AM 2/6/96 -0500, you wrote:
} Good Morning.
}
} Further to the note I sent you last week where I fingered the grids as my
} most likely suspect for the introduction of Pb hexagons:
}
} My understanding is that these things are made by a plating method. We had a
} program here for a while looking at the microstructure of thin film magnetic
} media for one of our then subsidiaries. The magnetic media is deposited on
} plated substrates.
}
} One of the things we struggled with, is that the plating procedure was done
} in baths contained by tanks soldered together with (you guessed it) Pb. The
} Pb impurities found their way into the plated metal (concentrating at the
} surface), and when I would microtome these things, I'd get hexagons aplenty!
}
} Perhaps the source of contamination in the grids?
}


*********************
That has been proposed (the grids being the source) and we are gearing up to
improve our grid washing.

* * Joiner Cartwright, Jr. * *





From: emccjb-at-ttuhsc.edu (Charles J. Butterick)
Date: Tue, 6 Feb 1996 11:16:35 -0600
Subject: Comments of Chuck Garber

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On June 22, 1995, Chuck Garber wrote, "A special committee, made up
of top NSF officials (the late Dr. George Pimentel played a key role in the
formulation of the final document as did also Dr. Donald Langenberg, now
Chancellor of the University of Maryland system), lawyers representing the
NSF (Mr. Charles Herz who is still at NSF in that same capacity), members
of the independent laboratory community (including myself) plus some other
knowledgeable people came up with the first draft of NSF Important Notice
91."

I still stand by my statement, no academic representation existed.
Chuck Garber was once a part of academics, but he doesn't represent
academic interests. NSF scientists, though academics at one time, are
representing NSF and no one else. That committee appears to have been a
stacked deck of cards. This is a democracy. Bad law can be overturned.




Charles J. Butterick (Chuck)
Electron Microscopy Center
Department of Cell Biology
and Biochemistry
Texas Tech University Health
Sciences Center
3601 4th Street
Lubbock, Texas 79430

vox (806) 743-1633
fax (806) 743-1219
email emccjb-at-ttuhsc.edu or
chuck-at-micron1.lubb.ttuhsc.edu






From: VETO-at-BCRSSU.AGR.CA
Date: 06 Feb 1996 14:02:39 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: freeze substitution to retain soluble components

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Dear Shea,

Low temrerature embedding/infiltration is not an easy procedure. The
concetration and the distribution of the soluble proteins play an important
role of successful LT embedding. I have had some success to retain soluble
proteins in different type of plant tissues. Enzyme activity in vacuoles
and in cell wall,using post-embedding techniques is our interest. Lowicryl
resins: HM23 and K4M, as well as LR White were used at different temperatures
and times (-80 to -20C; 2days to 2 weeks) after "mild" GA fixation OR cryo-
fixed plant tissues, using PLT techniques (dehydration at progressively
lower temperatures). LR White, after UV polymerization developed very small
air (?) "packets". It doesn't section happily, yet not a major problem.
"An Osmium-free Method of Epon Embedment That Preserves both Ultrastructure
and Antigenicity for Post-embedding Immunocytochemistry", Phen, K.D.,
Rustioni.A., and Weinberg, R.J., J. Histochem.Cytochem. 42, 1995. You may
adopt this procedure to LR White. It should work well. Good luck!
Any other ideas, please let me know.
Regards,

Laszlo J. Veto
Electron Microscopist
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Summerland, BC
Ph: 604-494-7711
Fax: 604-494-0755
e-Mail: veto-at-bcrssu.agr.ca




From: John Menzies :      jmenzies-at-spartan.ac.brocku.ca
Date: Tue, 6 Feb 1996 14:57:54 +0001 (EST)
Subject: Re: freeze substitution to retain soluble components

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Please Unsubscribe me.

Thanks






From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Tue, 06 Feb 1996 10:56:48 -0600
Subject: Re: Staining Problems & static

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} Robyn -
}
} I will indeed share what I've gleened from this thread, but as I told Dwight
} Beebe, not until you all have solved my problem. No, actually I will pass it
} on. That's what this listserver is for. The static charge sometimes found on
} grids has been suggested to be causing precipitation of the stain. If I can
} find one of those antistatic guns that we used to de-charge our LP's with,
} I'll try it, being the student of reason and logic that I am and staunch
} supporter of the scientific meathod. Then at the next full moon I'm going to
} nail a dead cat to the north side of an oak tree....
}
} * * Joiner Cartwright, Jr. * *

Barring a Zero-Stat gun, which I've still seen advertised
somewhere, try touching your charged grid to a bit a metal on a grounded
piece of electrical equipment. It's safe (this is how some powerbars drain
your personal static charge so you don't zap your computer).
Phil

&&& Illigitimi non carborundum &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
Philip Oshel
Center for Electron Microscopy
University of Illinois
(217)244-3145
oshel-at-ux1.cso.uiuc.edu








From: Liang, Long :      LLIANG-at-is.arco.com
Date: 06 Feb 1996 15:45:15 CST
Subject: SEM/cathodoluminescence

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Message-Id: {MACMS.LLIANG.653140150096037FMACMS-at-IS.ARCO.COM}

Dear Microscopists,

I received a used ISI DS-130 SEM equipped with a cathodoluminescence
(CL) detector. This detector has no ellipsoidal mirror coupling to it.
I guess this must be a "diode" detector which can detect CL directly
from the sample.

(1) Does anyone have information about this type of detector ? How does
it compare to the detector with an ellipsoidal mirror ?

(2) Does anyone have experience taking CL images of quartz? I know we
cannot focus the CL, but at least we can use proper settings (by
adjusting accelerating voltage, beam current, etc) to optimize the CL
resolution. Thanks.

Long Liang
ARCO EPMA/SEM Lab
lliang-at-is.arco.com






From: sassaroli-at-msvax.mssm.edu
Date: Tue, 06 Feb 1996 17:46:18 -0500
Subject: Re: Battle of the Chuck's

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} On June 22, 1995, Chuck Garber wrote, "A special committee, made up
} of top NSF officials (the late Dr. George Pimentel played a key role in the
} formulation of the final document as did also Dr. Donald Langenberg, now
} Chancellor of the University of Maryland system), lawyers representing the
} NSF (Mr. Charles Herz who is still at NSF in that same capacity), members
} of the independent laboratory community (including myself) plus some other
} knowledgeable people came up with the first draft of NSF Important Notice
} 91."
}
} I still stand by my statement, no academic representation existed.
} Chuck Garber was once a part of academics, but he doesn't represent
} academic interests. NSF scientists, though academics at one time, are
} representing NSF and no one else. That committee appears to have been a
} stacked deck of cards. This is a democracy. Bad law can be overturned.
}
}
}
}
} Charles J. Butterick (Chuck)
} Electron Microscopy Center
} Department of Cell Biology
} and Biochemistry
} Texas Tech University Health
} Sciences Center
} 3601 4th Street
} Lubbock, Texas 79430
}
} vox (806) 743-1633
} fax (806) 743-1219
} email emccjb-at-ttuhsc.edu or
} chuck-at-micron1.lubb.ttuhsc.edu

Dear Chuck's (Butterick and Garber),

I really believe that this sort of dialog (?!) does not belong here.

Thank you for the excitement, though!!!

Best regards

Massimo Sassaroli, D.Sc.
Dept. of Physiology & Biophysics
Box 1218
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
1 Gustave L. Levy Pl.
New York, NY 10029-6574

sassaroli-at-msvax.mssm.edu







From: richard.easingwood-at-stonebow.otago.ac.nz (Richard Easingwood)
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 1996 14:06:49 +1100
Subject: EM: Silver screens for 3D images

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We would like to know if anyone has an opinion on the effectiveness of
using a silver screen and double projectors for 3D imaging. We do not want
to commit ourselves to buying a screen (which is quite expensive) and then
find it has been a waste of money.

We intend to use the system for illustrating talks to members of the the
public visiting the Unit and also for student classes. We would be
projecting mainly SEM images.

We would like to hear from anyone who has tried this or any other
alternative method of displaying 3D images to groups of people.

Thanks in advance,

Mark Gould


Richard Easingwood
South Campus Electron Microscope Unit
Otago Medical School
PO Box 913
Dunedin
NEW ZEALAND

Telephone: 64-03-479 7301
Facsimile: 64-03-479 7254

SOUTHERNMOST E.M UNIT IN THE WORLD















From: VETO-at-BCRSSU.AGR.CA
Date: 06 Feb 1996 14:02:39 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: RE: freeze substitution to retain soluble components

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From: James S MArtin :      James.S.Martin-at-williams.edu
Date: Tue, 6 Feb 1996 21:55:04 -0500 (EST)
Subject: SEM services near Albany

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I am seeking facilities for SEM-EDS and/or SEM-WDS in proximity to
Berkshire county, Massachusetts (to include western MA, southern VT and
eastern NY). Anyone knowing of a commercial, industrial or academic
facility in this area, please contact me directly.

Thanks.

James Martin




From: Richard.Larker-at-mb.luth.se (Richard Larker)
Date: Tue, 6 Feb 1996 22:48:38 +0100
Subject: More on TEM spec prep for matls science by polishing

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Dear Dr. Hendriks, (and other colleagues interested in the topic related to
the first question (Q1) below),

I have the following comments/questions (C1-6) caused by your answers
(A1-6) to my questions (Q1-6):

Q1: What are the experiences from the combination Gatan Disc Grinder and
SouthBay Technology (or 3M Imperial) diamond abrasive films (8, plain
back), adhering by capillary forces to a slowly (50-100rpm) rotating glass
plate?

A1: While I have not used the Gatan tool myself, I can answer you in
terms of using our SBT Polishing Fixtures. Other than the Tripod Polisher
(R) we also have other fixtures which are similar in size and weight to the
Gatan. We have had very good experience in having the films remain firmly
attached - which I presume is your question. We typically recommend that
people use the plain back films as they adhere well, are easy to remove
without damaging them and then can be re-used. This is important as the
films are not inexpensive! You may also want to note that the bottom of
the Gatan fixture is stainless steel (I believe) and it will wear when
polishing with diamond. The SBT fixtures described above have tungsten
carbide feet at the bottom to help resist wear. However, even the tungsten
carbide will wear when polishing diamond. For final polishing on samples
less than a few microns thick, it is best to use a much slower wheel - ie
less than 5 rpm.

Comment 1: In my tests so far, the SBT diamond films were firmly attached
to the wet glass plate by squeezing the water out simply by pressing a PMMA
ruler in several directions on the films. In spite of this, the specimen
(glued to the mount by Crystalbond 509 at 130 C) sticked several times to
the 30 micron diamond film and loosened from the mount, causing expensive
scratches in the film!
I tried to reduce both the incremental steps (from initially 25 micron
down to 5 micron steps) and the rotational speed from 100 rpm to 50 rpm,
but with limited success. I experienced the same problem with the 6 micron
diamond film (but not with the intermediate 15 micron!) when using 2.5
micron steps. The feeling during this "seizure" was that the whole GDG was
sucked (by capillary forces?) firmly to the film, twisting it loose,
causing scratches and loosening of the specimen from the mount. This kind
of experiences did not occur earlier when using diamond spray on soft
cloths! Perhaps I have used a little too high pressure on the GDG, but the
unpleasant tendency for it to "follow" the film was noticeable even without
any extra load. It was even noticeable when trying without any specimen
mount present in the middle of the GDG!
This was peculiar, since the instructions inside the cover of the Gatan
Disc Grinder 623 specify the following: "Polish specimen preferably using
3M Imperial Lapping films". Furthermore, the instructions recommend as
large increments as 50 micron!
Concerning your comment that the WC-Co feet of the SBT fixtures should
wear less than the large SS plate of the GDG does; supposing that is true,
what does it imply for the wear of the soft Delrin feet of the Tripod?
How is it then possible to know that the micrometer is not
"underestimating" the thinning of the specimen?
What is the influence of the specimen/feet area ratio?


Q2: Is it always (or exclusively for ductile materials) necessary to use
all of the above grain size steps and/or remove a damage layer from the
previous step corresponding up to three times the grinding grain size? (If
so, given a cutting wheel such as Struers 330CA having 68 micron (Grit
#220) diamonds, it seems necessary to cut samples thicker than 400 micron!)


A2: The short answer is NO. You do not need to use every grain size. You
do however, need to be mindful of the 3x rule when polishing. I assume
that you are interested in the microstructure of the sample being polished.
You can polish a sample from 500 microns thick down to 5 microns thick by
using only 0.5 micron film. The problem is that it will take you many,
many, many hours and consume many pieces of film. Reason the many steps
are used is to minimize the polishing time. You can obviously remove
material much faster with a 30 micron film than with a 1 micron film, but
you will also cause more damage. The polishing sequence is determined by
1) amount of material to be removed 2) desired final thickness 3) budget
for film 4) level of patience. I do not fully understand your example of
the Struers 330CA so I won't address that here.

C2: The example of the Struers 330CA diamond cutting wheel, which I have
used for slicing my samples up to now, was after some investigation found
to have a diamonds of 68 micron size (Grit #220), and if this causes 3x68
micron of damage on each side, and you follow the 3x rule with
30-15-6-3-1-0.5 micron diamond films, you simply need to cut thicker (} 740
micron!) than I have been doing so far (400 micron) to end up with any
specimen thickness at all! However, may it be the case that the cutting
wheel causes less than the anticipated 3x diamond grain size damage, due to
the low level of normal force against the surface during cutting, when
compared to polishing conditions?
Regarding thinning of ceramics like silicon nitride, which diamond grain
size steps might be omitted ? Can any step be omitted for Ni-base
superalloys?


Q3: Is it necessary/unsuitable to press the GDG against the diamond
abrasive film, or is the weight of the GDG itself (660g) sufficient? (If
the specimen area would carry the total weight, it would correspond to a
pressure of approx. 1MPa (135psi)).

A3: In general, it may be advisable to add some additional pressure
during the rough grinding stages, however, the during final polishing
stages it is best to minimize the load on the sample. Unfortunately, the
Gatan Disc Grinder has no facility which will allow you to reduce the
specimen load below the weight of the fixture. If you have had problems
with samples cracking when thinning at the final stages, excessive load is
probably the problem.

C3: Due to the experiences given in C1 above, I am not confident with
adding any extra pressure at all! Regarding the thickness of the water
film between the GDG and the diamond film, are there any estimations of the
"regimes of lubrication" (hydrodynamic, partial or boundary lubrication, as
related to the diamond grain size) below the GDG or SBT polishing fixtures,
or even below the specimen itself?


Q4: Is it beneficial to rotate the disc grinder itself during polishing?

A4: Yes, for several reasons. It is best to continually introduce new
cutting faces will increase removal efficiency and also reduce preferential
scratching in the surface. However, in some instances, people will
continue polishing in 1 orientation per grit size. This will provide a
scratch pattern in one direction. When changing to the next size film, you
can rotate the sample 90 degrees and see a new scratch pattern develop.
Once the new scratch pattern covers the surface, you know that you have
removed the scratches from the previous grit size - but not the damage!
Remember the 3x rule.

C4: For the GDG, the specimen mount may not be unambigously prevented
from rotating relative to the GDG orientation; is this also the case for
the SBT polishing fixtures that you have described?


Q5: Is it beneficial to grind down the specimen continuously or incrementally?

A5: This is a question which is peculiar to the Gatan Disc Grinder. With
the Gatan Disc Grinder your specimen is mounted to a post which DOES NOT
freely float inside the larger outside ring. Polishing is accomplished by
extending the sample below the surface of the larger outside ring. This
means that the entire weight of you fixture is resting on your sample.
There is a great likelihood that you will damage your sample and/or round
the edges of your sample. Because of this inadequacy, Gatan recommends an
incremental procedure which minimizes the effect, but maximizes the effort!
In more thoughtful designs (such as the South Bay Technology Fixtures
:-)) the sample is mounted to a free floating rod which is gravity fed into
the abrasive surface. The load on the specimen is thus spread across the
entire base of the fixture. Edge rounding is eliminated because the edges
of the sample are protected by the base of the fixture. Using this type of
fixture, the incremental polishing is not necessary.

C5: How are the SBT polishing fixtures designed to stop further thinning
of the specimen after reaching the intended thickness in each step?


Q6: Is the fit between the specimen mount and the disc grinder crucial
for the integrity of the glued specimen? What tolerances can be tolerated?


A6: Think of the disc grinder as a 2 part device 1) the piston with a
sample mounted at the bottom 2) an outside ring with a center hole. The
fit between the piston and the center hole should be very precise. This
precision is increased by making a longer contact area between the 2.
Unfortunately, the Gatan Disc Grinder has a very short contact area which
will magnify any problems. As the Gatan piston/hole are nearly in contact
with the abrasive surface, I would think the chance for abrasive wearing
away the center hole is rather likely. The sample mount is replaceable so
that part is not a big problem. I would think that if you do wear the
center hole uniformly, you could make special sample mounts to correspond
to the new center hole size. Certainly the accuracy in these 2 areas is
crucial - especially when polishing very thin.
I did notice that you are familiar with Tripod Polishing and that you
said you did not want to do that because you wanted to retain the
stabilizing collar. Since you attended Ron Anderson's course, he probably
spoke to you primarily about "wedge polishing". You may like to know that
it is also possible to use the Tripod Polisher (R) for parallel polishing
by mounting the sample in the center of the 3 micrometers. In fact, this
was the way Tripod Polishing originated. The "L" brackets and wedge
polishing techniques were later developments.
You also mentioned that you now use Crystalbond 509 for mounting your
sample to the holder. As a matter of interest, we supply an identical
product called QuickStick 135 which can be purchased in a package of 20
small (3" x .25" x .25") unwrapped sticks under part no. MWH135. An
alternative may be to use "super glue" or any cyanoacrylate. It bonds
quickly and removes completely in acetone. The only problem is that
removing it is somewhat unpredictable. Sometimes it can come off quickly,
other times it may take quite some time. It is also important to be sure
to use fresh super glue. We use super glue for wedge polishing of our TEM
samples. You can pick it up at a local hardware store.
If you would like information on any of our products, you can contact me
directly or you may contact our office in Sweden, Tudor Barnard (snip)

C6"+": How useful is the Tripod for parallel (not wedge) polishing,
compared to the other SBT polishing fixtures that you have described?
Regarding your representative in Sweden, Tudor Barnard, I bought my SBT
diamond films through him, but he was at that time (august 95) not able to
find a cyanoacrylic glue that was soluble in acetone (but only in
di-methylformamide or tetra-chlormethane, which I consider to be far more
harmful substances!)


Thanks in advance,

/Richard
________________________________________________________________________
Dr. Richard Larker, Ph.D. Phone: +46 920 91107
Research fellow Fax: +46 920 99309
Division of Engineering Materials
Lulea University of Technology E-mail: Richard.Larker-at-mb.luth.se
S-97187 Lulea, SWEDEN
________________________________________________________________________










From: Jay Jerome :      jjerome-at-bgsm.edu
Date: Tue, 6 Feb 1996 23:42:17 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: EM: Silver screens for 3D images

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We have used the silver screen method of projecting 3-D slides of all
varieties for over 10 years. We find it by far the best method for
displaying 3-D material to a large group of people. We use separate
projectors with cross polarizers (I have heard of but not seen large
screen projector wich takes a single slide containing two images).The down
side of the procedure is the time it takes to align the two projectors
and the necessity that all slides be exactly aligned in the same way.
Nothing will make an audience sea sick faster than realigning projectors
between stereo-pairs to accomodate different alignments. We sometime
spend an entire day making sure a group of slides is all set up
similarly. For this reason, for showing one or two people our stereo
work we use premounted pairs in small, hand held viewers. However, this is
not nearly as dramatic as a huge image on a screen. Any one who has ever
stood in front of an audience and presented a stereo presentation will
also tell you that the second down side of the method is trying to keep
your composure while looking out at an audience full of people wearing
silly dark glasses in darkened room.

I hope this helps-

Jay Jerome
**************************************************************
* aka: W. Gray Jerome *
* Dept. of Pathology *
* Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University *
* Medical Center Blvd *
* Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1092 *
* 910-716-4972 *
* jjerome-at-bgsm.edu *
**************************************************************

On Wed, 7 Feb 1996, Richard Easingwood wrote:

}
} We would like to know if anyone has an opinion on the effectiveness of
} using a silver screen and double projectors for 3D imaging. We do not want
} to commit ourselves to buying a screen (which is quite expensive) and then
} find it has been a waste of money.
}
} We intend to use the system for illustrating talks to members of the the
} public visiting the Unit and also for student classes. We would be
} projecting mainly SEM images.
}
} We would like to hear from anyone who has tried this or any other
} alternative method of displaying 3D images to groups of people.
}
} Thanks in advance,
}
} Mark Gould
}
}
} Richard Easingwood
} South Campus Electron Microscope Unit
} Otago Medical School
} PO Box 913
} Dunedin
} NEW ZEALAND
}
} Telephone: 64-03-479 7301
} Facsimile: 64-03-479 7254
}
} SOUTHERNMOST E.M UNIT IN THE WORLD
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}




From: SIMONE THERESIA BOESCH :      Simone.T.Boesch-at-uibk.ac.at
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 1996 09:22:31 +0200
Subject: unsubscribe

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Please unsubscribe

Thanks, Simone Boesch

+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Simone T. Boesch {simone.t.boesch-at-uibk.ac.at}
Dept. of Zoology, University of Innsbruck
Technikerstrasse 25, A - 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
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From: Keith Ryan :      KPR-at-wpo.nerc.ac.uk
Date: Wed, 07 Feb 1996 09:48:12 +0000
Subject: EM: Silver screens for 3D images -Reply

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Message-Id: {s1188232.025-at-wpo.nerc.ac.uk}
X-Mailer: Novell GroupWise 4.1

Dear Richard

A simple way of projecting stereo images is to get a friendly photographer to
double expose your stereo pair through red and green filters onto slide film.
All you need then is to hand out the old red green glasses and appeal for
them to be returned! Its cheaper that way!

The other main item that you need to know is that there is a convention as
to which way around the exposures are made so as to register re. the red
and green and whch way around the glasses are held.

Keith Ryan
Plymouth Marine Lab.
Citadel Hill
Plymouth PL1 2PB, England





From: Richard.Larker-at-mb.luth.se (Richard Larker)
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 1996 12:20:19 +0100
Subject: Is Gatan active on the net?

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Message-Id: {199602071118.AA23745-at-ursus.mb.luth.se}
X-Sender: rila-at-pophost.mb.luth.se
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: binary

Does anybody know if Gatan has a WWW-site with FAQs on the net, or even
just an E-mail address?

Thanks in advance,

/Richard
________________________________________________________________________
Dr. Richard Larker, Ph.D. Phone: +46 920 91107
Research fellow Fax: +46 920 99309
Division of Engineering Materials
Lulea University of Technology E-mail: Richard.Larker-at-mb.luth.se
S-97187 Lulea, SWEDEN
________________________________________________________________________






From: Manoj.Misra-at-urlus.sprint.com
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 1996 08:36:00 -0500
Subject: Uranyl Acetate

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We are encountering problems in disposal of uranium salts as our site
safety officer considers it as a mixed/radioactive waste. I wonder
what is the experience of other microscopists regarding
radioactivity/disposal of uranium compounds.


Manoj MISRA
Unilever Research US
Edgewater NJ




From: Ker{nen Jaakko-Tuomas :      jaakko-at-butler.cc.tut.fi
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 1996 16:49:00 +0200
Subject: Re: Receiving MicroWorld News e-mail newsletter

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From: Ker{nen Jaakko-Tuomas :      jaakko-at-butler.cc.tut.fi
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 1996 16:51:15 +0200
Subject: Re: Receiving MicroWorld News e-mail newsletter

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Yes, please. I would like receive MicroWord News e-mail newsletter.

jaakko-at-butler.cc.tut.fi




From: geosclmr-at-showme.missouri.edu (Lou Ross)
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 1996 09:10:10 -0600
Subject: X-sectioning of filter paper

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A student in Chemical Engineering wants to examine pore membranes in the
SEM. Currently we are looking at the membrane surfaces but he was wondering
about viewing the membranes in cross-section. Does anyone know a method to
prepare such a section? Please respond to his email address at the
University of Missouri at c517837-at-showme.missouri.edu or you can contact me
directly.

Thanks in advance.

Lou Ross

101 Geological Sciences Bldg.
University of Missouri
Columbia, MO 65211
(314) 882-4777, 882=5458 fax






From: ppons-at-cmefcm.uncor.edu (Patricia Pons)
Date: Wed, 07 Feb 1996 12:16:37 -0500
Subject: Jeol 100B manual

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We have recived a JEOL 100B electron microscope (Series 155037-30) as a gift
from University of Pennsylvania. Although this microscope is in good
conditions, it needs complete rehabilitacion. We have highly qualified
personnel to do this job but we found that the instruction manual and
circuits diagrams we have recived, do not much with the specifications of
the microscope.
If somebody has these manuals from JEOL 100B electron microscope (with the
series number higher than ours) which is not longer useful, we can do good
use of them in this part of the third world.

Dra Patricia Pons
Centro de Microscopia Electronica
Universidad Nacional de Cordoba
Cordoba - Argentina





From: huffe-at-carbon.chem.nyu.edu (Edward J. Huff)
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 1996 12:08:01 -0500
Subject: Re: Is Gatan active on the net?

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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} From: Richard.Larker-at-mb.luth.se (Richard Larker)
} Subject: Is Gatan active on the net?

In Netscape navagator, I clicked on "net search"

http://home.netscape.com/home/internet-search.html

waited a moment, typed "gatan" into the search field,
pressed return, and immediately received

http://guide-p.infoseek.com/WW/NS/Titles?qt=gatan&col=WW

which also had a "similar pages" button:

http://guide-p.infoseek.com/WW/NS/frames/Titles?qt=gatan&rel=278189&col=WW&st=0

The text under "Gatan Inc" points to

http://www.macfaq.com/vendor/software/1449.html

and also gives a home page and e-mail address.

http://www.gatan.com/

I would say that it is not necessary to ask mailing lists
or Usenet news groups for www addresses. Use net search.






From: Terri_Mengelt-R26202-at-email.sps.mot.com
Date: 7 Feb 96 07:54:00 -0600
Subject: TMAH for Back Metal Etch

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Fellow Microscopists:

Does anyone have information on TMAH as a back-etch for silicon devices? I have
one paper "A New Back-Etch for Silicon Devices" P. Malberti, M. Ciappa , P.
Scacco. Also, in this paper it refers to a "bain marie". Can anyone tell me
exactly what it is? I am assuming it is like a double boiler.


Terri Mengelt
Motorola COM 1
Phoenix, Arizona 85201

phone: (602) 244-4914
fax: (602) 244-6492

email: R26202-at-email.sps.mot.com




From: ldm2-at-apollo.numis.nwu.edu (L.D.Marks)
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 1996 10:00:54 -0600
Subject: Textbook(s) - Follow up

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I would like to thank everyone who responded to my earlier email
(see the end). A number of you were interested in the responses, which I
am including here (with editorial comments omitted). As a follow up, I
heard almost exclusively from faculty and only one student - how about
a few more comments from the students (I will preseverse anonimity).

This is a list of the responses:

4 Responses suggesting (but SEM only)
"Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis", by Goldstein, et.al.,
Plenum Press

3 Responses suggesting
"Electron microscopy and analysis"
P.J.Goodhew and F.J.Humphries, Taylor and Francis 1988.

"Light and Electron Microscopy" by Slaytor and Slaytor.

"Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis" by Robert E. Lee

"Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy,"
by Flegler, Heckman and Klomparens (W.H. Freeman and Co., 1993)

"Electron Beam Analysis of Materials" by Mike Loretto

---- Copy of Original Message -----

I am going to be teaching a mixed TEM/SEM course to undergraduates
in Materials Science next quarter. I am sending this note out to ask
for comments/suggestions about textbooks, both from people who have taught
and those who have been at the recieving end.

NOTE: For obvious reasons, please respond directly to me rather than
everyone on the listserver unless you really intend to do the latter.




From: zaluzec-at-microscopy.com (Nestor J. Zaluzec)
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 1996 16:31:59 -0500
Subject: Minor Problems

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G'day Subscribers...

We've got a minor glitch in the subscribe/unsubscribe system.
Unfortunately, I'm on vacation and too far away to fix the link.
This just means there will be a delay if your trying to
unsubscribe. I'll be logging in remotely and doing manual
updates, but the connections are sometimes slow from here.

I'll be back in town the middle of next week and we should
be back to normal.

Sorry for the inconvenience

Nestor
Your Friendly Neighborhood SysOp

Weather report: 34 C, partly cloudy, and the view on
the beach is great. ;-)






From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Wed, 07 Feb 1996 10:59:52 -0600
Subject: Re: Battle of the Chuck's

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At 05:46 PM 2/6/96 -0500, you wrote:

} Dear Chuck's (Butterick and Garber),
}
} I really believe that this sort of dialog (?!) does not belong here.
}
} Thank you for the excitement, though!!!
}
} Best regards
}
} Massimo Sassaroli, D.Sc.
}
********************************

Massimo -

At the risk of adding UNNECESSARY fuel to the fire, I'm going to disagree
with you. These are issues that are indeed important, and if these two
gentlemen (and they ARE gentlemen) can hash them out without resorting to
nastiness, we will all benefit. It is easy for us academics to overlook the
position of the commercial/for profit operator, and I assume that the
converse is also true.

I would point out that there may be more than two sides to the question, or
at least an intermediate position. My lab, for example, is in a medical
school and I work WITH investigators who pay me for my services with their
grant money. My lab receives no direct grant funding, either in its capital
set-up and improvements or its operation. The only financial support we get
is what we earn in fee-for-service.


Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D.

Director, Electron Microscopy tel.: (713)798-4658
Department of Pathology, Rm.286-A FAX: (713)798-3945
Baylor College of Medicine Internet: joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
One Baylor Plaza Compuserve: 71555,1206
Houston, Texas 77030 U.S.A.






From: Gib Ahlstrand :      giba-at-puccini.crl.umn.edu
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 1996 17:19:51 -0600
Subject: Seeks Position

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I am a microscopist with 21 years experience in Scanning Electron Microscopy in
materials science. I am seeking a new position as a lab supervisor or a lab
support technician. If you have or know of a position available that would
utilize these basic qualifications, and to receive a copy of my resume, please
contact me:

Ms. Kathy Vulu (612)521-2049





From: zaluzec-at-microscopy.com (Nestor J. Zaluzec)
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 1996 16:34:11 -0500
Subject: Minor Problems

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Message-Id: {199602071416.IAA23407-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com}

G'day Subscribers...

We've got a minor glitch in the subscribe/unsubscribe system.
Unfortunately, I'm on vacation and too far away to fix the link.
This just means there will be a delay if your trying to
unsubscribe. I'll be logging in remotely and doing manual
updates, but the connections are sometimes slow from here.

I'll be back in town the middle of next week and we should
be back to normal.

Sorry for the inconvenience

Nestor
Your Friendly Neighborhood SysOp

Weather report: 34 C, partly cloudy, and the view on
the beach is great. ;-)






From: slc6-at-lehigh.edu (Sharon Coe)
Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 13:17:37 -0400
Subject: Minor Problems

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Please publish the following information in the MicroWorld e-mail newsletter:


1996 Lehigh Microscopy Short Courses
June 10-21, 1996
SEM, X-ray Microanalysis, AFM and SPM, AEM
Contact: Sharon L. Coe
Department of Materials Science & Engineering
Whitaker Labaoratory
5 East Packer Avenue
Bethlehem, PA 18015
610/758-5133 (phone)
610/758-4244 (fax)
slc6-at-lehigh.edu
http://www.lehigh.edu/~inmatsci/Microscourses.html




Thanks you for your help.

Sharon L. Coe
Department of Materials Science & Engineering
5 East Packer Avenue
Lehigh University
Bethlehem, PA 18015
610/758-5133
e-mail: slc6-at-lehigh.edu






From: colijn-at-kcgl1.eng.ohio-state.edu (Henk Colijn)
Date: Wed, 07 Feb 1996 09:03:53 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: EM: Silver screens for 3D images

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I have projected stereo images successfully by creating red/green anaglyphs
on transparency material. We took our digital images, combined them using
PhotoShop or similar program, and printed them on a dye-sublimation
printer. Using a standard overhead projector and the red/green glasses,
the images greatly impressed my audience. The dual projector system seems
a bit specialized.

Henk

} We would like to know if anyone has an opinion on the effectiveness of
} using a silver screen and double projectors for 3D imaging. We do not want
} to commit ourselves to buying a screen (which is quite expensive) and then
} find it has been a waste of money.
}
} We intend to use the system for illustrating talks to members of the the
} public visiting the Unit and also for student classes. We would be
} projecting mainly SEM images.
}
} We would like to hear from anyone who has tried this or any other
} alternative method of displaying 3D images to groups of people.
}
} Thanks in advance,
}
} Mark Gould
}
}
} Richard Easingwood
} South Campus Electron Microscope Unit
} Otago Medical School
} PO Box 913
} Dunedin
} NEW ZEALAND
}
} Telephone: 64-03-479 7301
} Facsimile: 64-03-479 7254
}
} SOUTHERNMOST E.M UNIT IN THE WORLD
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}

Henk Colijn colijn.1-at-osu.edu OSU Campus Electron Optics Facility
-------------------------------------------------------------------
An optimist believes that we live in the best of all possible worlds.
A pessimist fears this is true.






From: jbpawley-at-facstaff.wisc.edu (Jim Pawley)
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 1996 18:33:38 -0600
Subject: Re: EM: Silver screens for 3D images

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} I have projected stereo images successfully by creating red/green anaglyphs
} on transparency material. We took our digital images, combined them using
} PhotoShop or similar program, and printed them on a dye-sublimation
} printer. Using a standard overhead projector and the red/green glasses,
} the images greatly impressed my audience. The dual projector system seems
} a bit specialized.
}
} Henk

The Anaglyph system is indeed simple and easy to use and requires only an
ordinary projector and screen but it does have at least two snags. Apart
from the opportunities that it gives to "Murphy" to attack when two
exposures must be recorded on the same piece of film in register and
through different colored filters, many people get very uncomfortable when
the color of the image presented to one eye is very different from that
presented to the other. The phenomenon is referred to as "color
bombardment" and was much discussed by Vernon Barber in the late
seventies/early eighties with reference to Scanning Electron Microscopy.

The second snag is that you cannot show colored images using this system.
For instance you cannot use it to show stereo views of confocal data in
which you have superimposed separate 3D images obtained from 2 or 3
different fluorescent dyes in the same specimen. Likewise, you cannot show
stereo SEM images in which the SE signal is recorded in tones of grey while
the BSE image is superimposed in shades of red.

In addition, although there is usually less overlap between the red and
blue filters than between the red and the green, the light output in the
blue from most projectors is insufficient to convey many grey levels to the
screen and back.

Once you accept the difficulty of finding an "aluminized" screen, the Pol
system has much to recommend it.

Jim Pawley

****************************************
Prof. James B. Pawley, Ph. 608-263-3147
Room 1235, Engineering Research Building, FAX 608-265-5315
1500 Johnson Dr., Madison, WI, 53706 JBPAWLEY-at-FACSTAFF.WISC.EDU






From: jerry-at-biochem.dental.upenn.edu
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 1996 10:43:19 -0500
Subject: Re: EM: Silver screens for 3D images

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Hello Mark Gould and Richard Easingwood,

I have done just as you suggest. Using a portable silver lenticular
(sp?) screen (~$200.00) which does not depolarize the images, a beautiful 3D
image slide show can be projected.

In our department, we have had the capability of mixing 2D and 3D images in
a single slide presentation for about 5 years now and I have even done a few
3D demonstrations at a local high school -- with great success (held their
attention from start to finish)!

As you have outlined, two matched projectors are required as well as
polaroid transparancy sheets and glasses. Using a single piece of Scotch
Tape to attach (hang) a piece of the polaroid transparancy over the front of
the objective lens of each slide projector (each piece oriented 90 degrees
to the other) is sufficient to project a polarized image on the screen.

The glasses, which each person viewing the projected images must have,
represents a bit of work. I made a template for the eyes (no ear
supports/hangers needed - see below dowell sticks) and traced the template
image for as many glasses as I needed on firm, but flexible, cardboard that
could be cut with a good pair of sharp tipped sissors.

After tracing and cutting the cardboard, using carefully applied small
pieces of Scotch Tape, I taped the polaroid 'lens pieces' from the same
sheet of polaroid material used in front of the projector lenses [CORRECTLY
ORIENTED] for left and right eye. By correctly oriented, I referring to the
necessity of having all glasses with the angular orientation of the polaroid
pieces identical -- all left and right eye orientation must be the same in
the glasses and matched to the orientation of the pieces in front of the
projector lenses. This way, all observers receive the same (correct) image
in the left and right eye.

When the 'lenses' were all taped in place, I then taped these glasses by
their right or left edge (makes no difference) to a 12 inch length of 1/4
inch wooden dowell stick so that viewers could hold the glasses in front of
their eyes (and personal prescription glasses if that's the case) much like
holding those small masks at a masquerade party. This may seem a little
amusing, and sometimes gets a laugh at the beginning of a 3D presentation,
but it was the method I developed to circumvent any health hazard concerns
from the repeated public use these glasses -- this is why there are no ear
supports as on regular glasses.

From the SEM image standpoint, I take two photos of the same subject
(carefully aligned to be nearly the same field) at angles of +/- 5 degrees
off verticle by stage tilts. I can then make direct positive slide
transparancies with B/W 35 mm microfilm for projection. Both images are
matched for size when projected on the screen and simply superimposed -- the
glasses and polaroid pieces do all the separation of images to create a very
clear and satisfactory 3D image for the viewers.

Hope this helps. This note has been a sort of 'stream of thought'
description so please don't hesitate to ask any questions.

Good luck -- Jerry Harrison






From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 1996 13:37:37 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Uranyl Acetate

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} We are encountering problems in disposal of uranium salts as our site
} safety officer considers it as a mixed/radioactive waste. I wonder
} what is the experience of other microscopists regarding
} radioactivity/disposal of uranium compounds.
}
Dear Manoj,
The law in New York allows us to pour uranyl acetate down the regular
sink for the amounts used for staining. For larger amounts, they have speci-
fied procedures, and our responsibility is to give the material to them with
the activity listed on a data sheet--they do the rest.
Yours,
Bill Tivol





From: Scott Holt :      102467.2752-at-CompuServe.COM
Date: 07 Feb 96 18:53:12 EST
Subject: GATAN disc grinder on diamond films

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Dear Dr. Larker,

In response to you questions regarding the use of a GATAN disc grinder on
diamond lapping films:

While I don't mean for this response to be an advertisement for product, I must
preface my remarks by mentioning that the experiences and methods described here
occurred using the products of my employer: BUEHLER, LTD in our development
laboratory. Therefore, I, like Mr. Henriks, do have a commercial interest in
your successful specimen preparation.

A1: In response to your query on experiences with GATAN's disc grinder on
Diamond Lapping Films, I also have not used the GATAN fixture; however, I have
tried (successfully, I might add) to grind metallurgically mounted samples
(1-1/4" in diameter) on BUEHLER's ULTRA-PREP diamond films. The problem of
adhesion between the sample and the film, when water is used as a lubricant,
does cause movement of the diamond film on the glass wheel. Our experiences
indicate that wheel speed makes no difference. However, success was achieved by
using a PSA (Pressure Sensitive Adhesive) backed film, attached to the surface
of a POLIMET Pad. It was determined that the diamond films are extremely flat
compared to comparably sized silicon carbide papers, and therefore a thin film
of water between sample and abrasive film causes the sticking problem. Breaking
up this film of water is the key to stopping the sticking. The POLIMET pad is
perforated, leaving small depressions in spots under the film, while maintaining
the rigidity needed to keep the sample flat. Another option for you is to
break up the smooth, flat surface in contact with the film; i.e. the bottom of
your GATAN fixture (this may not be the more convenient option, however).

With regard to your question about the DELRIN feet of tripodding type
polishers, I have had experience here as well. BUEHLER's TRIPOINT POLISHER(TM)
also uses DELRIN feet. These DO wear when held against the diamond films.
However, the purpose of the TRIPOINT POLISHER(TM) type fixtures was originally
to cross-section microelectronic materials. While the DELRIN does abrade
slowly, it does not abrade anywhere near the rate of silicon, GaAs, etc. The
micrometers on which the feet are mounted are there for the purpose of adjusting
tilt and pitch of the sample, as well as adjusting for the insignificant (when
polishing most materials) wear encountered on the feet.

The influence of the DELRIN foot area is important with regard to the sticking
problem. Obviously, the smaller the feet, the less sticking that will occur.
However, another variable should be considered: The abrasive size. On a 30
micron diamond film, the TRIPOINT POLISHER(TM) does not stick because the
diamond is large enough to allow air to break up the water film between foot and
diamond film. However, when you get in the smaller sizes, e.g. 1 to 0.5
microns, the DELRIN feet become 'polished', and the sticking problem begins to
increase. This is sometimes felt as a steadily growing chattering of sample on
abrasive surface. My suggestion is to cut grooves in the DELRIN feet in order
to break up the large surface area found there.

A2: The 3X rule of abrasive damage removal was proposed by a competing
metallurgical supply company a number of years ago. It is a very good guideline
to work with, but it is not a scientifically proven rule, as far as I am aware.
Of course ductile materials will tend to follow the rule more than hard, tough
materials. Therefore, I don't see any reason why you must use every abrasive
size while grinding your materials. However, for samples where edge retention
is important, or where a cross-section of extremely thin layers is being
attempted, I have found that the prescribed steps of 30, 15, 6, 3, 1 and 0.5
micron diamond films are necessary. Especially the latter case.

If you would like to eliminate a significant portion of the grinding that is
necessary, you may want to try a diamond wafering blade which contains a finer
abrasive than the 68 micron diamond you are currently using. We offer a blade
which contains diamond about 1/13th this size, and which is designed for exactly
this purpose. We call this the L5 series blade. You can contact me directly by
e-mail, phone or fax for more info. The surface finish produced is close to
that produced by a 3 micron abrasive film. I do have a BUEHLER produced,
technical brochure (Note: contains info on only our products) which describes
the effects of cutting force, speed, abrasive size, etc., if you would be
interested.

A3: Our experience has been that low loads give better results on diamond
lapping films than high loads. This is especially true with ductile materials.
Cleaning the films with a fresh, folded paper towel during the grinding step
also improves the result obtained on most materials. The towel captures loose
diamond and swarf before it can be reintroduced to the sample; causing scratches
or embedding. Make sure to use a fresh towel with every abrasive size change.

A4: I differ with Mr. Henriks on this question. I don't suggest rotating the
specimen during each grinding step. Rotating the specimen does not introduce
fresh abrasive to the sample. Only the wheel rotation does this.

When the scratch pattern from the previous abrasive is removed, the damage may
or may not be removed (again, depending on the material). However, this may not
be relevant in the case of ceramics such as the silicon nitride you mentioned.
This is because the damage mechanisms are different between ductile and
hard/tough materials.

A5: I do agree with Mr. Henriks on this question. I was, at one time,
Application Engineer at SBT, and have had the opportunity to work with all of
their carbide footed grinding fixtures. The free-floating nature of their
fixtures does reduce the load on the specimen. I believe they still offer a
fixture with spring counterbalancing, which further reduces the specimen load.
These fixtures have an adjustable lock-nut which is dialed to a relative depth.
This nut contacts the piston housing when the piston reaches it's lowest point.
This stops the polishing.

A6: I am not familiar enough with the GATAN fixture to answer this question
fully. However, my experience with using a tripod type device (as Mr. Henriks
suggested) with the sample mounted in the middle of the fixture produces a
sample damaging instability during polishing. Shifting of the fixture from a
base created by the sample and two DELRIN feet to the sample and another set of
feet causes edge chipping if not carefully monitored.

If I can answer any questions for you regarding diamond lapping films,
fixturing, etc., please don't hesitate to contact me directly.

Best regards,

Scott D. Holt
BUEHLER, LTD.
41 Waukegan Rd.
Lake Bluff, IL 60044
Phone: (847)295-4546
Fax: (847)295-7942









From: South Bay Technology :      73531.1344-at-CompuServe.COM
Date: 07 Feb 96 18:36:13 EST
Subject: Re: TEM-Prep Polishing

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Dear Dr. Larker:

Here are my respones R1-6 to your comments C1-6 from my answers A1-6 to your
questions Q1-6:

Response 1: As you may have read in the response from Scott Walck:

"If you use the diamond films with the GDG, when the sample becomes planar with
the base of the grinder, then the grinder tends to stick to the film by surface
tension because of the large area. This is even more of a problem at the lower
grit sizes."

This will not happen on a soft cloth with diamond spray because you are not
able to form a vacuum as you can with our film. The downside is that you will
end up with rounded edges on your sample. The vacuum problem is exacerbated by
using the small increments which are best to use with the gatan Disc Grinder.
As you polish the sample down or use very small increments, the entire base
becomes nearly co-planar which causes the vacuum to form. On the SBt fixtures,
there is a space between the outside ring and the center piston which minimizes
this contact area and hence the vacuum effect.

I am not surprised that Gatan recommends 3M films, they are not too likely to
refer their customers to SBT! As far as the 50u increments go, that may be an
advisable number to use where it minimizes rocking on the sample caused by the
sample sticking out below the bottom of the fixture, but also may minimize the
vacuum effect. I'm guessing that is the reason.

RE: The Tripod Polisher (R)
The sof t delrin feet of the Tripod Polisher are actually made to wear out. The
idea is that you don't want any material which is harder than your sample to
make contact with the wheel. We use this logic in Tripod Polishing because the
sample becomes very thin and fragile and we do not want any particles from WC-Co
feet to containate the film. Furthermore, the Tripod Polisher (R) has the
facility to adjust for the change in level of the feet. The fixtures with the
tungsten carbide do not have the ability to be adjusted after polishing has
begun so we try to maintain the parallelism as best we can by resisting wear.
The measurements on the micrometer are, for the most part, not used. You make
"relative" adjustments with the micrometers, but you do not actually measure
your sample thickness with them. Sample thickness is typically determined
optically.

The delrin feet on the Tripod Polisher (R) can also create a vacuum if the are
polished flat and co-planar. In fact, we sometimes grind facets onto the feet
to maintain more of a point contact with the film. One of our competitors sells
a tripod Polisher with "non-rotating" micrometers. They charge you more for
them and they are counterproductive. By utilizing non-rotating micrometers you
are creating the very situation you are trying to avoid.

Response 2: If I understand this now, you are cutting your sample with 68u
diamonds which would indicate a damage layer of 3 x 68 or 204u. I suppose you
would need a fairly thick sample if you need to cut on both sides of the sample.
I'm not sure how to avoid this. Of course, this 3x rule is a general rule and
will vary with sample type. Perhaps you would like to do a little study for us
in your spare time?! :} ) Assuming that you are looking for a 1u final thickness
and that you will use each of these steps, the process would then be something
like this:

30u: Polish until 105u thick
15u: Polish until 51u thick
6u: Polish until 21u thick
3u: Polish until 10u thick
1u: Polish until 4u thick
0.5u: Polish until 2u thick
Colloidal silica for final polish.

The rough formula I use is (3 x current particle size) + particle size of next
film in sequence. This gives me the amount of material I need remaining after a
particular step in order to remove thedamage and still have "good" material to
work with. Of course, you may want to be a little more conservative or
aggressive depending on your confidence level. You can remove film steps and
apply the same formula to come up with alternative sequences.

Response 3: You got me on this one. Actually, you probably got me on the other
ones too, but at least I could come up with some reasonable answer for you! : {)

Response 4: No. The SBT polishing fixtures have specimen mounts that are
maintain in a single orientation by way of 2 locating pins that come out of the
center piston and fit into holes in the back of the removable mouting block.
The piston does not rotate because there is a slot in the piston. A set screw
then passes through the outside ring and into the slot to prevent rotation of
the piston relative to the outside ring.

Response 5: We have a micrometer type arrangement at the top of the piston which
allows you to dial in an amount of material to remove. This is done after a
simple zeroing procedure. The dial at the top of the piston will stop the
polishing process at the desired thickness by making physical contact with the
outside ring. This prevents the piston was moving down any further.

Response 6: The Tripod Polisher is extremely effective in polishing very flat
and parralel samples. You have great ability to make adjustments to correct for
any errors in sample mounting and other inaccuracies in the process. However,
since you have the ability to make the changes, you generally need to make them
which makes the process a bit more cumbersome. You can definitely get a great
sample, but you do have to work for it.

Our other fixtures rely more heavily on minimizing the variables. We have a
mounting press of sorts that you use to firmly press your sample against your
mounting block minimizing glue thickness and maximizing parallelism. We also
recommend that you polish your mounting block while mounted in the fixture prior
to mounting your sample. This ensures that your moutning block is parallel to
the plane of the tungsten carbide feet. As there are no adjustments possible,
it is best to follow the entire procedure carefully. Even with no adjustments,
you can get a pretty darn parallel sample! Wealso make a polishing machine
(Model 920) that can be fitted with workstations to hold and rotate the
fixtures. We also build custom attachments (for less than you might think!)
which allow a cusomer to polish 2 sides parallel to each other by simply
flipping the sample over and not re-mounting.

RE: Cyanoacrylate
My understanding is that any cyanoacrylate will be acetone soluble. Perhaps
they just don't list acetone on the label for some reason? A sure bet is to get
something like a nail bonding glue that is used to fix fingernails or attach
fake nails. Check the cosmetic counter. I will try to put a tube of super glue
in the mail to you, but I am not certain if it will still be good when it
arrives. I have tried this before and had problems. That's the reason we
stopped supplying it - it seemed a little silly to make an unhappy customer
because of a $3 bottle of glue that we don't even make!

Well I think I am worn out. You have asked a lot of very good questions and it
is obvious that you take your sample preparation very seriously. I am always
pleased to help in any way i can and i encourage you to contact me whenever i
may be of assistance. Of course, next time i wouldn't mind if talked about your
application for some South bay Technology equipment! : {)

Best regards-

P.S. I would love to get a copy of other responses you get concerning this
topic. Thank you!

David Henriks TEL: 800-728-2233 (toll-free in USA)
South Bay Technology, Inc. 714-492-2600
1120 Via Callejon FAX: 714-492-1499
San Clemente, CA 92673 USA e-mail: 73531.1344-at-compuserve.com
sbt-at-msa.microscopy.com

Manufacturers of Precision Sample Preparation Equipment and Supplies for
Metallography, Crystallography and Electron Microscopy.





From: Richard E. Edelmann :      edelmare-at-CASMAIL.MUOHIO.EDU
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 1996 16:51:23 -500
Subject: Sputter Coater Comments?

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At the risk of getting the vendors upset ....


I am getting ready to purchase a replacement sputter coater and I
was hoping to sollicit user comments (either good or bad or general)
regarding either the Pellco SC-7 Automatic sputter coater or the
EMITech K550 automatic sputter coater (aka EMS 550) and/or the
integration of the thickness monitors available for each unit.

PLEASE EMAIL ME DIRECTLY !!!!

ALL COMMENTS WILL BE KEPT PRIVATE !!!!

(I am not looking to publically condemn nor praise either instrument
- I like both companies, but without having worked with either
instrument, I'm looking for comments from those out there who have.)

Thank you in advance.


Richard E. Edelmann
Electron Microscopy Facility Supervisor
352 Pearson Hall
Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056
Ph: 513-529-5712 Fax: 513-529-4243
E-mail: edelmare-at-muohio.edu

int.




From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 1996 13:29:04 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: EM: Silver screens for 3D images

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} We would like to know if anyone has an opinion on the effectiveness of
} using a silver screen and double projectors for 3D imaging. We do not want
} to commit ourselves to buying a screen (which is quite expensive) and then
} find it has been a waste of money.
}
} We would like to hear from anyone who has tried this or any other
} alternative method of displaying 3D images to groups of people.

Dear Mark,
We have two large screens--they are aluminum, but look silvery; I
assume these are what you want--for 3D display with polarized light & dual
projectors. The images are quite spectacular and always make a big impres-
sion. If you have many 3D images to display, this kind of system may be
well worth the initial investment. The screens last for a very long time;
ours are } ~25 years old and are as good as ever. I have no idea of the
current price for these screens.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: Interface Analysis Centre :      K.R.Hallam-at-bristol.ac.uk
Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 08:53:50 GMT
Subject: Uranyl Acetate (fwd)

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We are encountering problems in disposal of uranium salts as our site
safety officer considers it as a mixed/radioactive waste. I wonder
what is the experience of other microscopists regarding
radioactivity/disposal of uranium compounds.


Manoj MISRA
Unilever Research US
Edgewater NJ

Here in Bristol, we are, as long as the University Safety Office knows, and keeps
some control over it, allowed to dispose of up to 100g of uranium per week (I think
it is) in with the normal office/laboratory rubbish. I was surprised when I first found
this out, but it has allowed us to dispose of a collection of unwanted uranium
oxides and the like.
Keith






From: Halldor Gudmundsson :      Halldor.Gudmundsson-at-iti.is
Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 09:03:54 GMT
Subject: Looking for SEM-Cryopreparation systems

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I am looking for suppliers of SEM cryopreparation and cryo-transfer systems.
Vendors, suppliers or colleagues with e-mail or fax numbers please respond
directly to me. And yes, I have done the obligatory netsearch with very few
direct scores.

Your sincerely,

Halldor Gudmundsson
Halldor Gudmundsson | Halldor.Gudmundsson-at-iti.is
Project manager |
Technological Institute of Iceland tel: +354 - 587 - 7000
Keldnaholti, IS-112 Reykjavik fax: +354 - 587 - 7409
Iceland





From: cioni-at-dst.unipi.it
Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 13:02:50 +0100
Subject: MicroWord News e-mail newsletter

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Yes, please. I would like receive MicroWord News e-mail newsletter.

cioni-at-dst.unipi.it



--
Raffaello Cioni
Dipartimento Scienze della Terra fax 39 50 500675
V. S. Maria 53 phone 39 50 874214
56126 PISA e-mail cioni-at-dst.unipi.it
Italy






From: ENERGY BEAM SCIENCES, INC :      75767.640-at-CompuServe.COM
Date: 08 Feb 96 08:23:48 EST
Subject: Re: re: bain marie

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Terri-
A bain marie *is* a double boiler. It was invented by a medieval Jewish
alchemist known as Mary the Prophetess, hence the name. Aren't you glad you
asked?
Steven Slap
102134,1660-at-compuserve.com





From: nano-at-ns1.LIHTI.ORG (Nanoprobes Inc.)
Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 09:53:33 -0500
Subject: Mechanisms of fluorescence quenching

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Message-Id: {199602081451.JAA18926-at-lihti.org}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Does anyone know a good reference on the possible mechanisms of
fluorescence quenching? Especially processes which involve the interaction
of fluorophores with transition metal complexes or colloidal particles,
from a chemistry perspective (electron transfer, molecular orbitals and so
on).

Thanks,

Rick Powell






From: CSEDAX-at-ARCRIDE.EDU.AR
Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 09:22 -0300
Subject: TEM/SEM: particle size distribution - Request

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Hi everyone,

I was wondering whether any of you could help giving me
some tips or references where to look for counting strategy for particles (such
as number of particles to be counted regarding the size and/or magnification).
At this moment I'm trying to obtain polystherene particles size distributions
by TEM and SEM.

Has anyone experience in working with SIGMA SCAN PRO, made by Handel, for
such a distribution? and for images analysis? I would like to hear any comment
about it or about any other software suggested for the subject.

Thanks a lot.
Silvia Montoro
CERIDE - Centre for Research and Development
Santa Fe - Argentina
csedax-at-arcride.edu.ar





From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Thu, 08 Feb 1996 10:46:45 -0600
Subject: Re: Battle of the Chuck's

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Message-Id: {199602081547.JAA26446-at-watson.bcm.tmc.edu}
X-Sender: joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
X-Mailer: Windows Eudora Version 2.1.1
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

At 07:39 PM 2/7/96 -0600, you wrote:

.....Do you have any info, printed or otherwise, regarding your pricing
structure?

***************
No, I don't have anything formalized. I just sat down and calculated what we
were spending to get one case done (costs, including salaries, supplies,
overhead, etc., divided by total number of micrographs, and then how many
micrographs were shot per case). To that I add what I think is reasonable to
support equipment replacement. That's what I charge. For clinical cases the
department adds a professional component.

Joiner





From: WINDLAND-at-odin.ssec.honeywell.com
Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 11:53:07 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Polysilicon etch on SOI

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I have a question on etching polysilicon on SOI material. I need to find an
etch that will etch the polysilicon and not the silicon on the buried oxide.
Feel free to call me or send your phone number. Thanks,
Mark Windland
Honeywell
612-954-2845




From: cxb41-at-po.CWRU.Edu (Christine H. Block)
Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 12:33:19 -0500
Subject: Affinity

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Message-Id: {199602081733.MAA02220-at-roo.INS.CWRU.Edu}

I am looking for a phone number/ address of Affinity Labs.
who supposedly produce a monoclonal antibody for nitric oxide synthase?

Any information would be appreciated, including other sources for
NOS antibodies for immunohistochemistry.

Thanks!


Christine H. Block, Ph.D.
VA Medical Center
Cleveland OH 44106


--
```
(o o)
*Limbic Lady*-------oOO--(_)--OOo-----




From: images1-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu (Michael Stanley)
Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 11:19:57 -0600
Subject: 3d images(silver screens)

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Message-Id: {v01510101ad3fdf78c2f4-at-[128.206.15.185]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

We followed the same procedure as Henk (using PhotoShop to produce
red/green anaglyphs from pixel shifted z-sections) but then digitized the
images onto slide film (Kodak Elite) using a Polaroid Palette. A single
projector then did a great job (in fact it actually worked with red/blue
glasses...)


Hank Colijn wrote:
I have projected stereo images successfully by creating red/green anaglyphs
on transparency material. We took our digital images, combined them using
PhotoShop or similar program, and printed them on a dye-sublimation
printer. Using a standard overhead projector and the red/green glasses,
the images greatly impressed my audience. The dual projector system seems
a bit specialized.

Henk


C. Michael Stanley, Ph.D.
Coordinator, Associate Director
Molecular Cytology Core Facility
Molecular Biology Program
2 Tucker Hall
University of Missouri-Columbia
Columbia, MO. 65211
(314) 882-4895
fax= 314-882-0123






From: slakmon-at-scottscientific.com (P. Slakmon)
Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 15:04:40 -0500
Subject: Automatic LN Refill systems

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Does anyone know of a commercial vendor of an Automatic LN Refill system?


Regards,


Paul Thomson
Thomson Scientific Instruments


_______________________________________________
SCOTT SCIENTIFIC
P.O. Box 66552 Station Cavendish,
Montreal, Quebec, H4W 3J6, Canada

Telephone: 514-485-2309 Fax: 514-485-9931
Voice Mail: 514-888-6509

WWW Site: http://www.ScottScientific.com

E-Mail: slakmon-at-scottscientific.com
info-at-scottscientific.com
sales-at-scottscientific.com
admin-at-scottscientific.com
_________________________________________________





From: Jay Jerome :      jjerome-at-bgsm.edu
Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 09:10:05 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: EM: Silver screens for 3D images

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A few comments on this thread from our experience:

We have mounted on polarizers on the ends of cardboard tubes. The tubes
are approximately the diameter of the Kodak projector lens barrel. We put
a lenght of the thin packing sponge material that our hazzardous chemicals
come wrapped in around the inside of the tube to provide friction and
hold the tube in place. This allows the polarizers to be rotated to get
maximum extinction with the glasses. We order bulk glasses for a nominal
cost. Most come with the polarizers set at 45 degrees to the horizon.
However, some glasses come with the polarizers horizontal and vertical.
The tube system allows us to adjust or projector polarizers to match
either set of glasses.

Jay Jerome
**************************************************************
* aka: W. Gray Jerome *
* Dept. of Pathology *
* Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University *
* Medical Center Blvd *
* Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1092 *
* 910-716-4972 *
* jjerome-at-bgsm.edu *
**************************************************************





From: wise-at-vaxa.cis.uwosh.edu
Date: Thu, 08 Feb 1996 09:12:37 +0000
Subject: Minor Problems

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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} Date: Wed, 07 Feb 1996 16:31:59 -0500
} From: zaluzec-at-microscopy.com (Nestor J. Zaluzec)
} Subject: Minor Problems
} X-Sender: zaluzec-at-microscopy.com (Unverified)
} To: Microscopy-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com
}
} G'day Subscribers...
}
} We've got a minor glitch in the subscribe/unsubscribe system.
} Unfortunately, I'm on vacation and too far away to fix the link.
} This just means there will be a delay if your trying to
} unsubscribe. I'll be logging in remotely and doing manual
} updates, but the connections are sometimes slow from here.
}
} I'll be back in town the middle of next week and we should
} be back to normal.
}
} Sorry for the inconvenience
}
} Nestor
} Your Friendly Neighborhood SysOp
}
} Weather report: 34 C, partly cloudy, and the view on
} the beach is great. ;-)
}
}


Vacation? VACATION?! That's pretty cheeky. And 34C? Last week we had
MINUS 34 C! Enjoy your break, Nestor.

Bob






From: Fermin, Cesar :      fermin-at-TMC.Tulane.Edu
Date: 8 Feb 1996 08:17:18 -0500
Subject: Regulations galore!

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Message-Id: {n1388354350.95607-at-msmail.tmc.tulane.edu}

After reading a few of the messages on this server from users in different
states representing various regions of the USA, I think about the growing
pains we are facing with what it seems "inconsistent regulation in the UNITED"
deserves a revisit? Two items are worth recollecting: osmium and uranyl
disposal. If you think that the disposal of these chemical (which by all means
are hazardous) think about the follwing. During one my visits to California
(NASA AMES RESEARCH CENTER) I was prohibited (and instructed so formally) from
pouring SALINE (That's right PBS!) down the drain! Thus, I immediately asked
where I should urinate (you know amonia, amino acids, etc). Even though the
biosafety officer did not have a good answer (take that back... regulations)
he was rather upset. The moral of the story: I learn quickly after arriving
to the states long ago, that -the outcome of a procedure matters less than the
implementation of the regulation that requires it-. That is the good news, the
bad one is thatit will get worse if we do not inject a tiny bit of common
sense into all of this mess and others. My two daughters were taught at
school already that animals are terribly mistreated by industry and
researchers, but I had to point out to her the reality behind the production
of a juicy burger and/or taste fried chicken nudget? This was easy for me
because when I was her age I butchered the chickens we ate and witness the
killing and butchering of the pigs, cows, etc. Go on, make your contribution,
and get started now-tell as really is!


*********************************************************************
*Cesar D. Fermin, Ph.D \|T|/ Fax (504) 587-7389 *
*Tulane Medical School /|M|\ Voice Mail (504) 584-2618 *
*Pathology/SL79 \|C|/ Secretary (504) 584-2436 *
*New Orleans La 70112-2699 /|*|\ Lab/Techn. (504) 584-2521 *
* {Fermin-at-tmc.tulane.edu} ----} Prof. Pathology & Otolaryngology *
*http://www1.omi.tulane.edu/departments/pathology/fermin/cdftop.html*
*********************************************************************






From: Evelyn Clausnitzer :      clausnz-at-itsa.ucsf.edu
Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 15:03:54 -0800 (PST)
Subject: TISSUE ADHESIVE

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A visitor to our lab from Switzerland brought us an adhesive used for
sealing wounds, called HISTOACRYL Blue. We have found it to be very
useful and would like to find a supplier in the US. Any leads will be
appreciated.

Evelyn Clausnitzer
U. C. San Francisco




From: nano-at-ns1.LIHTI.ORG (Nanoprobes Inc.)
Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 16:17:30 -0500
Subject: Re: Antibody to Nitric Oxide Synthase

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Message-Id: {199602082115.QAA20410-at-lihti.org}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Dear Christine H. Block:

This question was asked before, and I replied direct to the poster not to
the listserver. Your supplier for polyclonal nitric oxide synthetase
antibody is:

AFFINITY BIOREAGENTS, INC
14818 West 6th Avenue, #13A
Golden, CO 80401

Tel: (800) 527-4535, (303) 278-4535
Fax: (303) 278-2424
Email: affinity-at-bioreagents.com

In addition, you could check out:

We have just received the new (1996) Lindscott's Directory of Immunological
and Biological reagents (Order from Lindscott's Directory, 4877 Grange
Road, Santa Rosa, CA 95404; phone (707) 544-9555, Fax (415) 389-6025) which
is a good place to start looking for antibodies. Some entries for
anti-nitric oxide synthetase antibodies:

POLYCLONALS:

Rabbit antibody against inducible NOS, mouse macrophage:

Alexis Corp.
P.O. Box 927190, San Diego, CA 92192, USA
Tel: (619) 658-0065, Fax (619) 658-9224

Rabbit antibody against inducible, neuronal or endothelial NOS:

Oxford Biomedical Research
P.O. Box 522, Oxford, MI 48371
Tel (in US) 800-692-4633, Fax (810) 852-4466

MONOCLONALS:

IgG2A against brain NOS, against mac, inducible NOS, against NOS EC:

Transduction Laboratories
133 Venture Crescent #5, Lexington, KY 40510, USA
Tel (606) 259-1550, Fax (606) 259-1413

Against inducible NOS:

Research and Diagnostic antibodies
P.O. Box 8300, Berkeley, CA 94707
Tel (510) 262-9000, Fax (510) 262-9127

Since I've never used these I can't tell you whether they work, but they
are probably good places to start.

Richard D. Powell
*************************************************************
NANOPROBES, Incorporated
25 East Loop Road, Suite 124, Stony Brook, NY 11790-3350, USA
http://www.lihti.org/research/ecodev/incubten/nano/home.html

} } Does anyone in cyberspace know where I can obtain and antibody to Nitric
} } Oxide Synthase which will work on mouse brain.
} }
} } Dr Terry Robertson
} } Electron Microscopist
} } Department of Pathology
} } University of Western Australia
} } Nedlands 6009
} }
} } phone 346 2935
} } Fax 346 2891
} } email troberts-at-eosin.path.uwa.edu.au
}






From: nano-at-ns1.LIHTI.ORG (Nanoprobes Inc.)
Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 18:30:11 -0500
Subject: Re: affinity/antibodies for nitric oxide synthetase

Contents Retrieved from Microscopy Listserver Archives
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Message-Id: {199602082328.SAA20856-at-lihti.org}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

(If this appears twice, please ignore the earlier version-my mistake for
E-mailing Microscopy-at-Sparc5 instead of MSA. My apologies)

Dear Christine Block:

Someone else asked about antibodies to nitric oxide synthetase, and I
replied direct to the poster not to the listserver. Affinity Bioreagents
supplies a polyclonal antibody to nitric oxide synthetase; their address
is:

AFFINITY BIOREAGENTS, INC
14818 West 6th Avenue, #13A
Golden, CO 80401

Tel: (800) 527-4535, (303) 278-4535
Fax: (303) 278-2424
Email: affinity-at-bioreagents.com

For other polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies (in reply to the earlier
question):

We have just received the new (1996) Lindscott's Directory of Immunological
and Biological reagents (Order from Lindscott's Directory, 4877 Grange
Road, Santa Rosa, CA 95404; phone (707) 544-9555, Fax (415) 389-6025) which
is a good place to start looking for antibodies. Some entries for
anti-nitric oxide synthetase antibodies:

POLYCLONALS:

Rabbit antibody against inducible NOS, mouse macrophage:

Alexis Corp.
P.O. Box 927190, San Diego, CA 92192, USA
Tel: (619) 658-0065, Fax (619) 658-9224

Rabbit antibody against inducible, neuronal or endothelial NOS:

Oxford Biomedical Research
P.O. Box 522, Oxford, MI 48371
Tel (in US) 800-692-4633, Fax (810) 852-4466

MONOCLONALS:

IgG2A against brain NOS, against mac, inducible NOS, against NOS EC:

Transduction Laboratories
133 Venture Crescent #5, Lexington, KY 40510, USA
Tel (606) 259-1550, Fax (606) 259-1413

Against inducible NOS:

Research and Diagnostic antibodies
P.O. Box 8300, Berkeley, CA 94707
Tel (510) 262-9000, Fax (510) 262-9127

Since I've never used these I can't tell you whether they work, but they
are probably good places to start.

Richard D. Powell
*************************************************************
NANOPROBES, Incorporated
25 East Loop Road, Suite 124, Stony Brook, NY 11790-3350, USA
http://www.lihti.org/research/ecodev/incubten/nano/home.html

} } Does anyone in cyberspace know where I can obtain and antibody to Nitric
} } Oxide Synthase which will work on mouse brain.
} }
} } Dr Terry Robertson
} } Electron Microscopist
} } Department of Pathology
} } University of Western Australia
} } Nedlands 6009
} }
} } phone 346 2935
} } Fax 346 2891
} } email troberts-at-eosin.path.uwa.edu.au
}






From: Ted Boden -at-MR.SEMATECH.Org
Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 10:57:00 CST
Subject: op3

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MR-Received: by mta GATEV3; Relayed; Thu, 08 Feb 1996 11:21:30 -0600
Alternate-recipient: prohibited
Disclose-recipients: prohibited


--Boundary (ID D1sGwLyQksj+RO0n0DfJlw)
Content-type: TEXT/PLAIN; CHARSET=US-ASCII



--Boundary (ID D1sGwLyQksj+RO0n0DfJlw)
Content-type: MESSAGE/RFC822



The Materials Analysis group at SEMATECH in Austin, TX has an
immediate opening for a TEM lab Technician. SEMATECH is a
government/industry consortium working on advanced projects related
to the fabrication of 0.25/0.35um CMOS integrated circuits.

For more information please contact Carolyn Gondran -at- 512-356-3149
, Philippe Maillot -at-512-356-3944 or Ted Boden 512-356-3324 or
respond by direct e-mail.



JOB DESCRIPTION:
Sample preparation of semiconductor materials and devices, both
plan view and cross-section, for TEM. Develop improved methods of
sample preparation. TEM operation to facilitate this development
will be encouraged. Photographic processing and filing of TEM
negatives and prints. Maintenance of sample preparation and dark
room equipment and supplies


JOB REQUIREMENTS:
2+ years experience in TEM sample preparation and photographic
processing required. Familiarity with tripod, dimpling and FIB
techniques desired. This position requires strong organizational
skills, and in particular, the ability to work on multiple tasks
while maintaining precise records and tracking procedure.
Experience in microelectronics industry a plus.

Associate degree in physics, chemistry or related subject.

--Boundary (ID D1sGwLyQksj+RO0n0DfJlw)--




From: Ronald Cohn (415) 8556059 :      Ronald.Cohn-at-syntex.com
Date: Thu, 08 Feb 1996 17:25:49 -0800 (PST)
Subject: LM - Detection of apoptotic cells

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Registered-mail-reply-requested-by: Ronald.Cohn-at-SYNTEX.COM
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List subscribers,

We need to identify apoptotic cells in cultures of cells grown in suspension.
We would like to do this using the TUNEL (terminal transferase-mediated
dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) technique with either fluoresence or
enzyme-substrate reaction product as the read-out. I would appreciate hearing
from anyone who has used this technique regarding which commercial labeling
kits may be better than others, recommended protocols, etc. Thanks in advance.

Ron Cohn
Structural Biology Laboratory
Roche Bioscience
Palo Alto, CA
ronald.cohn-at-syntex.com






From: Peter.Stalmans-at-med.kuleuven.ac.be (Peter Stalmans)
Date: Fri, 9 Feb 1996 09:55:27 +0100
Subject: Workshop Confocal Microscopy

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On March 8, 1996, a workshop on confocal microscopy will be held in the
Laboratory of Physiology, KULeuven, Belgium.

Program:

08.30: Registration
09.00: Welcome: Prof. Dr. J. Janssens, Dean of the Faculty of Medicin KU Leuven
09.15: Confocal vs conventional microscopy.
H. van der Voort, J. Bauman, H. Vrolijk, W. Sloos & H. Tanke,
SVI Hilversum, UA & RU Leiden, The Netherlands
09.45: Spontaneously spreading calcium waves in rat cardiac myocytes:
implications of the data acquisition by confocal microscopy.
W. Wussling, Martin Luther University, Halle, Germany
10.15: Coffee and demonstrations on confocal microscopes
11.00: Confocal laser scanning in the reflection mode.
Z. Mischal, CNRS, Villejuif, France
11.30: Free communications
12.00: Lunch
13.15: Demonstrations on confocal microscopes
14.00: Confocal fluorescence life time imaging with two-photon excitation.
H. Gerritsen, J. Sytsma & J. Vroom. Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands
14.30: Manipulation, N-dimensional visualisation and measurement of the
living cell with super-resolution and super-contrast.
P. Van Oostveldt, U Gent, Belgium
15.00: Coffee and demonstrations on confocal microscopes
15.45: Free communications
17.00: Final conclusions and farewell. B. Himpens, KU Leuven

Date and location:
The workshop will be held on Friday, March 8th, 1996 at the KULeuven
Lab Physiology, 8th floor
Onderwijs & Navorsing, Gasthuisberg
Herestraat 49
B - 3000 Leuven
Belgium

Contact person:
B. Himpens
Lab Physiology
Herestraat 49
B - 3000 Leuven
tel + 32 16 34 57 27 or + 32 16 34 71 46
fax + 32 16 34 59 91
E-mail: Bernard.Himpens-at-med.kuleuven.ac.be

More information and online registration:
See URL: http://www.kuleuven.ac.be/kuleuven/news/wcm/

Peter Stalmans
Peter.Stalmans-at-med.kuleuven.ac.be
Laboratory of Physiology KULeuven
Herestraat 49
B-3000 Leuven
Belgium
tel: +32-16-34 71 46
fax: +32-16-34 59 91





From: Peter.Stalmans-at-med.kuleuven.ac.be (Peter Stalmans)
Date: Fri, 9 Feb 1996 10:19:07 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: No microscopy - active waste disposal

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Message-Id: {199602091019.KAA14329-at-zeus.bris.ac.uk}

Dear All,
A few of you have expressed surprise at my comment on disposal of active waste here in Bristol. I thought (though there is no direct microcsopy content - shouldn't
this be in one of the safety groups??) you might like a couple of quotes from the relevant University safety handbook.
"Aqueous waste. Our primary waste disposal route is via the sink... This is
both the least restrictive and the least environmentally damaging" It then goes
on about how this would be diluted by all the other waste water the University
discharges into the sewars.
"Very low levels of solid radioactive waste disposal are permitted by out authorisation from HMIP (Her Majesty's Inspectors of Pollution) to the normal waste
bins.""No visible radioactive signs are to be present on the box or bag used for
disposal and please try to ensure that the package does not look interesting..."
There are records that have to be kept, and regulations on there being no
external contamination, maximum permitted levels, only one lot per waste bin, etc.

--
Dr. Keith R. Hallam University of Bristol, Interface Analysis Centre, Oldbury
House, 121, St. Michael's Hill, Bristol, BS2 8BS, England
Telephone: + 44 (0)117 925 5666 | E-mail: k.r.hallam-at-bristol.ac.uk
Facsimile: + 44 (0)117 925 5646 | URL: http://zeus.bris.ac.uk/~phkrh/




From: Neal Nicklaus :      nnicklaus-at-nova.sarnoff.com
Date: Fri, 09 Feb 1996 09:08:36 -0500
Subject: Image Processing Software

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Message-Id: {199602091411.JAA28919-at-vaxserv}
X-Sender: nnicklaus-at-cave.sarnoff.com
X-Mailer: Windows Eudora Pro Version 2.1.2
Mime-Version: 1.0
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Does anyone know of some "good" PC bases image processing software designed
for microscopy applications? I need to do some time based studies on
fluorescent DNA strands.

I have an optical trap set up to hold and maneuver the strands as attached
to sub micron latex beads. I want to study the effects of various enzymes
and environments on the DNA while in the trap.

Any suggestions as to software and its required (desired) hardware would be
appreciated.






Neal Nicklaus

SEQ Limited

Voice: 609-452-6033 Ext. 13
Fax: 609-452-5955
email nnicklaus-at-seq.sarnoff.com





From: Neal Nicklaus :      nnicklaus-at-nova.sarnoff.com
Date: Fri, 09 Feb 1996 09:15:15 -0500
Subject: UV Microscope Objectives

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Message-Id: {199602091417.JAA28934-at-vaxserv}
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Does anyone know of custom or commercially available UV microscope
objectives for use in Laser Induced Fluorescence studies?

I have contacted Zeiss, Nikon, Olympus and Leica. Zeiss has the best of the
group but the UltraFluars all fluoresce in my UV laser beam (266 nm). I
want as high an NA as possible, i.e. immersed optics, so the reflective
designs, e.g. Ealing, I have seen are not fast enough.

Fluorescence excitation wavelengths are tunable between 260 and 290 nm.
Fluorescence emissions are from 300 to 500 nm.

Any suggestions would be appreciated. I can afford a custom design after I
prove the concept at more limited wavelengths.





Neal Nicklaus

SEQ Limited

Voice: 609-452-6033 Ext. 13
Fax: 609-452-5955
email nnicklaus-at-seq.sarnoff.com





From: tphillips-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu (Tom Phillips)
Date: Fri, 9 Feb 1996 09:43:13 -0500
Subject: PolyCutEase or SureCut Plastic additives

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Message-Id: {v01510100ad410824134e-at-[128.206.15.189]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Any comments from cyberspace on the additives that EM supply houses sell to
add to epoxy resins that are supposed to improve sectioning properties? I
am referring to products such as Poly Cut Ease (Polysciences) or SureCut
(EMS). Do people think they actually help? Are there any disadvantages?


Thomas E. Phillips, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Biological Sciences
Director, Molecular Cytology Core Facility
3 Tucker Hall
University of Missouri
Columbia, MO 65211
(314)-882-4712 (voice)
(314)-882-0123 (fax)






From: gbza40-at-udcf.gla.ac.uk
Date: Fri, 9 Feb 1996 13:24:00 GMT
Subject: Aluminised screens for 3D projection

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With regard to using 3D aluminised screens for projecting polarised images ,
I can only add in support of Jim Pawley's comments on the advantages for
imaging colour - in my case cell reconstructions with colour coded
organelles - which come out only with the polarised system.

As regards sourcing a screen try your Chemistry colleagues who probably have
one lurking somewhere as they may project molecular graphics in this way for
teaching. This is where I borrow my portable screen from here in Glasgow !

Laurence Tetley
Dr Laurence Tetley
IBLS EM Centre
Joseph Black Building
University of Glasgow
Glasgow G12 8QQ

email gbza40-at-udcf.gla.ac.uk
tel. 0141 330 4431
fax 0141 307 8016





From: Sheryl K. Brining :      skb-at-helix.nih.gov
Date: Fri, 9 Feb 1996 12:57:40 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Suscribe

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Please send to: skb-at-helix.nih.gov Thanks.





From: bsgphy3-at-uconnvm.uconn.edu (JIM ROMANOW)
Date: Fri, 9 Feb 1996 12:58:09 -0500
Subject: Critical Point Drying

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I am searching for the most comprehensive articles about critical point
drying techniques. All suggestions are appreciated.

Any problems with going directly from ethanol into carbon dioxide or is
amyl acetate useful in between? My specimens look OK using just ethanol.

Also: I am experiencing a run of failing (most often between 400 and 800
psi) front window Dowty seals on my drying unit even if I do only 'dry'
(carbon dioxide only) test runs. Is anyone else having this problem? This
device has been operating for 17 years with few leaks. All sealing surfaces
are smooth and clean.

Thank you in advance.

Jim Romanow
Electron Microscopy Facility
Physiology and Neurobiogy Department
The University Of Connecticut
Storrs
bsgphy3-at-uconnvm.uconn.edu






From: Jay Jerome :      jjerome-at-bgsm.edu
Date: Fri, 9 Feb 1996 11:11:29 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Pol Stereo Glasses

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I have had over a dozen requests for this information so I am posting it
directly to the list:

We have always purchased our stereo glasses from Ted Pella
1-800-237-3526 outside of California
They are in cardboard mounts and relatively inexpensive.
However, I did not see them listed in the current catalog. I hope they
still carry them. Any one know of an alternate supplier?


Jay Jerome
**************************************************************
* aka: W. Gray Jerome *
* Dept. of Pathology *
* Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University *
* Medical Center Blvd *
* Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1092 *
* 910-716-4972 *
* jjerome-at-bgsm.edu *
**************************************************************





From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Fri, 9 Feb 1996 16:16:10 -0500
Subject: Pol Stereo Glasses

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From: jbpawley-at-facstaff.wisc.edu (Jim Pawley)
Date: Sat, 10 Feb 1996 12:30:41 -0600
Subject: Interested in purchasing cold stage for Philips microscope

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Hello all,

I have prototype LVSEM that employs the stage mechanism from a Philips EM
430 TEM. I would like to purchase a cold stage for this instrument if I
can find one (standard Philips rod). Anyone out there about to
"decommission" one?

Jim Pawley

****************************************
Prof. James B. Pawley, Ph. 608-263-3147
Room 1235, Engineering Research Building, FAX 608-265-5315
1500 Johnson Dr., Madison, WI, 53706 JBPAWLEY-at-FACSTAFF.WISC.EDU






From: Glenn Poirier :      glennp-at-eps.mcgill.ca
Date: Sat, 10 Feb 1996 13:14:18 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: MULTIPLE USERS ON THE SEM

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Hello Everyone,
I'd just like to put in my two cents on the subject of multiple users of
an SEM (or in my case an electron microprobe)

Our instrument is used at least 16 hours a day and since I'm only paid
for eight almost all our users are trained to use the machine
independantly. This allows them faster access to the machine and saves them
or their advisors money. The only people we don't encourage to become
independant users are those who will only use the machine once or twice.
Most users require 3-4 daytime shifts before i will let them use the
machine independantly (I give them my home phone number too).

In the six years I've been running the lab I can't recall one incident
where the machine has actually been damaged by inexperienced users. On
several occasions it has been temporarily put out of commission (computer
problems, etc) but usually I can get it back on line immediately the next
day. Although there is the potential for a user to damage the instrument
(i.e during a sample change) most of the rest of the instrument is fairly
fool proof. It is easy to screw up your analyses, but difficult to hurt
the machine.

I'm sure the machine would last longer and require less service if I was
the only one operating it, but we don't have that option. I also feel
that users are much better off acquiring their own data, they know what
they want and can change their strategy if they find something unexpected

Hope this is useful.

Glenn





From: mager-at-unixg.ubc.ca (Mary Mager)
Date: Fri, 9 Feb 1996 21:23:55 -0800
Subject: Re: MULTIPLE USERS ON THE SEM

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} I'd like some input, opinions etc. on the pitfalls of having multiple
} operators on an SEM.

Dear Bonnie,
I run a Materials Engineering EM lab at the University of British
Columbia, with two SEMs and a TEM. Most of the researchers who use the
instruments are graduate students and Research Engineers. I have always
encouraged these people to do their own research on the SEMs, as much as
possible, since only they know exactly what they want and that way one me
can keep three instruments optimally used. After I show them how to use the
SEM, I watch and encourage them to ask me for further instruction for
picture taking, higher mag, etc. Some people, who have a lot of work to do,
may gain my permission to use the SEM after hours, but only after I feel
they have gained a lot of experience during working hours, when I am there
to supervise, and only after I have instructed them on how to properly shut
down and what to do in the event of problems. I also purchased the
instruments originally with ease-of-use in mind. They are fully automatic
and easy to get good results on.
I must feel that the person has a good understanding of the important
issues and knows how to properly handle the instrument. Mind you, I don't
have a field emission SEM. I have had damage, but only once in 15 years and
it could have happened in normal hours.. It also helps to scare them, be
"the ogre of the EM lab". Mind you, we are a teaching lab, so the learning
is as important as the doing.
I know many EM operators do not like the idea of letting any ham-fisted
graduate student or engineer loose on their instrument, but modern SEMs
really can be operated by any intelligent being.
So long as you satisfy yourself as to this person's knowledge,
experience and caring, I'd see no harm.
Hope this helps.

Regards,
Mary

Mary Mager
Electron Microscopist
Metals and Materials Eng, UBC
309 - 6350 Stores Rd.
Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4
CANADA
tel: 604-822-5648, fax: 604-822-3619
email: mager-at-unixg.ubc.ca






From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Fri, 09 Feb 1996 15:29:24 -0600
Subject: Re: Re[2]: Staining Problems & static

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At 10:17 AM 2/8/96 EST, you wrote:

".....to form yellow, iridescent hexagonal prisms of lead iodide....."

I stained one grid with our lead stain alone, and another with our uranyl
acetate stain alone. The lead stained grid had the hexagonal deposits and
the other did not. So it's not the uranyl acetate. It's interesting that
lead iodide forms hexagonal crystals.
*******************

".....Perhaps these are your crystals - a bit of a long shot since you did
not mention iodine in our elemental analysis of the crystals...."

No, there is no iodine in either of our stains, or any of the sample
preparation steps; and I did not get an iodine peak with the microprobe.
*******************


I have borrowed an anti static gun like the Zerostatic Eliminator that you
suggest. We are in the process of trying it out. At least the grids don't
jump up and cling to the lid of the plastic petri dish any more.


* * Joiner Cartwright, Jr. * *





From: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu (Greg Erdos)
Date: Fri, 9 Feb 1996 15:15:04 GMT
Subject: Re: PolyCutEase or SureCut Plastic additives

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} } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } }

These things help a great deal when using a glass knife. We use lecithin in
the epoxy accelerator . ( use eual weight of lecithin and accelerator, then
double the volume for use) A glass knife will last a long time if you
have it in the resin. It was a great help to students just learning to
section, They could get usable stuff the first day at the microtome. It
can give a blotchy look to empty resin areas or those that have little
density, but most tissues are "busy " enough that you never notice it. See
Mollenhauer , 1986, J. EM Tech 3:217-222
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-
Greg Erdos Phone: 352-392-1295
Scientific Director,
ICBR Electron Microscopy Core Lab
218 Carr Hall Fax: 352-846-0251
University of Florida E-mail: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu
Gainesville, FL 32611
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-





From: K. M. Anisur Rahman :      anis-at-execpc.com
Date: Fri, 09 Feb 1996 16:13:35 -0800
Subject: Does tin-oxide dissolve in Acetone?

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Message-ID: {311BE32F.7B15-at-execpc.com}

Hi,
Can anybody let me know if SnO2 and Sb2O5 would dissolve in
Acetone at about 100C? Many thanks,

-Anis.




From: Bonnie Davis - Kennametal Inc. :      bld_kmt-at-prlc.org
Date: Fri, 9 Feb 1996 13:09:08 -0500 (EST)
Subject: MULTIPLE USERS ON THE SEM

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I'd like some input, opinions etc. on the pitfalls of having multiple
operators on an SEM. My situation is that I am part of a materials
analysis group that provides analytical services to corporate
technology. Our group consists of a number of engineers and technicians
with expertise in a variety of analytical areas. Our company has
recently hired a young PhD to do materials research in another department .
He is pushing very hard to be allowed to use our SEM at night and on weekends. He has 'used
an SEM before' and doesn't see a problem in using ours. It has always
been our practice to encourage researchers to come into the lab while
their samples are being analyzed, but not to allow individuals to use the
instrument themselves. I believe that the analysis is done more effectively
by individuals whose expertise is in that area. However, management
appears to be leaning towards changing the rules for this individual, and
having me train him on the instrument.

We have a four year old JEOL 6400 instrument with a Link eXL analyzer,
UTW detector, complete stage automation. We also have a computer system
attached for collecting digital images, we do not use polaroid film.
While this individual has used and SEM he has not used either a JEOL or
LINK system before. I feel that training would be extensive. This is currently the only SEM we have. It
is used approximately 12 hours per day by myself and my staff. Quite
often EDS analysis is carried out using computer control and stage
automation overnight. However, management feels that if someone is
willing to utilize the instrument in those few hours a week when it is
not being used, they need to take advantage of that to receive a maximum
benefit from the asset.

Several years ago we had two older SEMS and due to 'corporate
downsizing', we had only one operator. At them time I trained
approximately 2 dozen engineers who desired to use the 'extra' SEM on
their own. We disposed of the instrument about a year ago when it had
not been touched for almost a year. The time I spent in training
all of those individuals was probably greater than the time they as
a group spent using the instrument. Hindsight being perfect I wish we had
kept the old instrument!

Anyway, I would appreciate any input both pro and con from the list
regarding opening up an instrument to multiple infrequent users.




From: James S MArtin :      James.S.Martin-at-williams.edu
Date: Fri, 9 Feb 1996 17:53:36 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Thanks for SEM-EDS info

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Thank you to all who provided information on SEM-EDS services in and
around western Massachusetts.

James Martin




From: AMCGroup2-at-aol.com
Date: Sun, 11 Feb 1996 20:41:36 -0500
Subject: Microscopy Online's URL

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As a correction to my message of 02-04, please note that the URL for the
Microscopy Online Web-journal is:

http://www.Microscopy-Online.com/

Please accept my apologies.

Rene E. Nicholas
Spec. Prep. Workshop Coordinator
AMC Group




From: AMCGroup2-at-aol.com
Date: Sun, 11 Feb 1996 20:33:11 -0500
Subject: Re: R. Larker's Spec. Prep. Ques

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For your information, the following two companies also sell the
wedge-polishing tool, supplies, and various consumables (diamond lapping
films/suspensions, mounting wax/glues, etc.) for TEM specimen preparation of
materials:

UltraMetrix
4802 E. Ray Rd., No. 23-267
Phoenix, AZ 85044
(602) 706-5745
FAX (602) 496-6505
e-Mail ULTMTRX-at-aol.com

Allied High-Tech Products
P.O. Box 4608
2376 E. Pacifica Place
Rancho Dominguez, CA 90220
(310) 635-2466
FAX (310) 762-6808

Rene E. Nicholas
Spec. Prep. Workshop Coordinator
AMC Group




From: rw9-at-psu.edu (Rosemary A. Walsh)
Date: Sun, 11 Feb 1996 18:50:21 GMT
Subject: Re: MULTIPLE USERS ON THE SEM

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Microscopy ListServer {Microscopy-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com}

At 1:09 PM 2/9/96 -0500, Bonnie Davis - Kennametal Inc. wrote:
} I'd like some input, opinions etc. on the pitfalls of having multiple
} operators on an SEM. My situation is that I am part of a materials
} analysis group that provides analytical services to corporate
} technology. Our group consists of a number of engineers and technicians
} with expertise in a variety of analytical areas. Our company has
} recently hired a young PhD to do materials research in another department .
} He is pushing very hard to be allowed to use our SEM at night and on weekends.
} He has 'used
} an SEM before' and doesn't see a problem in using ours. It has always
} been our practice to encourage researchers to come into the lab while
} their samples are being analyzed, but not to allow individuals to use the
} instrument themselves. I believe that the analysis is done more effectively
} by individuals whose expertise is in that area. However, management
} appears to be leaning towards changing the rules for this individual, and
} having me train him on the instrument.
}
} We have a four year old JEOL 6400 instrument with a Link eXL analyzer,
} UTW detector, complete stage automation. We also have a computer system
} attached for collecting digital images, we do not use polaroid film.
} While this individual has used and SEM he has not used either a JEOL or
} LINK system before. I feel that training would be extensive. This is
} currently the only SEM we have. It
} is used approximately 12 hours per day by myself and my staff. Quite
} often EDS analysis is carried out using computer control and stage
} automation overnight. However, management feels that if someone is
} willing to utilize the instrument in those few hours a week when it is
} not being used, they need to take advantage of that to receive a maximum
} benefit from the asset.
}
} Several years ago we had two older SEMS and due to 'corporate
} downsizing', we had only one operator. At them time I trained
} approximately 2 dozen engineers who desired to use the 'extra' SEM on
} their own. We disposed of the instrument about a year ago when it had
} not been touched for almost a year. The time I spent in training
} all of those individuals was probably greater than the time they as
} a group spent using the instrument. Hindsight being perfect I wish we had
} kept the old instrument!
}
} Anyway, I would appreciate any input both pro and con from the list
} regarding opening up an instrument to multiple infrequent users.

Bonnie,
Since we encourage use of the JEOL TEM and SEM by trained users, we
run into this situation often. Currently, we require training on our
instruments plus a minimum of 15 hours of daytime use prior to an approval
of use during off hours. The principal investigator (of the grad. student
or postdoc) is also asked to agree to cover costs should any malfunction
necessitate lengthy (costly) alignment procedures. I constructed a form
for this purpose and the signed agreement is kept with the log book at the
scope. This has given me some control over the situation and those users
who agree to our demands are usually competent users. If the SEM uses a
LaB6 or is a FE, I would be more cautious, i.e., demand more daytime use
and obtain written consent to replace the crystal/filament.
One last thing to consider---an estimate of costs incurred by your
unit during the required "daytime" use if your unit does not charge other
units for instrument use.
Regards,
Rosemary Walsh






From: Richard Beanland +44 1327 356363 :      richard.beanland-at-gecm.com
Date: Mon, 12 Feb 1996 09:01:00 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: TEM: ferroelectric materials

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Hello all,
I am currently doing TEM of ferroelectric materials (PZT, PST etc.)
and seem to be seeing domains or domain walls in thin TEM samples but not in
thick ones. I know that TEM of ferroelectrics has been done for some years -
does anyone on the listserver know of any references which describe the
contrast mechanism which makes them visible in TEM?

Many thanks in advance,

RIchard Beanland,
GMMTL Caswell,
Towcester,
Northants NN12 8EQ,
UK
Tel. +44 1327 356363
Fax. +44 1327 356775
Email richard.beanland-at-gecm.com





From: j_j_hooper-at-ecc-jkh.ccmail.compuserve.com
Date: 12 Feb 96 04:42:11 EST
Subject: Microscopy listserver

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Subscribe Microscopy j_j_hooper-at-ecc-jkh.ccmail.compuserve.com





From: Henrik Kaker, SZ - Metal Ravne :      Henrik.Kaker-at-guest.arnes.si
Date: Mon, 12 Feb 1996 09:43:08 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: Database

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Dear All,

All modern EDS systems include in the quantitative procedures an option
"standardless analysis". When standardless analysis is performed, tipically
the analysis of stainless steel is demonstrated with measuring transition
elements Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Co and V. The K-lines of these elements span in
the range 5 - 7.5 keV where the spectrometer efficiency is constant and
close to unity. The product is well behaved, and a reasonably accurate
analysis can be obtained, especially if the procedure has been "optimized"
for steel analyses. For testing standardless programs we need suitable data
base of measured intensity data with detailed information about analysis
(accelerating voltage, geometry) and detector constants. Unfortunately no
systematic collection of such data to be available in the area standardless
analysis. This is a sad situation in comparison with , for example analysis
with standards were there is an large collection of data. For this reason we
are in our laboratory decided to collect the intensity data for testing
standardless programs. Your help in adding new data sets would be much
appreciated. The rules for the data in the collection are very simple:

a) only experimental data from certified samples are included.

b) all data must be collected under known experimental conditions:
acclerating voltage, geometry (tilt angle, take-off angle) and
detector constants (Be window or other thickness, Au layer
thickness, Si dead layer thickness and Si crystal thickness).

c) only pure intensity data (after background substraction and peak
deconvolution procedure) are included.

d) weight fraction of analyzed elements must be known.

Final database will be available at EMMPDL (Electron Microscopy and
Microanalysis Public Domain Library) on anonymous FTP server WWW.AMC.ANL.GOV (Argonne
National Laboratory, IL, USA). We have no any commercial interest with
this database.

Thank you.

Henrik Kaker
Metal d.o.o.
SEM/EDS Laboratory
Koroska c.14
62390 Ravne
Slovenia

Phone: + 386 602 21 131 int.5562
Fax: + 386 602 20 436
E-mail: kaker-at-ctklj.ctk.si
http://www2.arnes.si/guest/sgszmera1/index.html






From: Richard Beanland +44 1327 356363 :      richard.beanland-at-gecm.com
Date: Mon, 12 Feb 1996 12:40:43 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: TEM: Ferroelectric materials

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Hello all,
I am currently doing TEM of ferroelectric materials (PZT, PST etc.)
and seem to be seeing domains or domain walls in thin TEM samples but not in
thick ones. I know that TEM of ferroelectrics has been done for some years -
does anyone on the listserver know of any references which describe the
contrast mechanism which makes them visible in TEM?

Many thanks in advance,

RIchard Beanland,
GMMTL Caswell,
Towcester,
Northants NN12 8EQ,
UK
Tel. +44 1327 356363
Fax. +44 1327 356775
Email richard.beanland-at-gecm.com





From: Joe D Geller :      geller-at-world.std.com
Date: Mon, 12 Feb 1996 08:40:01 +0001 (EST)
Subject: Re: USGS TEM Lab - Free

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IS the Gatan Ion mill still available?
Joe Geller
508 887-7000


On Thu, 11 Jan 1996, Gordon L. Nord Jr. wrote:

} Dear Microscopists,
}
} Because of the recent downsizing of the US Geological Survey the TEM lab
} must go. In addition, because the last remanents of the Bureau of Mines (may
} it rest in peace) are coming to the USGS in Reston the lab space is needed for
} other purposes by next week (gasp). All or part of the following are available
} for transfer to US academic institutions. The USGS has not mentioned any
} possibility of help with respect to shipping but I could be surprised.
}
} (1) JEOL 200B Transmission Electron Microscope in working condition (1974) with
} STEM attachment (1978).
}
} (2) Multiple stages including Be double-tilt stage by Gatan and heating stage
} by JEOL.
}
} (3) Technics Ion Mill, 1974 (works)
}
} (4) Gatan Duo Ion Mill with low voltage guns and cooling stage, 1983 (works)
}
} (5) Tracor Northern 2000 Multichannel analyser and detector 1978 (works)
}
} (6) LogEtronics enlarger 1974 (works)
}
} Contact me at the following address.
}
} Cheers,
} Gordon
}
}
} Gordon L. Nord Jr.
} 959 National Center
} U. S. Geological Survey
} Reston, VA 22092
}
} Office: 703-648-6745
} FAX: 703-648-6789
}
} gnord-at-mactem.er.usgs.gov
}
}




From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Mon, 12 Feb 1996 10:48:14 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: message with no text

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Dear All,
It seems that I inadvertantly posted a message to this news-
group with no text. Please ignore.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: Stephan Helfer :      S.Helfer-at-rbge.org.uk
Date: Mon, 12 Feb 1996 15:30:01 BST
Subject: histology techniques (for botany) etc.

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Dear Microscopists
Could anyone advise me on current developments in the embedding (wax
or otherwise) sectioning and staining of botanical specimens for
histological and anatomical examination. We have got as far as
Histoclear, but most other techniques seem to be more than fifty
years old [and working satisfactorily, I may add]. Some of the old
stains are fading though and we have to replace old slides, and this
might be an opportunity to apply any up to date technique.

Cheers

Stephan Helfer
Royal Botanic Garden
Edinburgh
Scotland UK




From: waheeschen-at-dow.com (Bill Heeschen 517-636-4005 Materials/ASL)
Date: Mon, 12 Feb 1996 12:07:38 -0500
Subject: Re: Multiple User Question

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Message-Id: {199602121708.AA28812-at-na2.dow.com}

I must echo Bob Craig's observations about "external" users. He could have
easily written that word-for-word as a fellow employee here. Our back-up
plan for extended use of high-demand instruments is to go to an informal
swing schedule. Fortunately we have not had to resort to that officially,
but most of our gang have a lot of "after hours" time logged. One method
we have utilized for increasing throughput on our "automated" instruments
is to dial in from home with Timbuktu and AppleTalk Remote Access to check
on progress. If something has gone amuck, we can either fix it remotely or
zip in to work, fix it and resume the experiment. It's not pleasant to
come in at midnight instead of going to bed, but our customer's anxiety
(hence ours!) is greatly diminished the next day.

Bill
==========================
Bill Heeschen/Analyt. Sci.- Mat. Char. -----
1897-F Building / The Dow Chemical Co. --- ---
Midland, MI 48667 U.S.A. --- D O W ---
phone: (517)636-4005 fax: (517)636-5453 --- ---
Email: waheeschen-at-dow.com -----
========================== R




From: Igor Polyakov :      Igor_Polyakov-at-qmgate.arc.nasa.gov
Date: 12 Feb 1996 11:28:50 -0800
Subject: Antibody to TRH

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Subject: Time:11:04 AM
OFFICE MEMO Antibody to TRH Date:2/12/96

Hello Everybody,
I am looking for antibody to Thyrotropin-releasing-hormone for
immunocytochemistry which will work on rat brain. Does anyone know where I can
get it?
I. Polyakov
NASA-Ames Research Center
FAX: (415)604-0046
Email:Igor_Polyakov-at-qmgate.arc.nasa.gov





From: Dave King 857-1248 T37/257-3C Ext DEKING-at-VNET.IBM.COM
Date: 12 Feb 1996 09:29:02 EST
Subject: Multiple SEM Users

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Alternate-Recipient: allowed
Auto-Forwarded: prohibited
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Conversion: allowed
Importance: normal
Priority: normal
Sensitivity: Company-Confidential
Microscopy ListServer {Microscopy-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com}
Message-Id: {960212081345.629-at-cliff.ml.wpafb.af.mil.0}

To: Microscopy ListSer {Microscopy-at-MSA.Microscopy.Com}


This has been a problem for us at times. The real issues are; the
ability of people to work together, and the cost of maintenance,
and keeping the instrument in top condition. We find it possible
to have up to about 3 operators, as long as they can work
together well. They also need to be in the same department (i.e.
financed together). Pride in the condition of the instrument and
the quality of results is critical.

There can be other issues, like job security. If allowing someone
access you are putting someone else out of work...........

When the machine breaks, whoever had their hand on it, must
immediately get it fixed. This works best when there's a service
contract.If there's an assigned technician, this may not be a
problem for you.

My overall impression is that the number of operators must be
limited to a couple who can work together well, and not quibble
over who did what.

{
} { {
} } ===========} Dave King { { {
} } } ------------------------------------------------------ { { { {




From: bozzola-at-siu.edu (John. J. Bozzola)
Date: Mon, 12 Feb 1996 17:03:43 -0600
Subject: ALL M: Detecting Fly Ash in River Sediment

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We have a researcher who wishes to determine if coal fly ash is present in
river water and river sediment. By LM I detect some "pearly" particulates
not present in control river sediment. Next step will be examination by
SEM.

My question: is there an established protocol for detecting and quantifying
fly ash in river water and sediment?

I will post any responses not sent to the server directly - unless
otherwise directed. Many thanks.

#############################################################################
John J. Bozzola, Ph.D., Director
Center for Electron Microscopy
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale, IL 62901-4402
U.S.A.
Phone: 618-453-3730
Fax: 618-453-2665
Email: bozzola-at-siu.edu
Web: http://www.siu.edu/departments/shops/cem.html
#############################################################################






From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Mon, 12 Feb 1996 10:38:32 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: MULTIPLE USERS ON THE SEM

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Message-ID: {199602122331.SAA16597-at-IndyNet.indy.net}
To: Richard Beanland +44 1327 356363 {richard.beanland-at-gecm.com} ,
Microscopy list {microscopy-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com}

[various snips]
} I'd like some input, opinions etc. on the pitfalls of having multiple
} operators on an SEM.
} Our company has
} recently hired a young PhD to do materials research in another department .
} He is pushing very hard to be allowed to use our SEM at night and on weekends.

He has to be trained very well to use the machine when no staff mem-
ber is around. It is much easier to have him use the SEM during the day, and
I would insist that he do so after training until you are absolutely satis-
fied that he is competant before allowing him to work without a net.

} He has 'used
} an SEM before' and doesn't see a problem in using ours. It has always
} been our practice to encourage researchers to come into the lab while
} their samples are being analyzed, but not to allow individuals to use the
} instrument themselves.

For our facility--a NIH biotech resource--we have several clas-
sifications for outside users, from novice, for whom the staff does every-
thing, to expert, who can use the instrument without supervision. We train
the user in many steps, the first being the basics for tilting and transla-
ting the specimen, focussing and taking a picture, then changing specimens,
later changing film, starting and shutting down the scope, etc. All this
takes several months for an in-house user, and longer for someone who visits
occasionally.

} This is currently the only SEM we have. It
} is used approximately 12 hours per day by myself and my staff. Quite
} often EDS analysis is carried out using computer control and stage
} automation overnight. However, management feels that if someone is
} willing to utilize the instrument in those few hours a week when it is
} not being used, they need to take advantage of that to receive a maximum
} benefit from the asset.

There is a large negative benefit if anything goes wrong; try to
impress management that a conservative approach is best.

} Anyway, I would appreciate any input both pro and con from the list
} regarding opening up an instrument to multiple infrequent users.

This will take a *lot* of your time. Good luck, you'll need it.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: Greg2NJ-at-aol.com
Date: Mon, 12 Feb 1996 19:54:57 -0500
Subject: Re: Image Processing Software

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Yes, there are various programs on the market. Depending on your budget, and
your need for continued support.
Probably the most ecconomic of the bunch is Image Pro Plus, soon to be
available using 32 bit, and windows 95.

The second PC based system, that I find very intuitive and has excellent
support is Kontron's KS 400 IA system. Kontron KS versions are distributed
and supported by Zeiss, Thornwood NY. The best person to contact is Uli
Kolhaaus, or Elise Shumpsy at Zeiss.

Gregory Argentieri
Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corp
East Hanover, NJ
201-503-8617




From: Marilee.Sellers-at-nau.edu
Date: Mon, 12 Feb 1996 15:14:18 -0700 (MST)
Subject: Embedding Problems

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Hello everyone,
I have been embedding pinon pine root tips for mycorrhiza research.
We are close to solving most of our problems but still seem to have some
left. And I was wondering if some fresh ideas may help.
Problem: Portions (it seemed to be mainly the cortical tissue) of
the root tip will not completely infiltrate and polymerize. The mantel
looks okey and central vascular area seems to embed okey. The cortical
cells seem to be our main source of infiltration problems. Some of the
samples float (even after hours or days in a vacuum). At first, we used
Spurrs resin with graded Etoh. We have not used acetone or propylene oxide
(yet).

Figuring we were not getting all the water out of the tissue nor
getting our resin into the tissue we have tried the following procedures:
1. Cut our root tip sample even smaller.
2. We obtained some Z-6040 which has been mentioned several times on this
list for helping to infiltrate impervious biological specimens. We used it
at 1% as advised by Virginia Lindley's article. But we also continued its
use in the LR White resin as recommended by Stacie Kirsch at EMS.
3. We found we had to extend our Abs. ETOH times to over night and several
days of changes of LR White. We switched to LR White as recommended in
Lindley's article.

At this point, we had some success, but still had some root tips
that wanted to float (even under vacuum). I have not worked with root tips
or mycorrhiza before, but I may be doing more in the future. Do we need to
use acetone or propylene oxide to remove all the water?

Thank-you for any comments or helpful suggestions. If you should
like respond to me at my local address, I shall summarize for the listserver.

Good day,
Marilee

Marilee Sellers
Manager, Electron Microscope Facility
Northern Arizona University
Flagstaff, AZ 86011
E-mail marilee.sellers-at-nau.edu





From: Bob Citron :      Bob_Citron-at-cc.chiron.com
Date: 2/9/96 5:05 PM
Subject: Critical Point Drying

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I am searching for the most comprehensive articles about critical point
drying techniques. All suggestions are appreciated.

Any problems with going directly from ethanol into carbon dioxide or is
amyl acetate useful in between? My specimens look OK using just ethanol.

Also: I am experiencing a run of failing (most often between 400 and 800
psi) front window Dowty seals on my drying unit even if I do only 'dry'
(carbon dioxide only) test runs. Is anyone else having this problem? This
device has been operating for 17 years with few leaks. All sealing surfaces
are smooth and clean.

Thank you in advance.

Jim Romanow
Electron Microscopy Facility
Physiology and Neurobiogy Department
The University Of Connecticut
Storrs
bsgphy3-at-uconnvm.uconn.edu







From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
Date: Mon, 12 Feb 1996 15:54:21 -0600
Subject: Staining problem & static

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Message-Id: {199602122054.OAA28915-at-watson.bcm.tmc.edu}
X-Sender: joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
X-Mailer: Windows Eudora Version 2.1.1
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Thanks, Gib, for your message.

"....that some stray electrostatic charges floating around on these low
humidity winter days can precipitate beautiful hex lead crystals just
doesn't click for me...."

As I had said before, I also don't think that static charges would cause
inappropriate stain precipitation, but then as you can see from the response
on the listserver, a lot of people have experienced this problem and the
cause(es) have not been determined. At this point I am willing to try
anything and the suggestion didn't seem unreasonable.
***********************

"....I say chuck the whole damn works and switch to the Ted Pella "Grid
Stick" kit to do your uranium and lead staining...."

We have tried Pella's Grid Stick. However that procedure washes the sections
off of our grids. Our type of work necessitates the use of large sections
and 200 mesh "Super Grids" (grids with very thin grid bars). The use of
these grids results in much reduced area of contact between grid and
section, and the sections just do not adhere to the grids well. Now, if you
have any suggestions as to how we can get the sections to stick to the grids
better, I would appreciate them very much. Then perhaps we could institute a
more vigerous wash.
***********************

"....For lead, I use the Sato triple lead stain, not straight Reynold's lead
citrate...."

I do know of the Sato tripple lead stain, but would appreciate the
reference, if you have it handy. We have tried both the Reynold's recipe as
well as the recipe from Dr. Chandler Fulton. I don't have that reference.
However nothing could be simpler. To 10 ml of decarbonated, distilled water
you just add 0.02 gm lead citrate powder (EMS cat no. 17800), followed by
0.1 ml of 10N NaOH. This stain worked very well for me throughout my
graduate school experience.


Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D.

Director, Electron Microscopy tel.: (713)798-4658
Department of Pathology, Rm.286-A FAX: (713)798-3945
Baylor College of Medicine Internet: joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu
One Baylor Plaza Compuserve: 71555,1206
Houston, Texas 77030 U.S.A.






From: Bob Citron :      Bob_Citron-at-cc.chiron.com
Date: 2/9/96 8:07 PM
Subject: MULTIPLE USERS ON THE SEM

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I'd like some input, opinions etc. on the pitfalls of having multiple
operators on an SEM. My situation is that I am part of a materials
analysis group that provides analytical services to corporate
technology. Our group consists of a number of engineers and technicians
with expertise in a variety of analytical areas. Our company has
recently hired a young PhD to do materials research in another department .
He is pushing very hard to be allowed to use our SEM at night and on weekends.
He has 'used
an SEM before' and doesn't see a problem in using ours. It has always
been our practice to encourage researchers to come into the lab while
their samples are being analyzed, but not to allow individuals to use the
instrument themselves. I believe that the analysis is done more effectively
by individuals whose expertise is in that area. However, management
appears to be leaning towards changing the rules for this individual, and
having me train him on the instrument.

We have a four year old JEOL 6400 instrument with a Link eXL analyzer,
UTW detector, complete stage automation. We also have a computer system
attached for collecting digital images, we do not use polaroid film.
While this individual has used and SEM he has not used either a JEOL or
LINK system before. I feel that training would be extensive. This is currently
the only SEM we have. It
is used approximately 12 hours per day by myself and my staff. Quite
often EDS analysis is carried out using computer control and stage
automation overnight. However, management feels that if someone is
willing to utilize the instrument in those few hours a week when it is
not being used, they need to take advantage of that to receive a maximum
benefit from the asset.

Several years ago we had two older SEMS and due to 'corporate
downsizing', we had only one operator. At them time I trained
approximately 2 dozen engineers who desired to use the 'extra' SEM on
their own. We disposed of the instrument about a year ago when it had
not been touched for almost a year. The time I spent in training
all of those individuals was probably greater than the time they as
a group spent using the instrument. Hindsight being perfect I wish we had
kept the old instrument!

Anyway, I would appreciate any input both pro and con from the list
regarding opening up an instrument to multiple infrequent users.





From: cgarri-at-mastnet.net (Craig Garrison)
Date: Mon, 12 Feb 1996 22:21:13 -0600
Subject: Multiple SEM Users

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A different perspective:

In a commercial organization, an instrument is a resource for all. The
question can not be is a person allowed to use a resource because they
are or are not a member of a particular work group. The question must
be how do we maximize productivity. Working within this framework, here
are two observations to balance:

It is typically counter-productive to have relatively inexperienced users
operate instruments which are either finicky or complex.

It is typically counter-productive to have expert users repeatedly perform
a relatively simple analysis.

Now for the reduction to practice. We have trained researchers from a
variety of groups to use our microscopes, OM, SEM, and TEM. This has
included training an inexperienced researcher on a FEG-SEM. We have never
had a mishap which cost us more than a few hours of instrument time. The
OM and SEM training has benefited productivity. However, TEM training has
been another story. Inexperienced researchers were repeatedly retrained,
resulting in an inefficient use of expert personnel.

Good luck to all,

Craig Garrison
The Dow Chemical Company
Bldg. B-1225
2301 N. Brazosport Blvd.
Freeport, TX 77541





From: petford-at-vax.ox.ac.uk
Date: Tue, 13 Feb 1996 09:23:25 +0000
Subject: TEM postdoc position

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I am looking for a postdoctoral researcher to fill the following post. Please
could any interested parties contact me directly.

Thankyou, Amanda Petford-Long.

*************************************************************
Advertisement for postdoctoral research post in the Department of
Materials, University of Oxford, UK funded by Hewlett-Packard.

A post is available, in the first instance for 1 year, to study layered films
for magnetoresistive read head applications. This will form part of an ongoing
collaboration with Hewlett-Packard Laboratories in Palo Alto, involving both
experimentalists and modellers within the Department of Materials.

The research will involve the characterisation of the microstructure and
magnetic domain structure, by electron optical techniques, of films grown at
HPL by sputter deposition. The films under investigation will be spin-valve
structures, and the interest lies in the role of microstructure on giant
magnetoresistance and magnetic properties. The microstructure of the films will
be analysed using high resolution electron microscopy, and we have already had
some considerable success in quantifying the nature of the interfaces between
the layers in the spin valve using imaging processing techniques on HREM
images, and would hope that this work could be continued. The magnetic domain
structure of the films will be studied using our extensive Lorentz transmission
electron microscopy facilities. These include facilities for in situ
magnetising and heating, and also for the collection of quantitat- ive
magnetisation maps. Some experience in electron microscopy (preferably HREM) is
therefore essential.

The post is fully funded by HPL on a rolling grant basis, so that further
funding after the 1 year period is extremely likely but cannot be guaranteed at
this time.

The post is available from 1st July 1996 and will be on the University salary
scale GBP14,317 - 21,511 p.a.

Interested applicants should submit their applications, including a curriculum
vitae and the names and addresses of two referees to the Administrator,
Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH, UK. Please quote ref.
AKPL. The University is an Equal Opportunities employer.

For informal queries please contact Dr Amanda Petford-Long in the Department of
Materials. e-mail address: amanda.petford-long-at-materials.ox.ac.uk




From: nano-at-ns1.LIHTI.ORG (Nanoprobes Inc.)
Date: Tue, 13 Feb 1996 07:34:05 -0500
Subject: Re: antibody to thyrotropin-releasing hormone

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Message-Id: {199602131232.HAA18482-at-lihti.org}
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Dear Dr. Polyakov:

Polyclonal antibodies to thyrotropin-releasing hormone are sold by:

AMERICAN RESEARCH PRODUCTS
489 Common Street
Belmont, MA 02178

Tel: (800) 832-2611, (617) 489-1120
Fax: (617) 489-5120

(Probably the best since it supplies them as IgG rather than serum).

A number of companies supply this antibody as serum, including

ACCURATE CHEMICAL AND SCIENTIFIC CO.
300 Shames Drive,
Westbury, NY 11590.

Tel: (800) 645-6264, (516) 333-2221, (619) 235-9400 (West Coast)
Fax: (516) 997-4948

(They also supply antibody to the free acid).

Others you might try:Arnel Products Company (Tel. 212-620-4622), Biogenesis
Ltd. (Tel. 603-887-4600, Email biogenesis-at-ltd.co.uk), Chemicon
International (Tel. 800-437-7500), Eurodiagnostics Lab (Sweden, fax
46-409231000), Cappel-Organon Technica (Tel. 800-523-7620) and UCB
Bioproducts (carried by Accurate Chemical and Scientific Corp, see above).

All these were raised in rabbit, so they should work on rat brain, although
I havn't tried any.


This is from the 1996 Lindscott's Directory of Immunological and Biological
reagents (Order from Lindscott's Directory, 4877 Grange Road, Santa Rosa,
CA 95404; phone (707) 544-9555, Fax (415) 389-6025), one of the best places
to start looking for this kind of information.

Richard D. Powell
*************************************************************
NANOPROBES, Incorporated
25 East Loop Road, Suite 124, Stony Brook, NY 11790-3350, USA
http://www.lihti.org/research/ecodev/incubten/nano/home.html






From: RMacKay :      RMACKAY-at-AC.DAL.CA
Date: Tue, 13 Feb 1996 10:06:14 +0000
Subject: Multiple Users

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Message-Id: {199602131409.KAA17548-at-Snoopy.UCIS.Dal.Ca}
Comments: Authenticated sender is {RMACKAY-at-ac.dal.ca}

RE: Multiple Users

Dear Bonnie,

We have operated a JEOL 733 electron microprobe ( presently with
a Link eXL system ) for the past 11 years, and prior to that a
Mark V. Our policy has always been to allow multiple users including
graduate and undergraduate students. In 25 years we have had only
one bad experience.

Best Regards,

Bob MacKay
Robert MacKay
Department of Earth Sciences
Dalhousie University
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
B3H 3J5
Tel: 902 494-7087
e-mail rmackay-at-ac.dal.ca




From: Marilee.Sellers-at-nau.edu
Date: Tue, 13 Feb 1996 09:45:31 -0700 (MST)
Subject: Re: Embedding problems

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} Marilee, A microwave protocol is especially well suited for your work. I
} recommend checking the recent article by Giberson RT, Demaree RS, Jr.
Microwave
} fixation: understanding the variables to achieve rapid reproducible results.
} Microsc Res Tech 1995;32: 246-54.
}
} Gary R. Login, Beth Israel Hospital, Pathology
} 617-667-2034; glogin-at-bih.harvard.edu

Gary, This is one alternative I hadn't even considered. Thank-you. I do
not have a research microwave. But will see if ours would do. Marilee

Marilee Sellers
Manager, Electron Microscope Facility
Northern Arizona University
Flagstaff, AZ 86011
E-mail marilee.sellers-at-nau.edu





From: ldm2-at-apollo.numis.nwu.edu (L.D.Marks)
Date: Tue, 13 Feb 1996 12:24:53 -0600
Subject: Ion Beam Damage

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I have a question which maybe someone can answer. Assuming
constant angle during ion-beam thinning, which of these two leads to
less nett damage (point defects etc) within a sample, assuming that
both remove the same amount of material:
a) A longer time at low energy
b) A shorter time at higher energy
?




From: ln-at-noesisvision.com (Luc Nocente)
Date: Tue, 13 Feb 1996 12:45:39 -0500
Subject: Re: Image PRocessing Software

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You can also try Visilog from Noesis Vision Inc. It provides the widest
selection of algorithms on the market along with an easy to use GUI and
macro language. We are soon coming out with a 32 bit version on both Unix
and Windows NT. You can contact me for more information.
Luc Nocente Tel: 514 345 1400
Noesis Vision Inc. Fax: 514 345 1575
e-mail: ln-at-noesisvision.com http://www.cam.org/~noesis
6800 Cote de Liesse, Suite 200
St-Laurent, PQ
H4T 2A7,Canada





From: Marilee.Sellers-at-nau.edu
Date: Tue, 13 Feb 1996 09:40:43 -0700 (MST)
Subject: Embedding Problems

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} Marilee,
}
} A year or so ago, we were working on a similar sounding project looking
} at mycorrhizal associations in pine roots (different pine). We were
} interested mainly in the composition of some inclusions but prepared material
} for general morphology too. We used a "standard glut/Fa" primary fix and an Os
} tet secondary followed by acetone dehydration and embedment in Spurr'Us or
} our own variant thereof (VCD and Quetol). We had no problem with infiltration
} or sectioning.
}
} Here's my twenty questions:
}
} 1. Do you use vacuum during fixation? I generally bounce the tissue
} during primary fixation by cycling the vacuum until the tissue stays
} submerged up to the boiling pressure of the fixative.

We have not used vacuum during fixation. Most of the time the tissue did
not float until after the Abs. Etoh. We shall include this.

} 2. Did you try to embed any of the floating material? I generally don't
} try to embed "floaters". My thinking is that if they have enough air in them
} to float after Os tet density increase, they've got too much air for good
} transfer of any thing into or out of the tissue.

We did embed some floaters. And they were poorly infiltrated.

} 3. When do you notice the problem in infiltration? i.e. during
} sectioning, or after observation. I've had occasional problems with LR white
} bonding to cell walls. Usually we can get enough to hold still for a picture
} if we carbon coat them after labeling and staining and before viewing. The
} stuff is supposed to be able to handle some water as an impurity, but I'm not
} sure I believe it.
} 4. What kind of knife do you use? I used glass since our root samples came
} from the real world and had entrained some sand as well as air. If yours don't
} have anything hard in them (or you'Uve got lots of money;-)) might use a
} diamond if youUre ot now. I cut a lot of hydroponically grown roots for class
} and generally get O.K. sections in regular resin with my diamond knife. Even
} they hydroponically grown tips have considerable exhaustible air in them.

We notice the problems immediately upon sectioning. These root tips are
from sandy soil, and the tips are cleaned as much as possible before
processing. As a precaution, we use glass knives to cut them.

} John Heckman
} TEM supervisor
} Center for Electron Optics
} Michigan State UniversityMarilee,
}
} heckman-at-pilot.msu.edu

Thank-you John. We will be incorporating your suggestions.
Marilee
Marilee Sellers
Manager, Electron Microscope Facility
Northern Arizona University
Flagstaff, AZ 86011
E-mail marilee.sellers-at-nau.edu





From: Bruce Cutler :      BCutler-at-eureka.chem.ukans.edu
Date: Tue, 13 Feb 1996 16:06:17 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: Multiple users

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View From A University Central Service Microscopy Lab

As the Director (and only employee) in a lab with a TEM, SEM,
confocal, imaging equipment, photographic darkroom, and the
usual ancillary equipment, and no service contracts, I could not
function if I had to do everything for users.
Ninety percent plus of my users operate the equipment
themselves. However, less than 5 users are 100% qualified to operate
the EM's when I am not present. I insert and remove specimens, and
for the TEM, process the negatives. Obviously, users undergo training,
and during training one can pick up cues as to the user's future
behavior. Our equipment is very user friendly, and that makes a big
difference.
Obviously in industry where down time is unacceptable, this approach
would not work.
Bruce Cutler, Microscopy Lab, Univ. Kansas, Lawrence







From: images1-at-biosci.mbp.missouri.edu (Michael Stanley)
Date: Tue, 13 Feb 1996 16:28:51 -0600
Subject: calcium on suspension cells

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Message-Id: {v01510101ad46bddb174e-at-[128.206.15.185]}
Mime-Version: 1.0
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Hello All,

We have a couple of users who want to look at calcium and/or pH changes on
suspension cells (culture cells). Does anyone know of specific tricks for
trying to stabilize single/suspension cells in a perfusion chamber. We
would like to follow a single/small group of cells throughout treatment
with different agents. We have tried both charged and coated coverslips
(silane and gelatin) without sucess. Any and all help would be greatly
appreciated.

TIA,

C. Michael Stanley, Ph.D.
Coordinator, Associate Director
Molecular Cytology Core Facility
Molecular Biology Program
2 Tucker Hall
University of Missouri-Columbia
Columbia, MO. 65211
(314) 882-4895
fax= 314-882-0123






From: William Tivol :      tivol-at-wadsworth.org
Date: Tue, 13 Feb 1996 16:56:00 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Database Posting

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} The silicon 'dead layer' in a detector is a mathematical concept to
} describe a region in the detector of reduced sensitivity to the incoming
} x-rays (the Glasgow people coined a term for this which now eludes me).
} The 'dead layer' varies with the detector bias, and cannot be measured
} directly - it is possible only to deduce it from experiments fitting
} measured bremsstrahlung shapes to theoretical predictions.

Dear Tony,
The dead layer of a Si detector can, indeed, be measured experi-
mentally--at least in principle. Using an alpha source, measure the
energies when the alphas are incident on the detector both normal to
its face and at another angle for which the alphas still penetrate the
dead layer. From these measurements the thickness of the dead layer
(plus the gold) can be determined--at a number of bias voltages if
desired. Personally, I'd never subject my detector to this measure-
ment, but it is possible. We used to do this all the time for detec-
tors when I was in grad school.
Yours,
Bill Tivol




From: MelanieOwl-at-aol.com
Date: Tue, 13 Feb 1996 22:49:26 -0500
Subject: Re: MULTIPLE USERS ON THE SEM

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This is an interesting problem. I have had to train other users to use my
SEM, but have always found it to be a waste, since they didn't use it enough
to remember the training. I had to go over things each time they wanted to
use it.

However, if you are forced to let this person use the SEM, here are some
guidelines.
Mark the saturation point clearly, and make it a rule to not go past that
mark.
Have a log book handy for the part time user to record any 'unusual'
occurences in operation, or to write questions down.
Have an emergency number to call for help. (I know this is a pain for you,
but could save on instrument downtime and repair costs.)

That's all I could think of right now, but I hope it helps.

Regards,
Melanie Behrens
Senior Chemist
Texaco, Inc.
Beacon, NY
behrema -at- Texaco.com




From: Brett W. Cockman :      bcockman-at-uniwa.uwa.edu.au
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 13:50:12 +0700 (WAST)
Subject: Fax No. needed

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X-NUPop-Charset: English

Hello all,
I need to obtain the address and fax number of 'Triarch Slides' in Wisconsin, USA if
they are still in business.
Any help would be appreciated.
Regards,

Brett Cockman



----------------------------------------------------------------------------




From: CHAFFEYN :      NIGEL.CHAFFEY-at-bbsrc.ac.uk
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 10:27:45 +0000
Subject: toluidine blue-quenching: a thank you

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Notification Requested) (IPM Return Requested)

Dear All,

Many thanks to all those who responded to my query re mode of action of
toluidine blue in quenching autofluorescence, particularly Bill Tivol and
Bridget Southwell who gave an answer that I can trot out if ever asked again!
In response to those who requested further details of the way I use
tol. blue: it is applied as a 0.01% (w/v) solution made up in
phosphate-buffered saline (pH nominally 7.3 - 7.6) to the sections (I routinely
use 6 um thick methacrylate-embedded Aesculus hippocastanum root sections).
Leave the stain to impart a 'light-blue' colour to the sections, ie, let them
'just stain', that takes about 90 sec with my tissue. Sections then mounted in
anti-fade mountant and viewed - stored if necessary in a fridge (at c. 4 C).
[Sections having been processed for visualisation of tubulin using FITC-linked
secondary antibody, and usually stained with DAPI prior to tol. blue-quenching]
"It works for me"...
I do not know if tol. blue itself fluoresces under some excitation
wavelengths, but it does reduce some of the background/native autofluorescence
present in my tissue (for Sally Stowe).
The reference I have used for this procedure is Baluska, F, Parker,
JS, Barlow, PW, 1992. Specific patterns of cortical and endoplasmic
microtubules associated with cell growth and tissue differentiation in roots of
maize (Zea mays L.). J. Cell Sci. 103, 191-200. Of course, if anybody can
provide an earlier (more definitive?) reference to its first use, I would be
grateful.
Hope the above is useful,

With best regards,

Nigel Chaffey [eMail: nigel.chaffey&bbsrc.ac.uk]




From: Stanley L Flegler :      flegler-at-pilot.msu.edu
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 09:55:05 -0500 (EST)
Subject: LM needed

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I'm posting this request for a friend that needs to buy a light microscope. He
specifically is looking for a microscope with a large stage that will allow a
long working distance for using a micromanipulator. Does anyone have a used
microscope that they want to sell? Also, does anyone know the address or
telephone number of equipment brokers that might have light microscopes? If
so, please respond to Irv Widders, Michigan State University, E-mail
22457iew-at-msu.edu




From: Ciara Mullan :      mullanc-at-mcmail.cis.mcmaster.ca
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 09:53:30 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Ion Beam Damage

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I have found that (a), a longer time at low energy, is
better for my samples- III-V semiconductors.

Ciara

On Tue, 13 Feb 1996, L.D.Marks wrote:

} I have a question which maybe someone can answer. Assuming
} constant angle during ion-beam thinning, which of these two leads to
} less nett damage (point defects etc) within a sample, assuming that
} both remove the same amount of material:
} a) A longer time at low energy
} b) A shorter time at higher energy
} ?
}




From: george.braybrook-at-ualberta.ca (George Braybrook)
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 08:21:24 -0700
Subject: Re: MULTIPLE USERS ON THE SEM

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Hi Bonnie,
One point that everyone seems to have missed on this subject of
multiple users is output quality. There is no substitute for the skill
gained with experience.
We tried running two SEM's in our lab, and found the overall
quality of the images produced by our "trained" multiple users was not as
good as the images produced by an experienced technician.

Cheers
:)
George
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E3
Canada
ph: 403-492-5746
fax: 403-492-2030






From: cvierret-at-misn.com
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 08:23:48 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Multi-User for SEM etc.

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There has been alot of comments on the matter of multi-user of and SEM. I
have been on both sides of that fence. I operated and SEM for years at the
Bureau of Mines until I took a research position. With my position I had the
need for SEM work. This I was able to do most by myself. I am now with a
company that does not have an SEM so I have to use the one at the university.
While I was the operator I was very choosey about who could use it. Only a
hand full of people asked to use it and when I started the training they
decided it was to much to remember and that I should do it because they did
not have the time to do it correctly. Now that I use someoneelses I am very
carful to follow all the instructions, I want to be able to come back. I also
felt very uncomfortable the first few times I was left alone with this
instrument, now I am familiar with it and use it much more. I guess what I am
trying to say is some people have no idea about an instrument and are hot shot
scientist, newly graduated PhD's and others. These are people to be aware of.
Multi-users are okay depending on the type of business you are in and the
personnal. I thought an opion from the other side should be expressesd.

Clarissa Vierrether
Analytical Development Chemist
The Doe Run Company
P.O. Box 500
Viburnum, MO 65566
1-573-244-8109




From: JOY-at-UTKVX.UTCC.UTK.EDU (DAVID JOY)
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 10:08:39 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Dead Layers in EDS detectors

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Message-Id: {199602141833.MAA06269-at-Sparc5.Microscopy.Com}

As Tony Garratt-Reed pointed out the 'dead layer' in an EDS detector is an
unfortunately chosen name. As first shown by Goulding (Nucl.Instrum. and Methods
142, 213, 1977) the 'dead layer' is simply the region over which drift anf
diffusion approximately cancel each other. The behavior of this region is
crucial when good resolution at low energy ( {2keV) is required. The MAS
Fiori Memorial volume "Xray Microanalysis in Electron Beam Instruments"
published by PLENUM contains two papers which discuss this in detail, and
also contain a bibliography of relevant references - one

Joy DC, "Modeling the Energy Dispersive X-ray detector", in "Xray
Spectrometry in Electron Beam Instruments", ed D B Williams, J I Goldstein
and D E Newbury, (Plenum Press:New York), 53-64, (1995)

which discusses a Monte Carlo simulation of this type of effect, and a second by
Jon McCarthy of NORAN which examines the practical implications of 'dead
layer' behavior. The dead layer can be estimated in several quite convenient
ways, including spectral measurements, matching to simulation ot, best of
all, by an electron beam measurement described in

Joy D C, "The EDS Detector - A Quantitative Model", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56,
p1772-1779, 1985


As an interesting aside note that the dead layer in silicon at room
temperature is only 700 angstroms or so compared to 2800 A or more at
liquid nitrogen
temperatures

David Joy EM Facility, University of Tennessee





From: ychen-at-MACC.WISC.EDU
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 12:57:39 -0600
Subject: Re: MULTIPLE USERS ON THE SEM

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} I'd like some input, opinions etc. on the pitfalls of having multiple
} operators on an SEM.

Bonnie,

The Integrated Microscopy Resource (IMR) is an NIH biomedical research
technology resource. We have a Hitachi S-900 FESEM with cryo-capability and
a YAG backscatter detector. As one of the few microscopy facilities open
for biologists, the novel instruments at the IMR are made available to
users world wide for biomedical research projects. Our user base consists
of senior investigators, post-docs, and graduate students.

As an NIH resource, the use of instruments is reserved for medical research
projects that require the specialized aspects of the available instruments.
Our SEM usage policy consists of three levels of approval: basic use,
backscatter detector use, and cryo-stage use. I provide user training and
supervise the use of the SEM for the first 20 hours. After this time,
approved users may be upgraded to unsupervised users who are permitted to
work independently after hours. Facility keys (either short or long term)
are available for unsupervised users. For this system to work it is
critical to give each user comprehensive instructions on use of the
equipment, to establish clear rules with regard to general use of the
facility, and most importantly to have an individual with the authority to
monitor and enforce these rules.

Our open use policy has been in place for 9 years with the SEM and 25 years
at our facility. Project approval and user training prior to equipment
usage has resulted in much success and very few problems. When problems
have arisen the solution has been for me to re-train the user and continue
to supervise them for longer time.

Hope this information answers your question.




Ya Chen

=========================================================================
\ / Assistant Researcher, Cryo/SEM Coordinator TEL : 608-263-8481
\ / __ Integrated Microscopy Resource (IMR) FAX : 608-265-4076
\/ / / University of Wisconsin-Madison
/ / / 1675 Observatory Drive #167 Email:YChen-at-macc.wisc.edu
/ /__/_ Madison, WI 53706 Email:chen-at-calshp.cals.wisc.edu

IMR WWW Home Page: http://www.bocklabs.wisc.edu/imr/imr.html
IMR Symposium on integrated microscopy '96: Sept. 20-22, 1996
=========================================================================






From: dan-at-isrv.com (Dan Focht)
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 18:30:02 -0500
Subject: unsubscribe

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unsubscribe

Daniel Focht
Bioptechs, Inc.
3560 Beck Road
Butler, PA 16001
dan-at-bioptechs.com
Web page for Live-Cell Microscopy products
http://www.bioptechs.com






From: bozzola-at-siu.edu (John. J. Bozzola)
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 17:48:30 -0600
Subject: EM: Calicivirus info

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Anyone have any good references re: Calicivirus? Especially interested in
classical virilogical studies (morphology, chemical characterization,
pathology, vectors, control measures) and current press releases on the
"epidemic" in Australia. Many thanks.


#############################################################################
John J. Bozzola, Ph.D., Director
Center for Electron Microscopy
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale, IL 62901-4402
U.S.A.
Phone: 618-453-3730
Fax: 618-453-2665
Email: bozzola-at-siu.edu
Web: http://www.siu.edu/departments/shops/cem.html
#############################################################################






From: DrJTS2-at-aol.com
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 20:00:51 -0500
Subject: Subscribe

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subscribe drjts2-at-aol.com




From: Mark Wall :      Mark.Wall-at-quickmail.llnl.gov
Date: 14 Feb 1996 16:13:18 -0800
Subject: Mark Wall

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Message-ID: {n1387807448.72267-at-quickmail.llnl.gov}

Is it ok to post a call for papers/abstracts/exhibits on this microscopy
listing?

Mark A. Wall
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
L-350
7000 East Ave
Livermore, CA 94550
510-423-7162





From: Brett W. Cockman :      bcockman-at-uniwa.uwa.edu.au
Date: Thu, 15 Feb 1996 09:28:10 +0700 (WAST)
Subject: Re: Triarch contact details

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X-NUPop-Charset: English

Hello all,
Thank you to all who contributed info on Triarch. If anybody knows of other
competitively priced prepared slide manufacturers I would appreciate their
contact details also.
Regards,

Brett Cockman




From: Greg :      greg-at-umic.umic.sunysb.edu
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 17:18:10 EST5DST
Subject: Digitizing SEM images

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Hi Everyone,
I have a JEOL 5300 SEM to which a beam controlled image
acquistion system has been added. Images are acquired at
640x512 by frame averaging. It takes 1min 20sec. to
collect five frames. This is about the same time it takes
to do a Polaroid.
Here is the problem. At magnifications above 5000x the
images are fuzzy due to some kind of drift. At lower mags
the drift is not noticeable. Polaroids do not show the
drift. The drift rate is 100-500u per five minutes. I
have the SEM manufarturer working on this too. So far I
have not gotten acceptable results
Now for the questions. Has anyone had this problem on
other image acquisition systems? Am I trying to do
something that can't be done due to drift that all SEMs
have to some degree?
Thanks for your answers in advance.

Gregory Rudomen
Greg-at-umic.umic.sunysb.edu
University Microscopy Imaging Center
S.U.N.Y. at Stony Brook





From: caron-at-lisa.polymtl.ca (Mario Caron)
Date: Tue, 13 Feb 1996 23:25:47 -0500
Subject: SEM-Voltage contrast and EBIC

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I am looking for good references whose discuss about the experimental setup
(hardware, specimen preparation, experimental conditions, bias etc.) for
voltage contrast and EBIC experiments.
I am particularly involved in the fabrication of III-V high-speed devices
for signal capture (CCD and Sample&Hold).

Mario


*******************************************************
Mario Caron, M.Sc.A. ing.
Research assistant
Engineering Physics dept
Laboratory for the Integration of Sensors and Actuators
Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal
C.P. 6079, succ. `centre-ville`
Montreal, Quebec
H3C 3A7
http://lisa.polymtl.ca





From: James S MArtin :      James.S.Martin-at-williams.edu (by way of zaluzec-at-Microscopy.Com (Nestor J. Zaluzec))
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 23:25:18 -0600
Subject: Thanks for SEM-EDS info

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Thank you to all who provided information on SEM-EDS services in and
around western Massachusetts.

James Martin







From: K. M. Anisur Rahman :      anis-at-execpc.com (by way of zaluzec-at-Microscopy.Com (Nestor J. Zaluzec))
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 23:25:29 -0600
Subject: Does tin-oxide dissolve in Acetone?

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Hi,
Can anybody let me know if SnO2 and Sb2O5 would dissolve in
Acetone at about 100=B0C? Many thanks,

-Anis.







From: Joiner Cartwright, Jr., Ph.D. :      joiner-at-bcm.tmc.edu (by way of zaluzec-at-Microscopy.Com (Nestor J. Zaluzec))
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 23:25:39 -0600
Subject: Re: Re[2]: Staining Problems & static

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At 10:17 AM 2/8/96 EST, you wrote:

".....to form yellow, iridescent hexagonal prisms of lead iodide....."

I stained one grid with our lead stain alone, and another with our uranyl
acetate stain alone. The lead stained grid had the hexagonal deposits and
the other did not. So it's not the uranyl acetate. It's interesting that
lead iodide forms hexagonal crystals.
*******************

".....Perhaps these are your crystals - a bit of a long shot since you did
not mention iodine in our elemental analysis of the crystals...."

No, there is no iodine in either of our stains, or any of the sample
preparation steps; and I did not get an iodine peak with the microprobe.
*******************


I have borrowed an anti static gun like the Zerostatic Eliminator that you
suggest. We are in the process of trying it out. At least the grids don't
jump up and cling to the lid of the plastic petri dish any more.


* * Joiner Cartwright, Jr. * *








From: Bonnie Davis - Kennametal Inc. :      bld_kmt-at-prlc.org (by way of zaluzec-at-Microscopy.Com (Nestor J. Zaluzec))
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 23:26:11 -0600
Subject: MULTIPLE USERS ON THE SEM

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I'd like some input, opinions etc. on the pitfalls of having multiple
operators on an SEM. My situation is that I am part of a materials
analysis group that provides analytical services to corporate
technology. Our group consists of a number of engineers and technicians
with expertise in a variety of analytical areas. Our company has
recently hired a young PhD to do materials research in another department .
He is pushing very hard to be allowed to use our SEM at night and on
weekends. He has 'used
an SEM before' and doesn't see a problem in using ours. It has always
been our practice to encourage researchers to come into the lab while
their samples are being analyzed, but not to allow individuals to use the
instrument themselves. I believe that the analysis is done more effectively
by individuals whose expertise is in that area. However, management
appears to be leaning towards changing the rules for this individual, and
having me train him on the instrument.

We have a four year old JEOL 6400 instrument with a Link eXL analyzer,
UTW detector, complete stage automation. We also have a computer system
attached for collecting digital images, we do not use polaroid film.
While this individual has used and SEM he has not used either a JEOL or
LINK system before. I feel that training would be extensive. This is
currently the only SEM we have. It
is used approximately 12 hours per day by myself and my staff. Quite
often EDS analysis is carried out using computer control and stage
automation overnight. However, management feels that if someone is
willing to utilize the instrument in those few hours a week when it is
not being used, they need to take advantage of that to receive a maximum
benefit from the asset.

Several years ago we had two older SEMS and due to 'corporate
downsizing', we had only one operator. At them time I trained
approximately 2 dozen engineers who desired to use the 'extra' SEM on
their own. We disposed of the instrument about a year ago when it had
not been touched for almost a year. The time I spent in training
all of those individuals was probably greater than the time they as
a group spent using the instrument. Hindsight being perfect I wish we had
kept the old instrument!

Anyway, I would appreciate any input both pro and con from the list
regarding opening up an instrument to multiple infrequent users.







From: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu (Greg Erdos) (by way of zaluzec-at-Microscopy.Com (Nestor J. Zaluzec))
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 23:26:16 -0600
Subject: Re: PolyCutEase or SureCut Plastic additives

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} } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } }

These things help a great deal when using a glass knife. We use lecithin in
the epoxy accelerator . ( use eual weight of lecithin and accelerator, then
double the volume for use) A glass knife will last a long time if you
have it in the resin. It was a great help to students just learning to
section, They could get usable stuff the first day at the microtome. It
can give a blotchy look to empty resin areas or those that have little
density, but most tissues are "busy " enough that you never notice it. See
Mollenhauer , 1986, J. EM Tech 3:217-222
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-
Greg Erdos Phone: 352-392-1295
Scientific Director,
ICBR Electron Microscopy Core Lab
218 Carr Hall Fax: 352-846-0251
University of Florida E-mail: gwe-at-biotech.ufl.edu
Gainesville, FL 32611
-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-








From: mager-at-unixg.ubc.ca (Mary Mager) (by way of zaluzec-at-Microscopy.Com (Nestor J. Zaluzec))
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 23:26:34 -0600
Subject: Re: MULTIPLE USERS ON THE SEM

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} I'd like some input, opinions etc. on the pitfalls of having multiple
} operators on an SEM.

Dear Bonnie,
I run a Materials Engineering EM lab at the University of British
Columbia, with two SEMs and a TEM. Most of the researchers who use the
instruments are graduate students and Research Engineers. I have always
encouraged these people to do their own research on the SEMs, as much as
possible, since only they know exactly what they want and that way one me
can keep three instruments optimally used. After I show them how to use the
SEM, I watch and encourage them to ask me for further instruction for
picture taking, higher mag, etc. Some people, who have a lot of work to do,
may gain my permission to use the SEM after hours, but only after I feel
they have gained a lot of experience during working hours, when I am there
to supervise, and only after I have instructed them on how to properly shut
down and what to do in the event of problems. I also purchased the
instruments originally with ease-of-use in mind. They are fully automatic
and easy to get good results on.
I must feel that the person has a good understanding of the important
issues and knows how to properly handle the instrument. Mind you, I don't
have a field emission SEM. I have had damage, but only once in 15 years and
it could have happened in normal hours.. It also helps to scare them, be
"the ogre of the EM lab". Mind you, we are a teaching lab, so the learning
is as important as the doing.
I know many EM operators do not like the idea of letting any ham-fisted
graduate student or engineer loose on their instrument, but modern SEMs
really can be operated by any intelligent being.
So long as you satisfy yourself as to this person's knowledge,
experience and caring, I'd see no harm.
Hope this helps.

Regards,
Mary

Mary Mager
Electron Microscopist
Metals and Materials Eng, UBC
309 - 6350 Stores Rd.
Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4
CANADA
tel: 604-822-5648, fax: 604-822-3619
email: mager-at-unixg.ubc.ca









From: Glenn Poirier :      glennp-at-eps.mcgill.ca (by way of zaluzec-at-Microscopy.Com (Nestor J. Zaluzec))
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 23:26:53 -0600
Subject: Re: MULTIPLE USERS ON THE SEM

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Hello Everyone,
I'd just like to put in my two cents on the subject of multiple users of
an SEM (or in my case an electron microprobe)

Our instrument is used at least 16 hours a day and since I'm only paid
for eight almost all our users are trained to use the machine
independantly. This allows them faster access to the machine and saves them
or their advisors money. The only people we don't encourage to become
independant users are those who will only use the machine once or twice.
Most users require 3-4 daytime shifts before i will let them use the
machine independantly (I give them my home phone number too).

In the six years I've been running the lab I can't recall one incident
where the machine has actually been damaged by inexperienced users. On
several occasions it has been temporarily put out of commission (computer
problems, etc) but usually I can get it back on line immediately the next
day. Although there is the potential for a user to damage the instrument
(i.e during a sample change) most of the rest of the instrument is fairly
fool proof. It is easy to screw up your analyses, but difficult to hurt
the machine.

I'm sure the machine would last longer and require less service if I was
the only one operating it, but we don't have that option. I also feel
that users are much better off acquiring their own data, they know what
they want and can change their strategy if they find something unexpected

Hope this is useful.

Glenn








From: jbpawley-at-facstaff.wisc.edu (Jim Pawley) (by way of zaluzec-at-Microscopy.Com (Nestor J. Zaluzec))
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 23:27:00 -0600
Subject: Interested in purchasing cold stage for Philips microscope

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Hello all,

I have prototype LVSEM that employs the stage mechanism from a Philips EM
430 TEM. I would like to purchase a cold stage for this instrument if I
can find one (standard Philips rod). Anyone out there about to
"decommission" one?

Jim Pawley

****************************************
Prof. James B. Pawley, Ph. 608-263-3147
Room 1235, Engineering Research Building, FAX 608-265-5315
1500 Johnson Dr., Madison, WI, 53706 JBPAWLEY-at-FACSTAFF.WISC.EDU









From: rw9-at-psu.edu (Rosemary A. Walsh) (by way of zaluzec-at-Microscopy.Com (Nestor J. Zaluzec))
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 23:27:06 -0600
Subject: Re: MULTIPLE USERS ON THE SEM

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At 1:09 PM 2/9/96 -0500, Bonnie Davis - Kennametal Inc. wrote:
} I'd like some input, opinions etc. on the pitfalls of having multiple
} operators on an SEM. My situation is that I am part of a materials
} analysis group that provides analytical services to corporate
} technology. Our group consists of a number of engineers and technicians
} with expertise in a variety of analytical areas. Our company has
} recently hired a young PhD to do materials research in another department .
} He is pushing very hard to be allowed to use our SEM at night and on weekends.
} He has 'used
} an SEM before' and doesn't see a problem in using ours. It has always
} been our practice to encourage researchers to come into the lab while
} their samples are being analyzed, but not to allow individuals to use the
} instrument themselves. I believe that the analysis is done more effectively
} by individuals whose expertise is in that area. However, management
} appears to be leaning towards changing the rules for this individual, and
} having me train him on the instrument.
}
} We have a four year old JEOL 6400 instrument with a Link eXL analyzer,
} UTW detector, complete stage automation. We also have a computer system
} attached for collecting digital images, we do not use polaroid film.
} While this individual has used and SEM he has not used either a JEOL or
} LINK system before. I feel that training would be extensive. This is
} currently the only SEM we have. It
} is used approximately 12 hours per day by myself and my staff. Quite
} often EDS analysis is carried out using computer control and stage
} automation overnight. However, management feels that if someone is
} willing to utilize the instrument in those few hours a week when it is
} not being used, they need to take advantage of that to receive a maximum
} benefit from the asset.
}
} Several years ago we had two older SEMS and due to 'corporate
} downsizing', we had only one operator. At them time I trained
} approximately 2 dozen engineers who desired to use the 'extra' SEM on
} their own. We disposed of the instrument about a year ago when it had
} not been touched for almost a year. The time I spent in training
} all of those individuals was probably greater than the time they as
} a group spent using the instrument. Hindsight being perfect I wish we had
} kept the old instrument!
}
} Anyway, I would appreciate any input both pro and con from the list
} regarding opening up an instrument to multiple infrequent users.

Bonnie,
Since we encourage use of the JEOL TEM and SEM by trained users, we
run into this situation often. Currently, we require training on our
instruments plus a minimum of 15 hours of daytime use prior to an approval
of use during off hours. The principal investigator (of the grad. student
or postdoc) is also asked to agree to cover costs should any malfunction
necessitate lengthy (costly) alignment procedures. I constructed a form
for this purpose and the signed agreement is kept with the log book at the
scope. This has given me some control over the situation and those users
who agree to our demands are usually competent users. If the SEM uses a
LaB6 or is a FE, I would be more cautious, i.e., demand more daytime use
and obtain written consent to replace the crystal/filament.
One last thing to consider---an estimate of costs incurred by your
unit during the required "daytime" use if your unit does not charge other
units for instrument use.
Regards,
Rosemary Walsh









From: loewe-at-uni-bonn.de (Andreas Loewe)
Date: Thu, 15 Feb 1996 02:58:22 -0600
Subject: Re: Ion Beam Damage

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I tried almost every possibility on our Baltec RES010.
I have found that (a), a longer time at low energy with one gun set to a
low angle and one gun to a rather high angle worked best on my ceramic
materials.

Andreas

______________________________________________________________
Andreas Loewe Tel: +49-228-550-355
University of Bonn Fax: +49-228-678-413
Insitute for Inorganic Chemistry email: loewe-at-uni-bonn.de
Inorganic Material Research
Roemerstr. 164
53117 Bonn
Germany http://www.elmi.uni-bonn.de/
______________________________________________________________






From: James R. Stets :      stetsjr-at-ttown.apci.com
Date: Thu, 15 Feb 1996 07:54:30 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: Drift in Digitized SEM Images

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I'm responding to Greg Rudomen's posting about fuzzy digital images on
his JEOL 5300.

Greg, can you give us some more details on your problem? It sounds like
you are using a slow scan to do your frame averaging since you say it
takes 1 min. 20 sec. to collect five frames.

Are you really seeing drift? Drift will generally be blurred in one
direction; if the images are just not sharp, that may be another problem.

When you say the Polaroids do not show the drift, are these Polaroids of
the analog or the digitized image? If the analog image is okay,
something is happening during digitization.

Another item to check is the power and magnetic field situation in your
lab. If the drift is more noticeable at low accelerating voltages, you
may have a field problem.

Feel free to contact me directly about this. I'm using a JEOL 6300F with
a Vision system, and it's no problem to obtain a clean 100K digital image.

Jim Stets
Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
Allentown, PA
stetsjr-at-ttown.apci.com

Ye Olde Disclaimer: I speak for myself, not my employer.




From: EmLab :      EMLAB-at-OPUS.MCO.EDU
Date: Thu, 15 Feb 1996 10:42:26 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Re: EM: Calicivirus info

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Dear John,

I was once employed at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas in the
Division of Molecular Virology. One proffessor there did many studies on
Calicivirus. Her name is Mary K. Estes. I do not know her email address
but it is avaiable through Baylor's Web page address'. Hope you can obtain
the info you need through her.

Best of Luck,
Ed Calomeni
Medical College of Ohio
Dept. Pathology
Toledo, OH
emlab-at-opus.mco.edu




From: keller-at-boulder.nist.gov (Bob Keller)
Date: Thu, 15 Feb 1996 08:42:48 -0700
Subject: Digitizing SEM images

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Regarding the apparent drift problem in Greg Rudomen's images:

We have seen similar effects with a JEOL 6100 interfaced to a Voyager
EDS/image acquisition system. The effect is also noticeable when using the
image capture features of the SEM itself. Slow scans over a minute or two,
whether for a Polaroid or for digitizing, do not show the problem, as the
digitization occurs only once at each beam location and a small drift would
be unnoticeable in terms of seeing a distorted image; however, for
elemental mapping using single scans, with long dwell times resulting in
acquisitions taking hours, the drift/distortion is extremely evident.
Averaging, integrating or other algorithms which entail multiple scans show
the diffuseness very strongly. Most frustrating is that the problem is
sometimes worse during some sessions compared to others, with no obvious
differences in specimens or operating conditions.

This problem was suggested by the SEM manufacturer to be one of charging or
poor grounding in our specimens. Not likely, though, as we were observing
Si and GaAs crystals when the problem was most noticeable in images. The
problems were most notable with these because the magnifications were
considerably higher than other routine work done here. Decreasing the beam
energy to ca. 1-5 keV did not improve the problem, suggesting that charging
plays no role.

The problem is as yet unresolved, but I wanted to add our observations.
For the time being, I acquire images using slow scans only. Maybe it has
something to do with imaging on every third Tuesday of months ending with
the letter "y"...

My opinions only.

Bob Keller
NIST
Materials Reliability







From: Warren Straszheim :      wesaia-at-iastate.edu
Date: Thu, 15 Feb 1996 11:30:40 -0600
Subject: Re: Drifting SEM images

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Message-Id: {199602151731.LAA05955-at-mailhub.iastate.edu}
X-Sender: wes-at-pop.ameslab.gov
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I got caught with some drift the other day on an E-SEM. The image was
drifting slowly in one direction. I half suspected charging, although the
drift was only in one direction and varying the pressure and cutting back
the beam did not help.

The problem was eventually tracked back to the modeling clay that I had used
to support the irregularly shaped sample. I was not aware that it outgassed
fast enough to change dimensions in the SEM. Now I know better.
----------------------------------------------------
Warren E. Straszheim
270 Metals Development, Ames Lab/ISU, Ames IA, 50011
Phone: 515-294-8187 FAX: 515-294-3091
E-Mail: wes-at-ameslab.gov (or: wesaia-at-iastate.edu)

coal characterization and processing
electron microscopy, x-ray analysis, image analysis
computer applications





From: randy nessler :      rnessler-at-emiris.iaf.uiowa.edu
Date: Thu, 15 Feb 1996 12:33:18 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Re: MULTIPLE USERS ON THE SEM

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} I'd like some input, opinions etc. on the pitfalls of having multiple
} operators on an SEM.

Hi all,
I snipped the above lines from Ya Chen's response to Bonnie. As
Nestor posted last week, there have been some difficulties with the
server, and it seems that I have missed some of the posts.
I hold a position at the University of Iowa's Central Microscopy
Research Facility. We are a multi-user resource for microscopy related
techniques. We have two SEMs that we train people to operate. ANYONE can
use our facility, as long as we train them, or/and they prove themselves
competent in the operation of the instrument. At that point, they are
issued keys, and can reserve the instrument to suit their schedule. We have
never had to ask for keys back from an individual, and any problems that
have occured were corrected with additional training.
We do have service contracts on our microscopes, and I can be
fairly handy with a tool box. Knock on wood, we have yet to have a
catastrophic event (one SEM is a field emitter). With the robust design
of modern electron microscopes, I don't anticipate any, either.
For more on the operating philosophy of our lab, as well as
instrumentation available, I suggest you visit our website at
http://www.uiowa.edu/~cemrf/.

Randy Nessler
rnessler-at-emiris.iaf.uiowa.edu








From: randy nessler :      rnessler-at-emiris.iaf.uiowa.edu
Date: Thu, 15 Feb 1996 12:33:18 -0600 (CST)
Subject: Re: MULTIPLE USERS ON THE SEM

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} I'd like some input, opinions etc. on the pitfalls of having multiple
} operators on an SEM.

Hi all,
I snipped the above lines from Ya Chen's response to Bonnie. As
Nestor posted last week, there have been some difficulties with the
server, and it seems that I have missed some of the posts.
I hold a position at the University of Iowa's Central Microscopy
Research Facility. We are a multi-user resource for microscopy related
techniques. We have two SEMs that we train people to operate. ANYONE can
use our facility, as long as we train them, or/and they prove themselves
competent in the operation of the instrument. At that point, they are
issued keys, and can reserve the instrument to suit their schedule. We have
never had to ask for keys back from an individual, and any problems that
have occured were corrected with additional training.
We do have service contracts on our microscopes, and I can be
fairly handy with a tool box. Knock on wood, we have yet to have a
catastrophic event (one SEM is a field emitter). With the robust design
of modern electron microscopes, I don't anticipate any, either.
For more on the operating philosophy of our lab, as well as
instrumentation available, I suggest you visit our website at
http://www.uiowa.edu/~cemrf/.

Randy Nessler
rnessler-at-emiris.iaf.uiowa.edu








From: Richard W. Fonda :      fonda-at-anvil.nrl.navy.mil
Date: Thu, 15 Feb 1996 12:15:49 -0600
Subject: Postdoctoral Position at NRL

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Alternate-Recipient: allowed
Auto-Forwarded: prohibited
Content-Return: allowed
Disclose-Recipients: prohibited
Conversion: allowed
Importance: normal
Priority: normal
Sensitivity: Company-Confidential

POSTDOCTORAL POSITION (US citizens only)

The Physical Metallurgy Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory is currently
looking for a postdoctoral researcher to study solid-solid phase
transformations. The ideal candidate would have a strong background in both
transmission electron microscopy and materials science (preferably with a
concentration in physical metallurgy). Current research interests center on the
study of solid-solid phase transformations in conventional and advanced metallic
alloys, ranging from fundamental studies of martensite and precipitate
morphologies in steels to microstructural analysis of low-carbon steel
weldments, advanced shape memory alloys, new beta-titanium alloys, and metallic
thin film and multilayer materials. Please contact either myself
(Fonda-at-anvil.nrl.navy.mil, 202-767-2622) or Dr. George Spanos
(Spanos-at-anvil.nrl.navy.mil, 202-767-5799) for further details about these and
other research programs.


EQUIPMENT
JEOL 200CX, Philips CM30, and Hitachi 9000 TEMs
Isothermal heat treatment facility for the study of rapid phase transformations
in an inert environment
Quenching and deformation dilatometer
Hitachi FEG-SEM
Auger electron spectroscope

PROGRAM
Descriptions of the postdoctoral programs at NRL may be obtained from Lesley
Renfro, Program coordinator, Code 1005.7, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington,
DC, 20375 (Renfro-at-utopia.nrl.navy.mil, 202-767-3865). Dr. Spanos is listed as
research advisor for the NRC program descriptions.

ELIGIBILITY
The postdoctoral programs at NRL are open only to US citizens.

_____________________________________________________________
Richard W. Fonda Naval Research Laboratory
(202) 767-2622 Code 6324
(202) 767-2623 fax Washington DC 20375
_____________________________________________________________





From: Patty Jansma :      plj-at-manduca.neurobio.arizona.edu
Date: Thu, 15 Feb 1996 15:45:14 -0700 (MST)
Subject: mounting media

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Could someone explain the difference between DEPEX and DPX mounting
media or are they used interchangeably?
If you have a fluorescently labelled sample cleared in methyl salicylate,
does anyone have a protocol for mounting in DPX? Do you have go back to
xylene before mounting in DPX or can you go directly to DPX from methyl
salicylate? How long does the DPX taken to harden on a 100 um sample?
Thanks.

Patty Jansma Tel:602-621-6671
plj-at-manduca.neurobio.arizona.edu
Arizona Research Labs Division of Neurobiology
University of Arizona






From: Denis Baskin :      baskindg-at-u.washington.edu
Date: Thu, 15 Feb 1996 15:29:31 -0800 (PST)
Subject: meeting announcement

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X-Sender: baskindg-at-homer06.u.washington.edu

The following meeting may be of interest to some readers of this listerv.


WORKSHOP

PCR-IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION: =20
What you need to know to make it work

As part of the Histochemical Society Annual Meeting,=20
August 2-3, 1996,=20
Place: Hyatt Regency Hotel, Bethesda, MD

=09Topic: The use of PCR has revolutionized study of low-abundance=20
DNA and RNA molecules and recent advances have made it possible to=20
amplify DNA and cDNA targets in fixed cells and paraffin-embedded tissues=
=20
on slides. The use of these techniques is beginning to have a major=20
impact in both cell biology and diagnostic pathology. The workshop=20
will deal with: =20
=09=A5methodologies to label and detect nucleic acids using=20
non-radioactive primers=20
=09=A5advantages and disadvantages of PCR-ISH, pitfalls, controls,=20
optimal protocols, effects of fixatives, protease digestion, primers,=20
nucleotides, relevant enzymes and related issues. =20
=09=A5planned format includes lectures, question periods and=20
interactive demonstrations of in situ-PCR, PCR-in situ hybridization=20
and reverse transcriptase-in situ PCR. Thermocycling systems appropriate=
=20
for processing selected tissue specimens will be utilized and will=20
generally be available during the workshop. =20
=09=A5A syllabus will be provided for workshop participants.=20

=09Organizer: G. J. Nuovo, SUNY at Stony Brook


A related symposium will be on=20

ENHANCEMENT METHODS FOR IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION=20

=09Topic: Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques have=20
been utilized for the past decade and offer a widely used microscopical=
=20
tool providing high sensitivity and resolution, as well as the ability to=
=20
detect multiple targets. To increase the sensitivity of FISH, indirect=20
amplification by immunological methods has often been the method of=20
choice. This symposium will include the presentation of several novel=20
approaches using the enzymatic deposition of fluorescent reporter=20
molecules to amplify target localization. These methods may offer a new=20
approach to increase both the detection, resolution, and sensitivity of=20
the FISH method.=20
=09Organizer: S.L. Erlandsen
=09Speakers:=20
=09S. L. Erlandsen, University of Minnesota, Introduction.
=09A.K. Raap, Leiden University, Sensitive and high resolution FISH=20
=09B. Schmidt, Carnegie Mellon University, Signal amplification in=20
the detection of single copy DNA + RNA by enzyme catalyzed deposition=20
(CARD) of the novel fluorescent reporter substrate, Cy 3.29-tyramide.
=09V.L. Singer, Molecular Probes, Inc., The ELF alkaline=20
phosphatase substrate provides a bright, photostable, fluorescent signal=20
amplification method for FISH.=20

Another symposium will be on=20

APPLICATIONS OF MOLECULAR TECHNOLOGIES TO DIAGNOSTIC AND INVESTIGATIVE=20
PROBLEMS OF BREAST CANCER.=20

=09Topic: The symposium will include presentations on in situ=20
analysis of control of cell proliferation in breast cancer, molecular=20
markers of apoptosis and their correlation with hormone receptor=20
expression and other histologic prognostic markers and the structure of=20
breast tissue as it related to breast cancer development.=20
=09Organizer: A. M. Gown
=09Speakers:=20
=09H. Wolfe, Tufts University, Molecular markers of apoptosis and=20
their correlation with hormone receptor expression and other histologic=20
prognostic
markers.
=09R. Jensen, Vanderbilt University, BRCA1 gene expression in breast cancer
cells.
=09A.M. Gown, University of Washington, In situ analysis of control=20
of cell proliferation in breast cancer.
=09J.W. Gray, UC San Francisco, Applications of molecular techniques=20
to diagnostic and investigative problems of breast cancer.

POSTERS ON TOPICS RELATED TO THE WORKSHOP AND SYMPOSIA are welcome =20
(abstract deadline: March 15, 1996) and abstracts will be published as=20
Proceedings of the Histochemical Society Meeting in the Journal of=20
Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. .

CONTACT:=20
Inquiries about program matters and requests for registration materials=20
or abstract forms, and hotel accommodations should be sent to: The=20
Histochemical Society, 4 Barlows Landing Rd., Pocasset, MA 02559=20
(Telephone: 508-563-1155; FAX 508-563-1211 or e-mail: lmaser-at-mbl.edu). =20
or inquiries related to the scientific program to: Dr. W.L. Stahl=20
(e-mail: wlstahl-at-u.washington.edu).=20
=20






From: mager-at-unixg.ubc.ca (Mary Mager)
Date: Thu, 15 Feb 1996 22:45:50 -0800
Subject: Re: Digitizing SEM images

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Dear Greg,
Can you see the image drift at high mag. in TV-rate? Is this perhaps EM
field ripple? or mechanical vibration? The image acquisition system can
only acquire what the SEM puts out, so this drift will certainly wipe out
the benefits of frame averaging. If it takes so long to acquire a
frame-averaged image, why not just acquire one long frame? I have a
passive system and usually take a 10 sec., 1024X768 single frame, but the
image certainly shows up any drift of the SEM stage. This can always be
traced to the specimen not being secured well enough. Sticky tabs are often
guilty of this. If the SEM doesn't drift, the image is perfect to 50,000X.

One problem I have had in the past is bad vibration problems at 20 minutes
past the hour on class days. This is when classes change and two hundred
undergrad engineers tromp through the halls. People doing critical hi-res,
low kV work know to do it after hours, when the building is quieter and the
elevators aren't running.
Good luck,
Mary

Mary Mager
Electron Microscopist
Metals and Materials Eng, UBC
309 - 6350 Stores Rd.
Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4
CANADA
tel: 604-822-5648, fax: 604-822-3619
email: mager-at-unixg.ubc.ca






From: leeman-at-VOEDING.TNO.NL
Date: Fri, 16 Feb 1996 17:08:47 EST
Subject: LM - mounting medium

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Dear microscopists,

I am looking for a mounting medium which can be used for coverslipping
Giemsa stained cells containing latex microspheres. Xylene containing
mounting media cannot been used because of the solubility of the latex
microspheres. On the other hand, water soluble mounting media, like
gelatin/glycerin, destain the Giemsa. The staining is important to me to
clearly locate (for counting) the microspheres within the cell borders.
Counting without coverslip can be done but I prefere using a 40x/1.0
objective (oil).

Does anyone have experience with this problem?

Thanks in advance,

Winfried Leeman




From: Rick Markgraf :      rlmarkgraf-at-ucdavis.edu
Date: Fri, 16 Feb 1996 09:00:58 -0800
Subject: LM Pooling Teaching Microscopes

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I'm looking for other microscope pools, where teaching microscopes are
shared to maximize usage. I've worked for 20 years at Microscope Services
at the University of California, Davis. We have about 2100 optical
microscopes of high quality, and move 600-700 around every quarter from
classrooms where they aren't needed to those where they are. We also
provide preventive maintenance and repairs, short courses microscopes for
research, recharging for our services.
This arrangement works well at UC Davis, so it must be duplicated at
other schools. I just don't know where. If any of you know of schools with
similar arrangements, would you please post a contact for me? I would very
much like to hear from someone with similar tasks and problems.
Richard L. Markgraf
Microscope Services
University of California, Davis
Ph. (916)752-3477 Fax (916)752-6363
rlmarkgraf-at-ucdavis.edu





From: Larry Maser :      lmaser-at-mbl.edu
Date: Fri, 16 Feb 1996 10:51:05 -0500 (EST)
Subject: Microscopy & Microanalysis '96, Minneapolis, Minnesota

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Microscopy & Microanalysis '96

Joint Annual Meeting of the Microscopy Society of America,
Microbeam Analysis Society and the Microscopical Society of
Canada/Societe de Microscopie du Canada, August 11-15, 1996,
Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Deadline for receipt of Extended Abstracts: March 15, 1996.

Approximately 7,000 Registration Bulletin / Call for Papers
packages have been mailed, most on February 2, to: the
memberships of the three Sponsoring Societies; the memberships of
four Local Affiliates of the Microscopy Society of America
(Northwestern Ohio Microscopy Society, Minnesota Microscopy
Society, Southern California Society for Electron Microscopy -
Technologists, and the Iowa Microscopy Society); individuals who
attended Microscopy & Microanalysis '95, Kansas City; and other
individuals who have requested one.

Please contact our office if you should have received the
Registration Bulletin / Call for Papers but haven't, or if you
would like to. We'll respond to your request immediately.
Please note that the deadline for receipt of Extended Abstracts
is March 15, 1996.

Hope to see you in Minneapolis,

Larry Maser

Microscopy & Microanalysis '96
4 Barlows Landing Rd., Suite 8
Pocasset MA 02559

voice: 508-563-1155
toll free: 800-538-3672
fax: 508-563-1211
email: BusinessOffice-at-MSA.Microscopy.Com




From: Warren Straszheim :      wesaia-at-iastate.edu
Date: Fri, 16 Feb 1996 10:28:14 -0600
Subject: Re: MULTIPLE USERS ON THE SEM

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Message-Id: {199602161628.KAA13875-at-mailhub.iastate.edu}
X-Sender: wes-at-pop.ameslab.gov
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From another university lab:

We too allow users on the scope after training as many in academic settings
appear to do. I routinely query the potential users about the realistic
duration of their work as we have trained some at their insistence only to
find out they have no specific project in mind, or that their actual SEM
usage was not nearly what they first imagined. Of course, since they are
charged for operator assistance, I guess we will continue to train them if
they care to pay for it.

Now a question,
We have adopted the practice of leaving the filament current control on our
JEOL 840A at the proper saturation point (for our normal 15 kv operating
point) and just turning off the high voltage control for exchanging samples.
We have thus avoided problems from inexperienced operators over-saturating.
It appears to be working as our filament lifetimes have increased to the
values for when only experienced users operated the scope. My question to
the list is whether there might be any adverse consequences from this
practice as there do not appear to be any.

----------------------------------------------------
Warren E. Straszheim
270 Metals Development, Ames Lab/ISU, Ames IA, 50011
Phone: 515-294-8187 FAX: 515-294-3091
E-Mail: wes-at-ameslab.gov (or: wesaia-at-iastate.edu)

coal characterization and processing
electron microscopy, x-ray analysis, image analysis
computer applications





From: Phil Elizondo :      PELIZONDO-at-svc.com
Date: Fri, 16 Feb 1996 11:42:38 PST
Subject: SEM Analysis position: Engineer

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Immediate Opening for SEM Analysis Engineer at SVC:


Principal Duties & Responsibilities:

SEM analysis of display components; basic failure analysis.
Responsible for upkeep of JSM 820, with full JEOL service contract;
Supervision & training of other SEM users.



Special work circumstances:

It is preferred that candidate be able to work either an early (start
-at- 6AM) or late (finish -at- 8PM) shift.



Experience & Education Requirements:

B.S. in Physical Science or Engineering or equivalent.
Minimum 3 yrs. experience in Electron Microscopy.


Company Background:

In just 4 years Silicon Video Corp. has become on of the hottest
start ups in Silicon Valley. We are developing a new class of flat
panel displays - Thin CRT. Millions in funding from the government
have been obtianed. Large corporate partners in industry and
academia connections have been secured. We're searching for highly
qualified candidates to join our team.

Please send resume response to both,

pelizondo-at-svc.com
dcaraway-at-svc.com







From: sfzane-at-unccvm.uncc.edu (Sandra F. Zane)
Date: Fri, 16 Feb 1996 14:28:27 -0500
Subject: SEM/stainless steel ball

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Hello All,
A graduate student here has been given the task of looking at the
surface of a highly polished stainless steel ball which is used in hip
replacements. The ball is about 2.5-3 cm in diameter and as you might
imagine, is extremely reflective. Since all I have ever examined in an SEM
are biological samples, I haven't been able to help her very much. This
morning we got what appeared to be a grid image on the surface and I am
wondering if this might not be a reflection of the interior surface of the
specimen chamber. I suggested sputter coating the surface to cut down on
reflection and mounting it on some double stick tape to keep it stable; but
she doesn't think the person who assigned her this task would want that.
Without regard to the wants of the person assigning the task, do any of you
in the materials science have any suggestions which might be helpful to this
young lady. She and I would both be very grateful.
TIA, Sandra Zane
Sandra F. Zane, EM Tech. sfzane-at-unccvm.uncc.edu
Dept of Biol., UNC Charlotte (704) 547-4051
9201 University City Blvd. Fax (704) 547-3128
Charlotte, NC 28223-0001








From: ychen-at-MACC.WISC.EDU
Date: Fri, 16 Feb 1996 10:57:17 -0700
Subject: RE:Digitizing SEM images

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} Hi Everyone,
} I have a JEOL 5300 SEM to which a beam controlled image
} acquisition system has been added. Images are acquired at
} 640x512 by frame averaging. It takes 1min 20sec. to
} collect five frames. This is about the same time it takes
} to do a Polaroid.
} Here is the problem. At magnifications above 5000x the
} images are fuzzy due to some kind of drift. At lower mags
} the drift is not noticeable. Polaroids do not show the
} drift. The drift rate is 100-500u per five minutes. I
} have the SEM manufarturer working on this too. So far I
} have not gotten acceptable results
} Now for the questions. Has anyone had this problem on
} other image acquisition systems? Am I trying to do
} something that can't be done due to drift that all SEMs
} have to some degree?
} Thanks for your answers in advance.
}
} Gregory Rudomen
} Greg-at-umic.umic.sunysb.edu
} University Microscopy Imaging Center
} S.U.N.Y. at Stony Brook
}

Gregory,
There are 3 kinds of averaging techniques used in SEM digitization: frame
averaging, line averaging and pixel averaging. For most of "built-in"
acquisition system, the frame capture is used, so only support frame
averaging. The drawback for using frame averaging is to produce a fuzzy
image as long as drafting exist. Pixel averaging is mostly suitable to
overcome this situation.

Ya Chen


Ya Chen
Cryo/SEM project Coordinator TEL : 608-263-8481
Integrated Microscopy Resource (IMR) FAX : 608-265-4076
University of Wisconsin-Madison Email:YChen-at-macc.wisc.edu
IMR WWW Home Page: http://www.bocklabs.wisc.edu/imr/imr.html
IMR Symposium on integrated microscopy '96: Sept. 20-22, 1996






From: mager-at-unixg.ubc.ca (Mary Mager)
Date: Fri, 16 Feb 1996 20:19:25 -0800
Subject: Re: SEM/stainless steel ball

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Dear Sandra,
It is very difficult to look at the surface of any highly-polished metal,
since there is nothing to focus on. However, you cannot get a reflection
image in an SEM except by charge buildup, so if you did get a grid image
from your secondary detector, it implies the ball is not well grounded. If
you stick it down, use conductive sticky-tabs or make a connection useing
silver or carbon dag. One help to focusing is to draw on the top surface
with a felt-tip pen, so you can find the initial focus. My experience
though, is that a good reflextive surface gives you very little to see,
even at high mag.
Good luck,
Mary

Mary Mager
Electron Microscopist
Metals and Materials Eng, UBC
309 - 6350 Stores Rd.
Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4
CANADA
tel: 604-822-5648, fax: 604-822-3619
email: mager-at-unixg.ubc.ca






From: mager-at-unixg.ubc.ca (Mary Mager)
Date: Fri, 16 Feb 1996 20:19:57 -0800
Subject: Re: MULTIPLE USERS ON THE SEM

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} Now a question,
} We have adopted the practice of leaving the filament current control on our
} JEOL 840A at the proper saturation point (for our normal 15 kv operating
} point) and just turning off the high voltage control for exchanging samples.
} We have thus avoided problems from inexperienced operators over-saturating.
} It appears to be working as our filament lifetimes have increased to the
} values for when only experienced users operated the scope. My question to
} the list is whether there might be any adverse consequences from this
} practice as there do not appear to be any.
Dear Warren,
We always leave the filament current up to the saturation point (or just
under it for maximum filament life). In fact, to stop little fingers, I
removed the filament current knob from my console years ago. I can change
it with a screwdriver when I need to. I always turn the acc. voltage on and
off and I get at least a month out iof a filament at 20kv. I don't know if
I would do it on my 200kv TEM, but SEM is fine.
Best of luck,
Mary

Mary Mager
Electron Microscopist
Metals and Materials Eng, UBC
309 - 6350 Stores Rd.
Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4
CANADA
tel: 604-822-5648, fax: 604-822-3619
email: mager-at-unixg.ubc.ca






From: zaluzec-at-Microscopy.Com (Nestor J. Zaluzec)
Date: Sat, 17 Feb 1996 10:02:09 -0600
Subject: Low energy vs high energy ion milling

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......Multiple Lines Removed.......

} The maximum energy available to impart to an atom in the bulk is given by the
} expression,
}
} E = E0 * 4* (Mm)/(M+m)^2,
}
} where M is the bulk atom mass, m is the ion mass and E0 is the ion energy.
}
} It seems to me that if you have sufficient energy for removal of ions, that you
} will always exceed the minimum threshold energy for displacent of atoms.

.........
Not true!

The sputtering rate/cross-section at the SURFACE of a material
is not the same as the displacement rate/cross-section in the bulk. The
simple way to
think about this is that a surface you only have ~ 1/2 the number of bonds
that you have in the interior of a bulk. Thus the energy needed to remove a
surface atom is LESS than that needed to remove one from the bulk. There
is extensive literature on this unfortunatley, I don't have the references
readily at hand here at home.

Charlie Bradley and I did work on this at ANL (for case of electron sputtering)
back in the late 80's some of which was published in the (E)MSA proceedings.
There is also an ANL Technical Report which tabulates both sputtering and
displacement cross-sections for the entire periodic table. The computer
programs which do the calculations for this are in the Software Library
which is accessible by anonymous ftp at

ftp.msa.microscopy.com

they are in the path /pub/3-MMSLib/HVEM

look for the files on DMottCS, TotCS, Recoil. Like I said, these programs
were written
for the case of electron sputtering, however, they could be modified for
the ion-beam case, if one were sufficiently interested. At any rate, you will
not displace the atoms in the bulk, but only the surface and near suface atoms.

There is another program called TRIM which is used by the Ion-Beam Analysis
community
to calculate bulk displacements in solids by Ions. I'll dig up the
references and
post them next week when I get back into the lab.

Nestor
Your Friendly Neighborhood SysOp.









From: GVKM07A-at-PRODIGY.COM (DR CHARLES A GARBER)
Date: Sat, 17 Feb 1996 12:59:51 EST
Subject: MultiUsers of EM equipment

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-- [ From: Garber, Charles A. * EMC.Ver #2.10P ] --

In response to:

} I'd like some input, opinions etc. on the pitfalls of having multiple
} operators on an SEM.

During the years 1963-1967, at what was then Case Institute (now CWRU),
during the conduct of my MS and Ph. D. thesis work, I did with my own
two hands, all of my own TEM work which at times involved in excess of
thirty hours instrument time per week over extended periods of time.
As a lowly (yes, we were definitely made to feel lowly) graduate
student, to this day, I remember how I had to tip-toe around the
manager of the EM facility. All of the graduate students had their own
keys both to the EM lab and also the darkroom, but one snap of the
manager's fingers could have keys snatched away in an instant. And for
the entire four years of my career as a graduate student, I did have my
own keys and for the most part, that part of my thesis work requiring
EM was done between the hours of 6:00 pm to 12:00 midnight (often times
later), and without supervision. Indeed virtually any graduate student
who had need for EM work was issued keys and for the most part, their
work was done during these "off hours" as well.

Indeed, to have the experience of actually being responsible for the
health and well-being of the instrument, and to be held accountable for
it, I always considered an important part of my own graduate
experience and education.

And sitting there, night after night, peering at the green image on the
screen, and experiencing that electrifying feeling that comes only when
seeing something for the first time, something perhaps no one else has
previously seen, was a part of my own life I will never forget. The
challenge of proving first to myself and then to others that what I
thought I had seen was in fact "real" and was not an "artifact" has had
a lasting positive impression on my own life and my own career for that
matter. After all, how else can one learn to be their own worst (best?)
"devil's advocate" if they have not done the work themselves?

How else can one "sell others" on the idea that what they have indeed
seen is real and not some preparation artifact? How many times have I
listed to presentations by one of those arm chair EM people and when
asked a question, could not even tell whether a sample was gold coated
or not! Or with what a TEM sample might have been stained. Not too
long ago I witnessed a speaker not being able to answer whether a
micrograph was by SEM or TEM. Such responses hardly evoke high levels
of confidence in someone else's conclusions.

Yet I can also remember some students who did not have research
projects depending that much on EM, perhaps their use of EM being
confined to closing a few lose ends, and where the inclusion of some EM
work was just a small part of their overall project. Indeed, either
because of less interest in doing it with their own two hands, or
perhaps other reasons, these students had that laboratory manager, the
one who made us jump through hoops, do the work, during daylight hours
with the student peering over his shoulders. On the other hand, there
were those who did have minimal need for EM work, but underwent the
extensive training voluntarily and with enthusiasm as part of their
overall graduate training experience.

I appreciated that lack of bureaucracy that existed in those days, and
the climate was such that the highest levels of curiosity were
encouraged. There is no question that if I was not able to have done
my own work, in the way that I did it, yes, perhaps even late at night
when there were fewer building vibrations and toilets flushing, I
would be a much different person. After all, at 1:00 am, when something
does go wrong, to deal with it, on your own, responsibily, to make
judgemental decisions, with no one else to turn to, is in itself an
important part of the educational process.

And what about down time? Of course there was the normal down time and
probably there was more down time than might have other wise been the
case because there were multiple users. But it was never an excessive
amount of downtime. And these were during the times when instruments
were not engineered like they are today, and if anything, relative to
modern instruments, the amount of downtime experienced should have
inherently been significantly more than would be the case today. But
excessive downtime never happened. Indeed seeing the way some of these
judgemental decisions were handled in those days has been valuable in
the management of my own analytical laboratory services business tod